Red vs Black

By ejw1107
  • Cherokee First Observe Slavery

    Cherokee First Observe Slavery
    1700s - Cherokee people first observe the practice of slavery among their British allies in the early 1700s. A Cherokee delegation in 1730 makes an agreement with the British to return any runaway slaves they capture back to their British owners.
  • Cherokee Regulations Against Intermarriage

    Cherokee Regulations Against Intermarriage
    Cherokee Nation General Council approves a resolution that called for a fine of $50 "against any person who permitted his slaves to marry whites or Indians and punished the persons attempting such marriage by fifty-nine stripes on the bare back."
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    Indian Removal Act signed into law by Andrew Jackson. Forced Native Americans to leave their previous homelands and relocate to Indian Territory. They were given political and economic control of the region.
  • Trail of Tears Begins

    Trail of Tears Begins
    The Trail of Tears brings Native Americans and their black slaves, approximately seventy thousand people, from Georgia, North Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee and Florida to their new home in the Indian Territory.
  • Cherokee Prohibits Blacks from Politics

    Cherokee Prohibits Blacks from Politics
    Sept. 6,1839 - After forming a new government, various Cherokee factions, including one led by John Ross, ratify a new constitution. Regarding blacks living among the tribe, the new constitution states: "No person who is (N)egro and mulatto parentage, either by the father or mother's side, shall be eligible to hold any office of profit, honor or trust under this government."
  • Largest Slave Uprising in Indian Territory

    Largest Slave Uprising in Indian Territory
    The largest of three servile uprisings in the Indian Territory begins in early November when 33 fugitive slaves from the Creek, Cherokee and Choctaw Nations attempt to escape to Mexico. On November 26, the Cherokee mounted militia captured 31 of the fugitives about five miles north of the Red River.
  • Creek Joins Confederacy

    Creek Joins Confederacy
    Confederacy negotiates treaty with Creek Nation
  • Choctaw and Chikasaw Join Confederacy

    Choctaw and Chikasaw Join Confederacy
    Confederacy negotiates treaty with Choctaw and Chikasaw Nations
  • Seminole Tribe Joins Confederacy

    Seminole Tribe Joins Confederacy
    Confederacy negotiates treaty with Seminole tribe
  • Cherokee Joins Confederacy

    Cherokee Joins Confederacy
    Confederacy negotiates treaty with Cherokee tribe
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    National Archives: The Emancipation Proclamation

    President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."
  • Cherokee Emancipation of Slaves

    Cherokee Emancipation of Slaves
    Cherokee slaveholders freed their slaves in accordance with Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation
  • Cherokee: Fine for Slave Owners after 6-25-1863

    Cherokee: Fine for Slave Owners after 6-25-1863
    The Cherokee Council sets a fine of not less than $1,000 or more than $5,000 against anyone who holds slaves after June 25, 1863.
  • Creeks prepare to surrender to Union

    Creeks prepare to surrender to Union
  • Choctaw leaders surrendered to Union at Doaksville

    Choctaw leaders surrendered to Union at Doaksville
  • End of Civil War in Indian Territory

    End of Civil War in Indian Territory
    Confederate Indian Commander, Stand Waite, surrendered to Union troops at Doaksville ending the Civil War in Indian Territory.
  • Fort Smith Council

    Fort Smith Council
    Negotiations for reconstruction and postwar settlement between the US Government, lead by Dennis N. Cooley (Commissioner of Indian Affairs), and the Five Civilized Tribes met in Fort Smith, Ar. The Fort Smith Council lasted 13 days, and was unable to conclude negotiations. Cooley called to resume negotiations in Washington a year later.
    The Fort Smith Council declared all previous treaties with the five Indian nations nullified.
  • Choctaw and Chikasaw Vigilantes Resort to Violence and Drive out Blacks

