Native americans

Civil Rights: Native Americans

  • Oct 12, 1492

    Columbus Lands

    Columbus Lands
    Columbus inferred the native people to be an inferior race. Some Native American Tribes:
    Nez Perce
  • Period: Jan 1, 1500 to

    Life in the 1500's

    There was abuse of Native Americans; rape, murder, and slavery was prevalent. The encomienda system was also developed and it gave settlers the right to use Native American slave labor. Native American Leader of the time:
  • Oct 26, 1539

    Napituca Massacre (late October)

    Hernando De Soto executed a hundred Timucuan Warriors. This was the first large-scale massacre by Europeans on American soil.
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    Life in the 1600's

    Europeans believed that the diseases killing many Native Americans were acts of God being done in their behalf. The continued belief was that Europeans were superior to these natives. Many wars occurred between Colonists and Native Americans. Native American Leaders of this time:
    Chief Powhatan
  • Powhatan War (1622-1644)

    Powhatan War (1622-1644)
    After an initial period of peaceful relations in Virginia, a twelve-year conflict killed many natives and colonists.
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    Life in the 1700's

    Continuation of raids on both the Native Americans and Colonists. Mostly occurred in the Frontier. Native American Leaders of the time:
    Alexander McGillivray
    John Deserontyon
  • Wall Street Slave Trade

    Wall Street Slave Trade
    African-Americans and Native Americans, including men, women and children became the property of the highest bidder.
  • The First Reservation

    The First Reservation
    The first Native American reservation in North America was established.
  • Pontiac's Rebellion begins

    Pontiac's Rebellion begins
    Multiple Native American tribes banded together to fight against the British inhabiting their lands. Both Native American and British bloodshed ensued throughout the three-year timespan of the war. Finally, in 1766, Pontiac was forced to sign a treaty ending the violence.
  • The Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris formally ended the American Revolution. Representatives of Great Britain and the United States signed, and the British were ordered to cede their North American territories south of Canada and east of Mississippi River be given to the United States. By right of conquest, the United States now claims all this land which was formerly claimed by Indian tribes.
  • The Treaty of New York

    The United States Senate ratifies the Treaty of New York between the United States and the Creeks. Negotiated by Secretary of War Henry Knox and Creek Chief Alexander McGillivray, the treaty goal wishes to have positive Creek-American relations. Border lines clarified and promised to be policed by federal troops. The United States also promises to provide tools and livestock needed to transform the hunting Creeks into farmers.
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    Life in the 1800's

    Continuation of brutality between Native Americans and U.S. citizens and troops. Many more death’s occurred on both sides. Reservations are becoming smaller and more regulations are placed on Native Americans under U.S. law. Native American Leaders of this time:
    Black Kettle
    "Chief Joseph"
    Red Cloud
    Crazy Horse
    Sitting Bull
  • Cherokee Law Against Land Sales

    Cherokee leader Major Ridge authors a law making it a capital offense to sell Cherokee land without the consent of the national council.
  • Cherokee Constitution

    Cherokee Constitution
    The Cherokees adopt a national constitution completing a decade of political development. Modeled after the United States Constitution, with three branches of government and an abbreviated bill of rights, the Cherokee constitution furthers the transfer of Cherokee political power from the villages to a national government.
  • Georgia Sovereignty Law

    A bill is introduced to the Georgia state legislature asserting the sovereignty of state government over all land and people within its geographical boundaries. This includes the Cherokees who maintain that they enjoy territorial and legal agreements through treaties negotiated with the federal government.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Signed into law by Andrew Jackson, au
    Congress passes the Indian Removal Act, authorizing President Andrew Jackson to pursue ownership of all Indian lands east of the Mississippi River. Under the act, the Indians will be compensated with new lands drawn from the public domain west of the Mississippi River. During the fall and winter of 1838 and 1839 the Indian dwellers of this land were forcibly moved west by the U.S government. This became known as the trail of tears.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    President Andrew Jackson sent federal troops to forcibly remove nearly 16,000 Cherokee from Georgia. That fall, they began an 800-mile forced march to Oklahoma. 4,000 Cherokee died during this removal process.
  • Sand Creek Massacre

    Sand Creek Massacre
    The Cheyenne tribe was brutally massacred on the day of “peace talk”. 150 Native Americans, mostly old men, women, and children were cruelly killed.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Dawes Severalty Act
    Also known as the Indian General Allotment Act, was enacted by congress authorizing the president of the United States to divide 160 acres of existing Indian lands and distribute it to individual Native Americans. The land left over were purchased by federal government and sold.
  • Wounded Knee Massacre

    Wounded Knee Massacre
    In response to a movement sweeping the Native American population called the Ghost Dance, many Indians became more defiant and rebellious to American rule. Americans grew increasingly fearful of an attack and demanded military assistance to end the Ghost Dance. This resulted in the deaths of almost 300 Native American men, women, and children and marked the last US-Native American military conflict.
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    Native American Leaders: 1900-1999

