Aztecs, Karankawa and Navajo

  • Sep 15, 1110

    foundation of the empire

    foundation of the empire
    the mexicana traveled from their northern homeland Aztlan. these early dates, and the extistence and location of Aztlan are hotly debated
  • Sep 15, 1299

    Mexica settle

    Mexica settle
    Mexica settle in Tizapan, by permission of the Culhuacan ruler Cocoxtli
  • Sep 15, 1325


    Techochtitlan is settled by the mexican
  • Oct 6, 1491

    Approximately 25,000 Years Ago

    Approximately 25,000 Years Ago
    Humans cross a land bridge over the Bering Strait inhabiting the Americas for the first time. The continent remained isolated for thousands of years.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Christopher Columbus sails to America

    Christopher Columbus leads three ships across the Atlantic Ocean and discovers the Americas. The expedition clears the way for several more voyages over the next few centuries as America is quickly settled by Europeans. This also leads to the quick devastation of native people and cultures in the Americas.
  • May 2, 1519

    Spanosh Armada

    Hernan Cortes invades Mexico, completing his conquest of the Aztec empire in 1521 and establishes the colony of New Spain
  • Jan 1, 1528

    The appearance of the Karankawa Indians

    The Karankawa Indians first appeared on the historical record in 1528.
  • First permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown.

    English settlers arrive on the Atlantic coast in modern day Virginia and create a colony called Jamestown. The colony barely survives after undergoing "starving time" but the arrival of Englishman John Rolfe and the harvesting of tobacco allow the colony to thrive.
  • Jamestonw was establushed

    Jamestown is founded in Virginia by the colonists of the London Company. By the end of the year, starvation and disease reduce the original 105 settlers to just 32 survivors. Captain John Smith is captured by Native American Chief Powhatan and saved from death by the chief's daughter, Pocahontas.
  • The Karankawa Indians and the Jamestown colonists gather together

    On July 3, Indians brought maize, beans, squash, and fresh and smoked meat to the Jamestown colony. As at Plymouth years later, the colonists and their diseases would eventually exterminate them.
  • English colony established at Plymouth

    A ship called the Mayflower lands on the coast of modern day Massachusetts carrying a group of religous outcasts called Pilgrims. The Pilgrims build a colony and establish positive relations with the natives of the area. Plymouth sets the stage for American ideals of self government and freedom of religion. In the next century plus thirteen English colonies are settled on the east coast of North America.
  • one of the firsat treaty is signed

    One of the first treaties between colonists and Native Americans is signed as the Plymouth Pilgrims enact a peace pact with the Wampanoag Tribe, with the aid of Squanto, an English speaking Native American
  • Period: to

    important year in indian history

    Pequot War - Taking place in Connecticut and Rhode Island, the death of a colonist eventually led to the destruction of 600-700 natives. The remainder were sold into slavery in Bermuda. Captains John Mason and John Underhill attacked and burned Pequot forts at Mystic, Connecticut, massacring 600 Indians and starting the Pequot War. English settlers in New England massacred a Pequot Indian village.
    1675-1676 King Philip's War - Sometimes called Metacom's War, was an armed conflict between
  • Pierre and Jean-Baptiste Talon

    Two of the former captives, Pierre and Jean-Baptiste Talon, were returned to France in 1698 where they were interrogated by French officials
  • America declares independence from Britain

    After years of escalating tensions between American colonists and British soldiers, and with violence breaking out at Lexington & Concord, the thirteen American colonies declare their independence from Britain. The American Revolution is fought for the next five years and results in America winning its independence.
  • Treaty of Paris is signed

    The United States and Britain sign the Treaty of Paris officially ending the American Revolution and creating the independent United States of America. As a result the U.S. also acquires a significant tract of land in the Ohio River Valley, doubling the size of the country.
  • the Louisinia Purchase

    The Louisiana Purchase adds to the United States French territory from the Gulf of Mexico to the Northwest.
    The Lewis and Clark expedition begins its exploration of the West
  • the Indian Removal Act was created

    On April 7, President Andrew Jackson submitted a bill to Congress calling for the removal of tribes in the east to lands west of the Mississippi. On May 28th, the Indian Removal Act was passed, and from 1830 to 1840 thousands of Native Americans were forcibly removed. On September 15, the Choctaws sign a treaty exchanging 8 million acres of land east of the Mississippi for land in Oklahoma . On December 22, the State of Georgia made it unlawful for Cherokee to meet in council, unless it is f
  • 14,000 creeks

    In five groups, over 14,000 Creeks were forcibly removed by the US Army from Alabama to Oklahoma .
  • the year of smallpox

    Two thirds of the 6,000 Blackfoot died of smallpox
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears - Despite the Supreme Court's rulings in 1831 and 1832 that the Cherokee had a right to stay on their lands, President Jackson sent federal troops to forcibly remove almost 16,000 Cherokee who had refused to move westward under the unrecognized Treaty of New Echota (1835) and had remained in Georgia. In May, American soldiers herded most into camps where they remained imprisoned throughout the summer and where at least 1,500 perished. The remainder began an 800-mile forced march t
  • Maharaj Ranjit Singh

    Death of Maharaj Ranjit Singh
  • Karankawa

    By the year 1860, on the eve of the American Civil War, The Karankawa indians had been completely exterminated.
  • Period: to

    long walk

    In 1863-64 the Navajo endured the Long Walk to eastern NM, were returned in 1868
  • Peace Commission and the Treaty

    The Peace Commission and the Treaty of 1868 allowed the Navajo to return to their land after four terrible years. The Navajo were still tormented, but slowly began to make progress as an individual people, and today carry on their traditions and unique way of life. they were first documented in the 1800’s
  • 17 million

    reservation of 17 million acres was established in 1878
  • important year in indian history

    Congress established the Oklahoma Territory on unoccupied lands in the Indian Territory , breaking a 60-year-old pledge to preserve this area exclusively for Native Americans forced from their lands in the east. May 29, 1890 Charles L. Hyde, a Pierre, South Dakota citizen, wrote a letter to the Secretary of the Interior saying the Ghost Dance was leading to a possible uprising by the Sioux. Prior to the letter, federal agents were not concerned about the Ghost Dance, but soon after, they feare
  • formal governmental

    By 1923, they established a formal governmental body and were working out land lease agreements with companies thirsty for New Mexico oil.
  • rights

    By 1924, they were being counted among the numbers of U.S. citizens and securing the right to vote. Soon the tribe would tackle the international stage.
  • Navajo code talkers

    In 1942, shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, a group of Navajo volunteers was recruited to create a secret code using their native language. The code proved unbreakable and was used throughout the efforts of World War II to relay messages without any fear of the enemy intercepting them. Nearly 60 years after their efforts, in 2001, the "Navajo code talkers" were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
  • Navajo Nation Council

    On May 21, 1968, the Navajo Nation Council adopted this flag, designed by Jay R. Degroat, a Navajo from Mariano Lake, New Mexico and selected from 140 entries.
  • Indians of All Tribes

    "Indians of All Tribes" occupation of Alcatraz - A group of young Indians seized the abandoned Alcatraz Island in the San Francisco harbor. They issued a "Proclamation to the Great White Father" in which they stated their claim that Alcatraz was suitable as an Indian Reservation and thus, should be converted into an Indian educational and cultural center. The Indians of All Tribes continued to occupy AAlcatraz until June, 1971.