    Choctaw and Chikasaw Vigilantes Resort to Violence and Drive out Blacks
    Choctaw and Chickasaw resorted to violence to drive out unwanted blacks. During and immediately following the war, Colonies of ex-salves from Texas settled north of the Red River on tribal lands. The Choctaws and Chickasaws attributed the sharp increase in cattle rustling and horse thievery to these ex-slaves. Indian vigilantes seized and whipped blacks who were not known in the area, broke up their settlements, and forced them out of Indian nation.
  • Chickasaw and Choctaw signed the Chickasaw and Choctaw Treaty of Washington

    Chickasaw and Choctaw signed the Chickasaw and Choctaw Treaty of Washington
    New treaties negotiated with the Five Civilized Tribes that abolished slavery, required tribes to cede western half of their land to the government (would become OK Territory), and called reorganization of tribal government. The Five Civilized Tribes established an intertribal council.
  • Creek Tribe Signs Treaty of 1866

    Creek Tribe Signs Treaty of 1866
    New treaties negotiated with the Five Civilized Tribes that abolished slavery, required tribes to cede western half of their land to the government (would become OK Territory), and called reorganization of tribal government. The Five Civilized Tribes established an intertribal council.
  • Cherokee Reconstructrion Treaty of 1866

    Cherokee Reconstructrion Treaty of 1866
    Cherokee Treaty of 1866
    New treaties negotiated with the Five Civilized Tribes that abolished slavery, required tribes to cede western half of their land to the government (would become OK Territory), and called reorganization of tribal government. The Five Civilized Tribes established an intertribal council.
  • Seminole Sign Treaty of 1866

    Seminole Sign Treaty of 1866
    New treaties negotiated with the Five Civilized Tribes that abolished slavery, required tribes to cede western half of their land to the government (would become OK Territory), and called reorganization of tribal government. The Five Civilized Tribes established an intertribal council.
  • Chickasaw Freedmen Education: Post 1869

    Chickasaw Freedmen Education: Post 1869
    Any freedmen in the Chickasaw nation wanting an education had to emigrate from the Chickasaw nation.
  • Indian Territory Population

    Indian Territory Population
    Indian Territory had 68,152 residents:
    Native Americans: 87% Black: 6,378 White: 2,407
  • Seminole 1870 Freedmen Education

    Seminole 1870 Freedmen Education
    Seminole tribal funds supported 4 schools, 2 for freedmen children and 2 for Indian children.
  • Cherokee Education Re-Established

    Cherokee Education Re-Established
    Cherokee education re-established after war disrupted their well-developed system. Cherokee placed greater emphasis on education than any other tribe during pre-civil war era. They were unable to re-establish a system until 1870. Cherokee did not prevent children of freedmen from receiving an education.
  • Freedmen Petition US Congress

    Freedmen Petition US Congress
    Almost six years following their emancipation; approximately three hundred Choctaw and Chickasaw freedmen petitioned the United States Congress to forfeit the $300,000 negotiated in the Treaty of 1866 and pay it to the “freedmen of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nation.” This is probably one of the first actions by a group of freedmen indicating they were willing to forgo citizenship in either nation because the tribes failed to adopt them as citizens according to the treaty.
  • Cherokee Freedmen Education: 1874

    Cherokee Freedmen Education: 1874
    Cherokee nation had 65 schools, 7 of them reserved for freedmen.
  • Cherokee Election of Freedman Joseph Brown

    Cherokee Election of Freedman Joseph Brown
    Cherokee freedman, Joseph Brown was the only freedman elected to the National Council.
  • Creek Election of Freedman Jesse Franklin

    Creek Election of Freedman Jesse Franklin
    Creek Freedman, Jesse Franklin, was elected as a judge in the tribal Supreme Court.
  • Creek 1877 Freedman Education

    Creek 1877 Freedman Education
    Creek tribe established 3 boarding schools; 1 for Creek males, 1 for Creek Females, 1 freedmen.
  • Tullahassee Manual Labor School: Creek Freedman School

