Indigenous Education in the United States

  • Jan 1, 1492

    Precolonial - Pre 1492 Tribal teaching strategies

    Precolonial  - Pre 1492  Tribal teaching strategies
    Education is informal and occurs throughout the lifespan. Much of Educational practice is hands on and related to cultural tradition.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1492 to

    Indigenous Education in the United States

  • Period: Jan 1, 1492 to

    Colonial Mission Period

  • May 1, 1492

    1492 Spanish conquistadors arrive

    1492 Spanish conquistadors arrive
    1492 Spanish conquistadors sought to use Native Americans for forced labor and convert the people to Catholicism.
  • May 22, 1568

    1568 Jesuit missionaries established a school for Native American children in Havana, Florida

    1568 Jesuit missionaries established a school for Native American children in Havana, Florida
    This marked the point in history where religious groups attempted to intervene in the education of Native American children. Missionaries criticized the ceremonies and cleanliness of native people. In many tribal cultures the use of corporal punishment to discipline children was not accepted for the reason that the soul of a child is tender and easily hurt. Discipline was enforced through peer pressure and tribal stories that would serve as lessons. Jesuit missionaries felt that this was a s
  • 1617 King James of England encouraged the collection of money for erecting churches to educate the children of Native Americans in Virginia.

    1617 King James of England encouraged the collection of money for erecting churches to educate the children of Native Americans in Virginia.
  • 1631 Native Americans that were converted to Christianity were encouraged to congregate.

    1631 Native Americans that were converted to Christianity were encouraged to congregate.
    1631 Native Americans that were converted to Christianity were encouraged to congregate and live in “praying towns” where they were to dress and live like the colonists. This was supported by Reverend John Eliot.
  • "Indian College" established at Harvard University

    "Indian College" established at Harvard University
    1636 Harvard was established and was the site of a small brick building known as the Indian College. The purpose of the charter was to “civilize” tribes and present a Bible in the dialect of the Algonquian language.
  • Dartmouth College Creates Native "Missionaries"

    Dartmouth College Creates Native "Missionaries"
    1756 Dartmouth College offers to educate Native Americans to become missionaries to educate other indigenous people.
  • 1775 The Continental Congress declares that it has overtaken jurisdiction over Native American tribes.

    1775 The Continental Congress declares that it has overtaken jurisdiction over Native American tribes.
    The department of Indian Affairs gives $500 to educate native people at Dartmouth.
  • Period: to

    "Nationalization" and "Assimilation" of Native Americans into US

  • 1802 Indian Civilization Fund Act.

    1802 Indian Civilization Fund Act.
    In 1802, Congress increased the funds through the Indian Civilization Fund Act.
  • 1832 Federal government creates a commissioner of Indian Affairs within the War Department.

    1832 Federal government creates a commissioner of Indian Affairs within the War Department. At this point in the US there exist 87 boarding schools and 6 manual labor training schools.
  • 1835 Native Americans moved to reservations

    1835 Native Americans moved to reservations
    1835 Native Americans moved to reservations. Schooling is from reservation schools or boarding schools. Native American culture and religion is devalued, and disrespected.
  • 1879 government run boarding school opened in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

    1879  government run boarding school opened in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.
    1879 government run boarding school opened in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. “Kill the Indian to save the man” philosophy
  • 1924 Congress passes the Indian Citizenship Act

    1924 Congress passes the Indian Citizenship Act
    1924 Congress passes the Indian Citizenship Act stating native people are American citizens.
  • 1928 Meriam Report

    1928 Meriam Report
    1928 Meriam Report exposes tragedies occuring at boarding schools and recommends native people be able to manage their own educational affairs.
  • 1953 responsibility for native education is turned over to the states.

    1953 responsibility for native education is turned over to the states.
    1953 responsibility for native education is turned over to the states.
  • 1960s social justice movements, American Indian movement, activist organizations established.

    1960s social justice movements, American Indian movement, activist organizations established.
    1960s social justice movements, American Indian movement, activist organizations established.
  • 1970 tribally controlled schools and colleges are established.

    1970 tribally controlled schools and colleges are established.
  • 1972 Indian education act provides funds for reservation schools

    1972 Indian education act provides funds for reservation schools
    1972 Indian education act provides funds for reservation schools
  • 1975 Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act.

    1975 Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act.
    1975 Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act allows Native Americans more input with the school curriculums.
  • 1978 Tribally controlled Community College Assistance Act

    1978 Tribally controlled Community College Assistance Act
    1978 Tribally controlled Community College Assistance Act
  • 1988 Tribally Controlled Schools Act

    1988 Tribally Controlled Schools Act
    1988 Tribally controlled schools act recognizes native children have the right to be educated in cultural and linguistic aspects.
  • 1990 Native American Language Act

    1990 Native American Language Act
    1990 Native American Language Act passes allowing native educators to teach native languages to students.
  • Over 30 Native Colleges in existence

    Over 30 Native Colleges in existence
    30+ tribally owned and operated community colleges in the U.S.