Economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy
A series of conflicts between Native Americans and white settlers over land and natural resources, specifically in the West territory. These battles were from Indian resistance to the imposition of the reservation and the repeated attempts by the US army to forcibly remove them from their tribal lands.
Sand Creek Massacre
US army killed about 150 Cheyenne elderly, women, and children at the Sand Creek Reservation in Colorado Territory
Industrialization led to an increase of capitalism and the start of big businesses which called for stronger governmental protections - to regulate the economy and for the worker’s rights. In this time period, the aggressive financial methods that were used led to multiple economic downturns and financial panics. Migration increased leading to cultural tensions, and citizens rights, the start of gender and race.
Knights of Labor
Terence V. Powderly led the Knights of Labor, an open-membership policy extending to unskilled, semiskilled, women, African-Americans, immigrants; the goal was to create cooperative society in which labors owned the industries in which they worked.
Second Industrial Revolution
Advances in steel production, electricity, and petroleum caused a series of innovations that changed society. Costs were more effective and railroads were expanded along with more industrial machines being built. These all made life a lot faster and easier for many people.
Panic of 1873
A financial crisis that triggered an economic depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873-1877. This panic happened because of the over-expansion in industries (ex. Railroads) and the drop of Europe demand for farm products, the overall drop off of Europe investment in America. This panic also led to civil unrest, protests, and the first nationwide strikes.
Little Big Horn
The last major battle between the Union and the Native Americans. The Sioux Indians, led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, massacred the US. 7th Cavalry led by General Custer. This is significant because it was known as Custer's last stand; it was knows as the worst US defeat in the history of the Indian Wars. This defeat angered many Americans and solidified their image of Indians as wild and bloodthirsty.
The application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion
Violent, unsuccessful strike, resulted in extensive property damage and many deaths. First major interstate strike in US history. The panic of 1873 caused railroad lines to cut wages causing workers to lose their job and walk off to block the tracks - it turned violent. Federal troops eventually solved the violence. The public then blamed them for looting and violence and lost all sympathy.
Chinese Integration Act
A set of laws that barred Chinese immigration for 10 years preventing them from becoming citizens. These acts segregated against the Chinese, it made the government officially sanctioned segregation against the Chinese. This is a social change because they prevented the Chinese from integrating into society and didn’t allow them to become citizens.
American Railroad Association
American RR Association was an industry trade group organization. In 1883 they took to making a more reliable scheduling system and agreed to divide North America into 4 time zones and launched this new system in November 1883. This is significant bc it was the start of the time zones we have in society today.
Gospel of wealth
An idea from Carnegie that says the wealthy have to use their money for charitable reasons
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
A law that tried to regulate trusts. It favored businesses rather than workers and was originally used to break up labor unions.
Ghost Dance Movement
The last effort of native Americans to resist US domination and to drive whites from their lands was a religious movement known as the Ghost Dance. The governments campaign tried suppressing the movement and while they were doing that, the famous Sioux medicine man sitting Bull was killed during his arrest; this led to the massacre at Wounded Knee.
Forest Reserve Act
The law that allowed the president to set land as national forests. Law preserves water resources until forests can be opened for settlement and exploitation, but a part of growing conservation movement to preserve natural resources for future generations.
Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. It started because of rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. It was the worst economic collapse in the history of. The country up to that point, and some people said it was just as bad as the Great Depression seen in the 1930s (Time Period 7)
Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in “company town”, Eugene Debs has American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing, nonviolent strike. Cleveland shut it down because it interfered with mail delivery
Plessy v Ferguson
A court case that validated the South’s segregationist social order, ruling “separate but equal” facilities were constitutional under the “equal protection” clause of the 14th amendment. The Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal.
"Cross of Gold" Speech
An address by William Jennings Bryan at 1896 Democratic Convention, in which he attacked the “gold bugs” who insisted that US currency be backed only with gold - supported free silver
Forest Management Act
This act authorized establishment of National Forests to improve and protect the condition of forested areas. This act put the federal government in the path of regulatory activities; the government played a large role in the economic development in the West, specifically with agricultural improvements.