    Tullahassee Manual Labor School: Creek Freedman School
    The Creek Council turned a school near Muskogee over to the freedmen. Later to be called Tullahassee Manual Labor School.
  • Freedmen's Oklahoma Immigration Association

    Freedmen's Oklahoma Immigration Association
    Hannibal Carter and James Milton Turner organized the Freedmen’s Oklahoma Immigration Association to encourage black migration into the Oklahoma district.
  • Choctaw and Chickasaw-Free to Act Seperately

    Choctaw and Chickasaw-Free to Act Seperately
    Choctaw Nation adopted freedmen at this time was the passage of a bill by the U. S. congress in 1882, freeing the Choctaw and the Chickasaw from having to act in unison over the future status of their respective freedmen. As a result, the Choctaw Nation could organize the recognition of Choctaw freedmen without having to consult with the Chickasaw legislature.
  • Choctaw Freedmen's Bill

    Choctaw Freedmen's Bill
    Choctaw Nation reluctantly passed the Freedmen's Bill: adopting freemen citizenship after realizing the federal government would not remove them from their nation.
  • Evangel Mission School: Creek Freedmen School

    Evangel Mission School: Creek Freedmen School
    Creek Freedmen and American Baptist Home Mission Society opened Evangel Mission School for freedmen on the old Union Academy grounds in Muskogee
  • Choctaw Law Against Intermarriage

    Choctaw Law Against Intermarriage
    Choctaw nation pass a law making intermarriage between blacks and Indians a felony.
  • General Allotment Act of 1887

    General Allotment Act of 1887
    The General Allotment Act of 1887 created the Dawes Commission to bring about the dissolution of tribal governments and the allotment of land to individual tribal members.
    The Dawes Severalty Act (General Allotment Act) of 1887 ushered in the allotment era. Drafted by U.S. Sen. Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts, the act did not pertain to the Five Civilized Tribes until 1893.
  • McCabe Joins Freedmen's Oklahoma Immigration Association

    McCabe Joins Freedmen's Oklahoma Immigration Association
    E. L. Eagleson and Edward P. McCabe joined Freedmen’s Oklahoma Immigration Association to establish political hegemony in the region. McCabe became leader of the movement, relocated from Kansas to Logan County, Oklahoma Territory, and elected first treasurer of the county.
  • Right-of-Way to Railroads in Indian Territory

    Right-of-Way to Railroads in Indian Territory
    Five Civilized Tribes were compelled to grant rights-of-way to railroads seeking to cross their lands. This caused Indian Territory to be exposed to massive amounts of uninvited outsiders.
  • Land Run of 1889

    Land Run of 1889
    Oklahoma territory opened to settlement by non-Indians. Previously the territory had been open only to settlement by other Indian tribes.
  • Oil in Cherokee Nation

    Oil in Cherokee Nation
    Oil discovered in Cherokee nation, increasing immigration to the area
  • First African American Newspaper Oklahoma Guide

    First African American Newspaper Oklahoma Guide
    First African American Newspaper Oklahoma Guide
  • Race War between Creeks and Blacks

    Race War between Creeks and Blacks
    A “race war” between the Creek tribe and blacks was reported by a local newspaper.
  • Indians Become Minority in Indian Territory

    Indians Become Minority in Indian Territory
    Territorial Population was dominated by whites and blacks who made up 72% of the total population. Less than 25 years after the Civil War, Indians became the minority in their own land. Total Population: 178,082
    White: 109,391
    Black: 18, 636
    Indian: 50,055
  • L.C. Perryman, Creek Chief, Protests African American Troops

    L.C. Perryman, Creek Chief, Protests African American Troops
    Tensions between blacks and Creeks grew so much that the usually racially tolerant tribe began to display anti-black sentiments. L. C. Perryman, a Creek Chief, filed a protest with federal officials when African American troops were stationed in his nation.
  • First African American in Oklahoma Territory Legislature

