Native American Civil Rights in the 20th Century

  • Cherokee Nation vs. Hitchcock

    Cherokee Nation vs. Hitchcock
    A June 28, 1898, which by section 13 thereof gives the A 1898 bill allowed the Secretary of the Interior to have "exclusive power over oil, coal, asphalt and other minerals in said territory, and authorizes him to make leases of oil, coal, asphalt and other minerals", causing a direct violation of Cherokee rule. The court case Cherokee Nation vs Hitchcock ruled in favor of the bill, thus stating the government can overrule Cherokee and othe Native Americn law.
  • Lone Wolf vs Hitchcock

    Lone Wolf vs Hitchcock
    The Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche tribes lived on Indian Territory created by the Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867. In order for the treaty to be changed, 75% of the male residence of all the tribes must agree. However in 1982, congress attempted to take two million acres from thier territory without consultation. The case was argued in 1902 and the court ruled in favor of congress in 1903.
  • Antiquities Act

    Antiquities Act
    The Antiquities Act prohibits excavation of historic sites. This act leads ot the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966
  • Jim Thorpe plays for the New York Giants

    Jim Thorpe plays for the New York Giants
    Jim Thorpe is considered the most versitile athletes playing in Major League Baseball, American Professional Football Association (aka the NFL) and basketball for a brief period of time. Thorpe was half Native American and used his fame to make public the plight of Native Americans. He retired from sports in 1928.
  • World War 1 ends

    World War 1 ends
    Native American participation in World War 1 showed America that Native Americans were capable of assimilating into militay society, so it was the logical conclusion that they could assimilate into the rest of American society. This was the basis for the 1924 Indian Citizenship Act.
  • Indian Citizenship Act

     Indian Citizenship Act
    Prior to the Indian Citizenship Act, Native Americans could gain citizenship through marrying a white man or through military service. The Indian Citizenship Act granted citizenship to all Native Americans born in the US. However, this act was also trying to assimilate Native Americans into mainsteam American Culture.
  • Dawes Act ends

    Dawes Act ends
    The Dawes Act started in 1887 forcing Native Americans the assimilate to American Culture by living on reservations, attending boarding schools and converting to Christianity is ended.
  • Indian Reorganization Act (Wheeler–Howard Act)

    Indian Reorganization Act  (Wheeler–Howard Act)
    The Indian Reorganization Act was meant to increase native American self government. This act greatly improved many Natives' ecomomic situation and the health and education of Native American children in public schools. This act also raised awareness of thier civil rights stuggle.
  • Foundation of National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)

    Foundation of National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)
    80 delegates from 44 tribes comveinde in Denver Colorado to form the National Congress of American Indians to unite and protect their people from threat of teaty violations, temination and sovereign rights.
  • Indian Claims Commission Act

    Indian Claims Commission Act
    The Indian Claims Commission Act was a bill that allowed Natives to sue the government over land disputes. $800 million in compensation was given out, but no land was returned. This act foreshadowed future government policies.
  • World War 2 ends

    Native American played a vital role in world War 2 including being code talkers, joining the marines and takeing factor jobs. Native American participation in World War 2 was seen as complete assimilation into American society. Native Americans gained much more equality but lost the identificatinon that came with being part of their tribe.
  • Termination of tribes

    Termination of tribes
    The Indian Claims Commission Act in 1945 somewhat justified taking native land in the government's eyes. In the 50's and 60's, congress passed aditional laws that terminated hundreds of Native American Tribes, cutting them off from thier tribal gevenment and subjegating them to federal law.
  • House Concurrent Resolution

     House Concurrent Resolution
    In 1953-1954, the House Concurrent Resolution gave California, Oregon, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Nebraska civil and criminal jurisdiction over most Indian lands within their borders.
  • William vs. Lee

    William vs. Lee
    A non- native person owned a general store on native land. The store owner wanted to collect for good that were sold to a native couple on credit. The court ruled that jusrisdiction fell to native courts and not state courts.
  • Indian Reorganization Act Reinfored

    Indian Reorganization Act Reinfored
    The main goals of the the Indian Reorganization Acts are reinforced in the 1960's and 1970's
  • National Indian Youth Council (NIYC)

    National Indian Youth Council (NIYC)
    National Indian Youth Council was a a council to increase the national pride and activism among young Native American .
  • National Historic Preservation Act

    National Historic Preservation Act
    This act is a supplament to the Antiquities Act of 1906. This act prohibits excavation of Federal or Native land.
  • Foundation of American Indian Movement

    Foundation of American Indian Movement
    The American Indian Movement was founded in Minneapolis, Minnesota. AIM is a militant group that protests the high unemployment and poor living conditions of Native Americans
  • Native American Rights Foundation (NARF) founded

    Native American Rights Foundation (NARF) founded
    The Native American Righs Foundation was founded in 1970 to provide legal help to Native American tribes.
  • Indian Education Act

    Indian Education Act
    The Indian Education Act funded bilingual anf bicultural schools for childern with cultrally relevant studies. The act also created the Office of Indian Education in the US Department of Education.
  • Trail of Broken Treaties

    Trail of Broken Treaties
    Native Americans from all all over the United States and groups such as the American Indian Movement, the National Indian Brotherhood of Canada, the National Indian Youth Council, the Native American Rights Fund and the American Indian Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse gather in Washingto DC to push for Native American policies in the upcoming presidential campaign.
  • American Indian Movement (AIM) siege

    American Indian Movement (AIM)  siege
    May 9 was the end of a 71 day siege of a villege in the Oglala Sioux reservation in South Dakota. AIM supporters occupied the village trying to spur talks over the US violating treaties. 1000 federal agents surrounded the town claiming they were holding hostages. 2 AIM supporters were killed.
  • The Longest Walk

    The Longest Walk
    The Longest Walk was a protest to symbolize the forced removal of Native Americans from tribal lands. Protestors walked from San Fransico to Washington D.C. Protestors wanted to bring attention to backlash against efforts to protect Native Rights
  • Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protection Association,

     Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protection Association,
    the US Forest Service wanted to build a fire service road on Native American religious ritual grounds in Chimney Rock and Six Rivers National Forests. The Court ruled in favor of the Native Americans.
  • Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith

    Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith
    Alfred Smith and Galen Black were fired for ingested peyote for ceramonial pourposes. Both were denied unmployment benefits because they were fired for "misconduct". The court ruled in favor of Smith and Black because their denial benefits violated the free exercise rights under the First Amendment.
  • Native American Languages Act of 1990

     Native American Languages Act of 1990
    This act states Native Americans are intiteled to using thier own language and places importance on Native Americans preserving thier language. This act reverses the previous policy of eradicating native languages.
  • Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act

    Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
    The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990 required meusams and government agencies to disclose all artifacts from Native American including human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, and objects of cultural patrimony, cultural items and return them to tribes if they could prove it belonged to them.
  • Religious Freedom Restoration Act

    Religious Freedom Restoration Act
    Religious Freedom Restoration Act aimed at preventing laws that substantially burden a person's free exercise of their religion. This act was not specifically for Native Americans, but it has been used to promote the free practice of Native American religion.