Image  emancipation


  • No Immigration

    Legislature passed a law that no free negro or mulatto could immigrate to Arkansas.
  • Period: to

    Arkansas Emanciaption

  • No Immigration starts

    Legislature enforces the law of no free negro or mulatto immigration to Arkansas.
  • No meetings with negroes

    An act passed in 1854 stated that any white person caught in company with negroes at any unlawful meeting, or who harbored or entertained a slave, or drank with them, should be guilty of a misdemeanor.
  • Sectional Conflict

    Legislature enforces a law forbidding free negroes and mulattoes to remain in Arkansas after Jan. 1, 1860.
  • Confederate States of America

    Confederate States of America
    South Carolina was the first state to seceed, followed by Mississppi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina.
  • Pre 1861- New lands

    Anti-slavery Creeks and Seminoles allowed fugitive slaves from surrounding states to reside in their lands.
  • Period: to

    Oklahoma Emancipation

  • Abraham Lincoln's Inauguration

    Abraham Lincoln's Inauguration
    Lincoln said he had no plans to end slavery in the states in which it already existed, but he would not accept sucession.
  • The Civil War begins

    The Civil War begins
    Fort Sumter is were the first shots of the Civil War took place.
  • Confederacy Negotiated Treaties with Indian Nations

    Creek Nation: July 10, 1861
    Choctaw and Chickasaw July 12, 1861
    Seminole August 1, 1861
    Cherokee October 7, 1861
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Lincoln issued this to declare all slaves in rebellion areas to be considered free in the eyes of the government. Cherokee slaveholders freed their slaves in accordance with Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.
  • Forced into the Union Army

    The Union Army forced all able black males to enroll for service.
  • Fall of the Confederacy

    Blockades resulted in food and supply shortages in the South which caused soliders to flee confederate forces.
  • General Lee Surrenders

    General Lee Surrenders
    General Lee and General Grant met at Appomattox Courhouse to agree on terms of surrendering.
  • Final Defeat of Confederate Troops

    Final Defeat of Confederate Troops
    Jefferson Davis was captured and the remaining Confederate troops were defeated.
  • Civil War ends in Indian Territory

    Civil War ends in Indian Territory
    Confederate Indian Commander, Stand Waite, surrendered to Union troops at Doaksville ending the Civil War in Indian Territories.
  • New treaties negotiated with Indian Tribes

    This required tribes to cede western half of their land to the government and called reorganization of trival government.
    Ratfication Dates:
    Chickasaw and Choctaw Treaty of Washington- July 10, 1866
    Creek- August 11, 1866
    Cherokee Reconstruction Treaty of 1866- August 11
    Seminole Treaty- August 16, 1866
  • Political Assest

    Blacks were seen as a possbile political assest.
  • Former slaves elected

    Among five dozen delegates, eight were black men who represented 13% of the delegates.
  • Black Suffrage approved

    The new Arkansas constitution approved the black suffrage provision.
  • Arkansas's population changed

    Blacks represented nearly 26% of Arkansas' population.
  • Cherokee Freedmen elected

    Joseph Brown was teh only freedan elected to the National Council.
  • Creek Freedman elected

    Jesse Franklin was elected as a judge in the tribal Supreme Court.
  • Freedman's Oklahoma Immigration Association

    Hannibal Carter adn James Milton Turner organized this to encourage black migration into the Oklahoma district.
  • Education for the Freedman

    Choctaw nation allows schooling to the freedman.
  • Land Run

    Oklahoma territory opened to settlement by non-Indians. Previously the territory had been only open to settlement by other Indian tribes.
  • "Race War"

    The Creek tribe and blacks started a "Race War" that was reported by local newspapers.
  • "State Negroes"

    Most blacks residing in Indian Territory were newcomers from neighboring states, called "State Negroes."
  • Dawes Commission

    Congress created this to negotiate agreements with the Five Civilized Trives to terminate their existence as seperate nations.
  • Rolls created

    Congress made rolls for each of the tribes that included Indians and freedmen who were tribal citizens making it the first time in history that non-Indians were determining Indian citizenship with the Dawes Commission.
  • Oklahoma becomes a state

    Enabling Act- June 6, 1906
    Oklahoma Constitution approved- September 1907
    Oklahoma admitted to the United States- November 16, 1907