    First African American in Oklahoma Territory Legislature
    Green Jacob Currin becomes the first African American to serve in the Oklahoma Territory Legislature.
  • Cherokee Form One Freedmen Highschool

    Cherokee Form One Freedmen Highschool
    Cherokee nation formed one high school for freedmen.
  • McCabe Attempts to Create an All-Black Colony

    McCabe Attempts to Create an All-Black Colony
    Edward P. McCabe founded Langston City, an all-black town near Guthrie. McCabe encourage Southern blacks to settle in Oklahoma in his newspaper Langston City Herald (est. 1891). The all-black state campaign failed, but McCabe was successful in establishing 29 all-black towns and 1 all-black colony where African Americans could live without fear of physical, political, and economical oppression
  • Langston Open for Settlement

    Langston Open for Settlement
    The town, which opened for settlement on October 22, 1890, was named for John Mercer Langston, who took office as the first black Virginian to serve in the United States House of Representatives only one month earlier.
    Langston's principal founders were William L. Eagleson, a prominent newspaper editor, Edward P. McCabe, a former Kansas state auditor, and Charles W. Robbins, a white land speculator.
  • Tushka Lusa Academy for Freedmen

    Tushka Lusa Academy for Freedmen
    Choctaw nation provided one boarding school in Talihina, the Tushka Lusa (Tushkaloosa) Academy, for freedmen Historian Angie Debo noted that in 1891, the Choctaw Nation "went beyond the obligation assumed by the act of adoption, by establishing a colored boarding school."
  • Roscoe Dunjee: Black Dispatch Newspaper

    Roscoe Dunjee: Black Dispatch Newspaper
    Newspaper editor Roscoe Dunjee arrives in Oklahoma City from Minnesota. After working for various newspapers he founds the Oklahoma City Black Dispatch in 1915. The Dispatch eventually becomes the largest African American newspaper in the state.
  • Five Tribes: Dawes Commission (General Allotment Act)

    Five Tribes: Dawes Commission (General Allotment Act)
    General Allotment Act of 1887 extends to Five Tribes. Henry Dawes, then retired, was appointed to head a three-member commission, with Meredith Helm Kidd of Indiana and Archibald S. McKennon of Arkansas, to the Five Civilized Tribes to negotiate agreements with the leaders of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole that would end tribal land ownership and give each member individual possession of a portion of the tribal lands (usually 160 acres).
  • Dawes Roll Begins

    Dawes Roll Begins
    Congress directed the Dawes Commission to make rolls for each of the tribes that included Indians and freedmen who were tribal citizens. For the first time in tribal history, non-Indians were determining Indian citizenship and were awarding sections of lands on that basis.
  • Curtis Act

    Curtis Act
    Curtis Act passed in United States Congress to include the Five Civilized Tribes in the Dawes Final Rolls. The act called for abolition of tribal governments by 1906. The enrollment process was closed as of March 4, 1907, and the final rolls remained the definitive source on eligibility for each tribe's membership.
  • Dew M. Wisdom: Expresses Creek Dissenting Views

    Dew M. Wisdom: Expresses Creek Dissenting Views
    Interracial tension grew to be serious enough to cause Dew M. Wisdom, U.S. Indian Agent for the Indian Territory, to include in his annual report to the Commission of Indian Affairs a discussion about the Creek’s dissenting views about blacks taking tribal land
  • African Americans Aquire 1.5 Million Acres

    African Americans Aquire 1.5 Million Acres
    Taking advantage of the various federal land openings in Oklahoma Territory, through the 1890s, approximately eight thousand African Americans acquire 1.5 million acres of land in the Territory valued at $11 million dollars.
  • "state Negroes"

    "state Negroes"
    Most blacks residing in Indian Territory were newcomers from neighboring states, called “state Negroes.”
  • Creek Freedmen Sign Land Allotment

    Creek Freedmen Sign Land Allotment
    Creek Freedmen Sign Allotment
  • False Claims of Cherokee Freedmen Status