    Hank Adams
    Dennis Banks
    Clyde Bellecourt
    Eddie Benton Banai
    George Mitchell
    Russell Means
    Susan Shown Harjo
    Ben Nighthorse Campbell
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    World War 1

    About 17,000 Native Americans served in the armed forces. In 1919 veterans were granted citizenship.
  • Termination

    The trust relationship with many Native American tribes was terminated. Terminated tribes were then subject to state laws and their lands were sold to non-Native Americans.
  • Relocation

    To deal with increasing unemployment among Native Americans, a new policy was enacted to persuade them to relocate into urban areas. However, the relocation program was a failure, as 50% of the participants returned to their reservations.
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    Agressive for Rights

    In the 1960s and 1970s watching both the development of Third World nationalism and the progress of the civil rights movement, Native Americans became more aggressive in pressing for their own rights.
  • AIM

    American Indian Movement(AIM) founded by Dennis Banks, Clyde Bellecourt, Eddie Benton Banai, and George Mitchell. Encouraged self-determination among Native Americans and the establishment of international recognition of their treaty rights
  • Alcatraz Island

    Alcatraz Island
    A landing party of 78 Native Americans seized Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay and held it until federal officials removed them in 1971
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    AIM in the Mid-1970s

    AIM's efforts were centered on the prevention of resource exploitation of Indian lands by the federal government.
  • Nixon's Speech

    President Nixon formally ended the termination policy, and called for a new era of self-rule for Native Americans.
  • Trail of Broken Treaties March

    Trail of Broken Treaties March
    Members of AIM briefly took over the headquarters of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington, D.C. They complained that the government had created the tribal councils on reservations in 1934 as a way of perpetuating paternalistic control over Native American development. Lasted for three days, ending on the 3rd of November.
  • Wounded Knee

    Wounded Knee
    AIM took over the South Dakota village of Wounded Knee, where soldiers in the late 19th century had massacred a Sioux encampment. Militants hoped to dramatize miserable conditions in the reservation surrounding the town, where half of the families were on welfare and alcoholism was widespread.
  • Pine Ridge Shootout

    AIM activists were implicated in the murders of two FBI agents. All were acquitted except for Leonard Peltier who was sentenced to life in prison.
  • AIM disbanding

    With many of its leaders in prison, and torn by internal dissension, the national leadership disbanded, although local groups continued to fights.
    Ex. AIM group occupied part of the Black Hills(South Dakota) to press its demands for return of the area to Indian jurisdiction.
  • Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protection Association

    Supreme Court allowed the construction of a Forest Service road through an ancient site held scared by several tribes. The court ruled that such intrusion did not violate the Indians first amendment rights. This was regress for Native American religious freedoms.
  • Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith

    The ruling in this case denied unemployment benefits to two Oregon men after engaged in practicing the use of peyote as part of a religious ceremony of the Native American Church. The Supreme court ruled that states and local governments no longer were required to prove “compelling government interest” to justify generally applicable laws that applied to limit or infringe upon religious practices. This limited religious freedom, across the United States.
  • The Religious Freedom Restoration Act

    The Religious Freedom Restoration Act
    Congress passed and president Clinton signed, The Religious Freedom Restoration Act. Which would over turned Smith and restore the “compelling interest” standards that limited government’s ability to enforce legislation that infringes upon religious freedoms. However the Supreme Court soon struck down RFRA as an unconstitutional exercise of congressional powers in City of Boerne v Flores.
  • Peyote Excemption

    Peyote Excemption
    • President Clinton signed a law, which exempted the religious use of peyote from federal and state controlled substance laws. This also prohibited discrimination against those who engage in the use of peyote for religious purposes. Although this protected Native Americans’ use of peyote, the fight to protect other religious freedoms continues.
  • Clinton's Speech

    President Clinton spoke of building a more effective working relationship with Native Americans where they worked respectfully, government to government.
  • Worecester v. Georgia

    Worecester v. Georgia
    Samuel Worecester, a non-Native American tried for being on Native American lands
  • Adoptive couple v. Baby Girl

    Adoptive couple v. Baby Girl
    A young girl Indian child had been adopted by a non-Indian couple. The Indian Child Welfare act, enacted in 1978 protected tribes and their children, they questioned does it apply to this child under the circumstances?. The court ruled that it takes more than biology to invoke the ICWA.
  • Works Cited Continued

    "United States History - The Native American Movement." United States History - The Native American Movement. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. "American Indian Movement (American Civil Rights Organization)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013."American Indian Movement." Infoplease. Pearson Education, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.
  • Current Indian American Anger

    Current Indian American Anger
    ~Last year, the U.S. government finalized a $3.4 billion settlement stemming from a 1996 lawsuit originally filed by Blackfeet tribe leader Elouise Cobell after she witnessed those who leased American Indian land gain wealth from selling its resources.
    ~Sports team's mascots
    ~Bad job conditions at the reservations, exploitation and environmental destruction