The U.S. Congress designates the Great Plains as permanent Indian Territory. Pushed the Native Americans Westward. Great American desert given to Indians.
All Indians moved to the West
No Indians east of the Appalation mountains. Moved “To protect Native Americans”
Treaty of Fort Laramie
U.S. negotiated the Treaty of Fort Laramie. Ended the policy of separation. Begin policy of concentration to stop the plains Indians. Gov. gave tribe particular places of land on the plains. Indians would no longer be allowed to roam freely throughout the entire region. Indians agreed because the Gov. said they would give each tribe on the western plains $50,000 a year for 50 years.
Santee Souix asked were asked for more land
The Santee Souix asked were asked for more land for more money by the U.S. Gov
Tensions rise between the Santee Souix and U.S. Gov.
Santee Sioux have not been given their money. Their money supply from the U.S. Gov had stopped. Initially they were told they would be paid in gold. U.S. Gov sends word that a war is going on and they are not going to be paid in gold or timely. Petitioned for the Gov. to pay them directly. Money was going into the pockets of Indian agents and governors.
Places did not let Natives buy stuff.
Sioux seeded 24 million acres of land to the US in exchange for 2 reservations. 3000 square miles
Santee Souix Uprising
Santee Sioux uprising. Between 400 and 800 whites were killed within a few months. Only about 60 of the Santee Sioux were killed.
Lincoln sent troops to stop uprising. Sent General John Pope. Put down the rebellion. Arrest about 400 Santee Sioux. Bring them to court. 300 convicted and sentenced to hang. Lincoln stepped in and allowed only 38 of the hangings. Ends rebellion. Expands military in the west
Sand Creek Massacre
Chivington, a Methodist Minister, surprised an Indian village. 200 people died. Mostly women and children.
Killed, mutilated, raped. Took body parts as trophies. Hung them on rafters
It was a celebrated event for the American people
General Shermans plan to deal with the Indian problem
300,000 Natives in West. 2/3 on Great Plains.
General Sherman was in charge of Great Plains. Tells General Sheridan we must deal with the Indian problem. “The only good Indian I ever saw was dead.” “Kill the buffalo, kill the Indian.” Kill off their food supply.
Sherman orders Sheridan to begin building forts on major routes to the west.
The Sioux and other Indians did not want this to happen.
Powder River Massacre
Powder River Wyoming. Officer and 70 troops were massacred while building fort.
2nd treaty of Fort Laramie
Tried to move Indians again. Promised Sioux the black hills.
Sheridan more diligent that the Indians stayed on their reservations. Ordered patrols to seek Indians off the reservation.
Marias River Massacre
Troops came upon a tribe off their reservation. Massacred 173 Indians.
Pressure put on U.S Grant by Christian reformers to change Indian policy.
Tried to civilize Indians through assimilation.
Indian Appropriations Act
Congress passes bill called Indian Appropriations Act. No longer negotiate with natives as Tribes, but rather with individuals. Classified as American dependents.
Papagos kill Apaches
Papago Indians were accompanied by Calvary troops going to Camp Grant. Came upon Apaches who were turning themselves in. Papagos allowed to kill Apaches. Warring tribes.
Gold found in the Black Hills
Custer went into hills and found gold.
Black Hills Gold Rush
The Black Hills Gold Rush begins
Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, called meeting to talk
Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, called meeting to talk about enforcing the Treaty of Fort Laramie.
Custers Last Stand
In June, army sends soldiers to capture chiefs at Little Big Horn. Army split up.
Custer’s Last Stand: Massacred within 20 minutes.
Congress repeals Treaty of Fort Laramie.
Great War for about a year with Sioux. Crazy Horse killed.
U.S. Gov takes Black Hills
Congress repeals the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868. U. S. Army takes ownership of the Black Hills by force.
The Carlisle Indian School opens.
The Carlisle Indian School opens in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Wanted to Americanize Indian children.
Sitting Bull surrenders.
Sitting Bull surrenders.
Geronimo is captured
Geronimo is captured by the U.S. Gov
Each man given 80 acres of land. But will have to give up traditions, religions, language. Give up being Native American. Also must accept education.
Wakova Chief, the spiritual leader, had a vision where the master of life said he would purge whites from Indian lands if the Indians would return to their traditions.
Creayed the Ghost Dance. U. S. Gov. outlawed the dance. Dance gave tribes hope for the future
Wounded Knee Massacre
Group of Wakova Indians that wanted to join Indians in the southwest. Army caught up with them and told them to go back. US army killed around 200 Indians. Shot them with the Gatling gun.
Marked the end of Indian wars in America