    False Claims of Cherokee Freedmen Status
    April 1, 1902 -May 31, 1902: Hearing for Cherokee freedmen applying for roll membership. Cherokee Nation experienced a large number of false claims from African Americans, not of Cherokee freedmen blood, who were seeking to take Cherokee land under false pretenses. Enrollment Flyer Used for Cherokee Freedmen Distributed to Cherokee Freedmen Citizens During the Years of the Dawes Commission Enrollment Period
  • Boley: Largest All-Black Town Founded

    Boley: Largest All-Black Town Founded
    Boley, the largest and most well known of more than 50 All-Black towns of the two territories was founded. Established on land allotted to Creek’s. Named after J.B. Boley, railroad official of the Fort Smith and Western Railway. The town was incorporated in 1905. One of only 13 black towns still existing.
  • Enabling Act

    Enabling Act
    Congress passed an Enabling Act, the device used by the US Congress to create a state. The act provided for a single state to be formed from the Twin Territories
  • Oklahoma Constitutional Convention

    Oklahoma Constitutional Convention
    As stipulated in the Enabling Act, delegates of the Oklahoma Constitutional Convention assembled in Guthrie
  • Boley: All Black Town has over 1,000 Residents

    Boley: All Black Town has over 1,000 Residents
    The town of Boley, the most famous of the all-black communities in the Indian Territory, (founded in 1903) in the Creek Nation by two white entrepreneurs, William Boley and Lake Moore. By 1907 Boley has over 1,000 residents.
  • Creek Nation Final Rolls: Freedmen

    Creek Nation Final Rolls: Freedmen
    36.3 % of the allottees were freedmen, including a large number probably not descendants of Indian Territory ex-slaves, but recent arrivals who had intermarried or who just took up residence in the area.
  • Choctaw Nation Final Rolls: Freedmen

    Choctaw Nation Final Rolls: Freedmen
    23.9% of the allottees were freedmen, including a large number probably not descendants of Indian Territory ex-slaves, but recent arrivals who had intermarried or who just took up residence in the area.
  • Chickasaw Nation Final Rolls: Freedmen

    Chickasaw Nation Final Rolls: Freedmen
    42.5 % of the allottees were freedmen, including a large number probably not descendants of Indian Territory ex-slaves, but recent arrivals who had intermarried or who just took up residence in the area.
  • Cherokee Nation Final Rolls: Freedmen

    Cherokee Nation Final Rolls: Freedmen
    11.8% of the allottees were freedmen, including a large number probably not descendants of Indian Territory ex-slaves, but recent arrivals who had intermarried or who just took up residence in the area.
  • Seminole Nation Final Rolls: Freedmen

    Seminole Nation Final Rolls: Freedmen
    31.8% of the allottees were freedmen, including a large number probably not descendants of Indian Territory ex-slaves, but recent arrivals who had intermarried or who just took up residence in the area.
  • Oklahoma Admitted to Union: Statehood

    Oklahoma Admitted to Union: Statehood
    On November 16, the twin territories, Indian Territory and Oklahoma, are admitted to the Union as the state of Oklahoma. The Democratic-dominated state legislature quickly disfranchises black voters and segregates public schools and accommodations.
  • Haskell: First Governor of Oklahoma

    Haskell: First Governor of Oklahoma
    Charles N. Haskell Inaugurated as First governor of Oklahoma
  • Jim Crow Bill Signed Into Oklahoma Legislature

    Jim Crow Bill Signed Into Oklahoma Legislature
    Haskell Signs Jim Crow Bill
  • Five Civilized Tribes Agency Formed

    Five Civilized Tribes Agency Formed
    The Dawes Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes was abolished by act of Congress and its unfinished business was transferred to the Five Civilized Tribes Agency in Muskogee, Oklahoma.
  • Tulsa Race Riot

    Tulsa Race Riot
    On May 31-June 1, at least 60 blacks and 21 whites are killed in the Tulsa Race Riot in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The violence destroys a thriving African American neighborhood and business district called Deep Greenwood.
  • Cherokee KKK Meeting

    Cherokee KKK Meeting
    Cherokee KKK meet in Tahlequah, OK
  • Cherokee: Principal Chiefs Act

    Cherokee: Principal Chiefs Act
    The federal government authorizes the Cherokee Nation to again hold elections for principal chief under the Principal Chiefs Act. "Blue cards" began being issued that year to Cherokee citizens including Freedmen. Freedmen vote in the 1971, 1975 and 1979 tribal elections.
  • Cherokee Grants Citizenship to Freedmen

    Cherokee Grants Citizenship to Freedmen
    The Cherokee people vote on and approve a new constitution. Article III of the constitution states that all Dawes enrollees and their descendents are citizens of the Cherokee Nation
  • The Longest Walk: 1978 Solidarity

    The Longest Walk: 1978 Solidarity
    Solidarity between African Americans and Native Americans grew with the Black Power movement of the 1970s. The Longest Walk entered into D.C., with several thousand Indians and a number of non-Indian supporters. Traditional elders led them to the Washington Monument, where the Pipe carried across the country was smoked. Non-Indian supporters included Muhammad Ali, US Senator Ted Kennedy and actor Marlon Brando. President Jimmy Carter refused to meet with representatives of The Longest Walk.
  • Cherokee Freedmen Citizenship Revoked

    Cherokee Freedmen Citizenship Revoked
    Freedmen are not allowed to vote in a tribal election. Tribal Registrar Dora Mae Watie sends letters to Freedmen citizens telling them their citizenship has been cancelled because the tribe now requires Cherokee citizens to also have a Certificate Degree of Indian Blood card. The Tribal Council also passes an act requiring all Cherokee citizens to provide a CDIB card based on their degree of blood listed on the Dawes Rolls for themselves or their ancestor.
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs Involved in Cherokee Freedmen Citizenship

    Bureau of Indian Affairs Involved in Cherokee Freedmen Citizenship
    1866 Treaty Excerpts Dealing With Freedmen Bureau of Indian Affairs officials meet with tribal officials and emphasize that the Cherokee Constitution as well as the Treaty of 1866 granted citizenship to the Cherokee Freedmen and their descendants, and Freedmen should be allowed to vote.
  • Lucy Allen v. Cherokee Nation Tribal Council

    Lucy Allen v. Cherokee Nation Tribal Council
    The tribe's Judicial Appeals Tribunal holds in the case of Lucy Allen (a Freedmen) v. Cherokee Nation Tribal Council that a 1983 Cherokee Nation law limits Cherokee citizenship to Cherokees, Shawnees and Delawares by blood.
  • R.H. Nero v. Cherokee Nation

    R.H. Nero v. Cherokee Nation
    Freedmen Nero brought the suit in 1984 alleging Freedmen were denied the right to vote and prevented from participating in federal Indian benefits programs.
  • Ruling made in R.H. Nero v Cherokee Nation

    Ruling made in R.H. Nero v Cherokee Nation
    Judge H. Dale Cook of the US District Court "dismissed the claims against the tribe, its officials, and United States on basis of sovereign immunity and granted summary judgment in favor of federal officials, relying on doctrine of qualified immunity." On appeal, the circuit judge held that "(1) tribal sovereign immunity barred claims against Cherokee Nation; (2) United States and its agencies were entitled to sovereign immunity; and (3) plaintiffs failed to state claim against tribe/fed council
  • Cherokee Revoke Freedmen Citizenship

    Cherokee Revoke Freedmen Citizenship
    Cherokee Nation makes a constitutional ammendment revoking citizenship status of Freedmen and their descendants. The controversy still continues. Currently, there is a pending 2012 court case concerning the status of freedmen membership in the Cherokee Nation.