Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations
PLATO or Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations was developed by the University of Illinois. PLATO was the first computer system that offered instruction to students from elementary level to graduate-level courses (Culatta, 2011).
The origin of the Internet era
Education Automation (1962)
Buckminster Fuller published his book Education Automation where he prophesized that learning will be augmented by informational technology (Culatta, 2011).
US Department of Defense authorized ARPANET or The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network in 1969. ARPANET is a forerunner for the Internet. Academics and researchers provided a great opportunity for learners to collaborate with the larger scientific community (Culatta, 2011; Harasim, 2000).
The first e-mail is invented in 1971 (Harasim, 2000).
The 1970s were characterized by the invention of the first e-mail, by the invention of computer conferencing, and by the establishment of USENET. Educational application of computer networking started in the mid-1970s (Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2020; Harasim, 2000).
Computer Conferencing was invented by Murray Turoff in 1972. It is a forerunner of today's collaborative online classroom (Harasim, 2000).
USENET was invented by Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis, and Steve Bellovin in 1979. Usenet is a network of newsgroups, and it is used to exchange messages and files (Culatta, 2011; Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.,2020).
The Computer Assisted Learning Center (CALC)
The Computer Assisted Learning Center was an adult learning center that offered instruction to adult individuals. CALC was founded in New Hampshire in 1982 (Culatta, 2011).
Western Behavioral Sciences Institute
Western Behavioral Sciences Institute (WBSI) offered the first online educational program for executives in 1982 (Culatta, 2011; Harasim, 2000).
The1980s were mostly characterized by using computer-based programs and training to educate taskforce. It was also an era of the emergence of the communication network among K-12 students, RAPPI network. Moreover, the University of Phoenix utilized CompuServe online services for consumers (Harasim, 2000; Kentnor, 2015).
CSILE is Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment that is created by Scardamalia and Bereiter in 1984. CSILE promotes the constructivists' view of learning (Culatta, 2011).
Robert Tinker in Technical Education Research Centers developed National Geographic’s KidsNet. KidsNet conveyed experiments based learning to K-12 students (THE Journal,1997, June 1).
AICC-Aviation Industry CBT Committee
Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) was established for a hardware normalization of computer-based training platforms in 1988 (Culatta, 2011).
The Open University ,UK -1989
Open University applied computer conferencing for a distance education course in 1989. The course involved 1500 students who had access to instructors and discussions with their fellow learners (Harasim, 2000).
The University of Phoenix
In 1991, the University of Phoenix is the first university to offer an online education program via the Internet prompting other institutions of higher learning to follow the example (Kentnor, 2015).
The invention of the World Wide Web (Kentnor, 2015).
Computer Assisted Personalized Approach
Computer Assisted personalized Approach or CAPA was initiated
at Michigan State University and it was used in a physics course,1992 (Culatta, 2011).
CALCampus was the first entirely based online school. The instruction and materials via real-time classroom (Culatta, 2011).
Lotus Development Corporation
Lotus Development Corporation attains the Human Interest Group.
Their LMS and Virtual Classroom are now owned by IBM (Culatta, 2011).
Virtual Summer School (VSS) for Open University
Virtual Summer School (Open University) enabled learners to attend D309 Cognitive Psychology by using a computer and a modem. These students participated in discussions, and experiments as well as searched literature. They also were able to work in group projects perform statistical analyses, make presentations, and use chit-chat (Culatta, 2011).
E-mail exceeds postal mail
E-mail exceeds a postal mail in a number of documents (Ferrer, 2019, Jul 17).
Cornell University and the CourseInfo team developed Interactive Learning Network that was merged with Blackboard (Culatta, 2011).
Google search engine
The Google search engine is developed in 1998 (Ferrer, 2019, Jul 17).
Moodle.com released Moodle 1.0
Creative Commons built by fifteen-year-old Aaron Swartz under the guidance of history professor Lawrence Lessig (Ferrer, 2019).
Wikipedia was launched by Jimmy Wales (Ferrer, 2019).
Online educational activities are booming. The opening of many online degree programs is exponentially growing to satisfy a demand for nontraditional learners.
OpenCourseWare Project (MIT)
MIT launches The OpenCourseWare Project that contains free access to educational materials (Ferrer, 2019).
By 2002, over 1.6 million college and university students were enrolled in online courses (Kentnor, 2015).
Mark Zuckerberg launched Facebook. The site was originally intended as a collegiate chat site (Ferrer, 2019).
In December 2005, Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim launched Youtube (Ferrer, 2019).
Khan Academy founded by Salman Khan (Ferrer, 2019).
Online courses enrollment > 5.5 mil
By 2009, over 5.5 million students worldwide were enrolled in at the minimum one online postsecondary course (Ferrer, 2019).
Regulatory changes - Online Colleges
The mandate issued by the Department of Education requires all online colleges to meet the expectations of state-level educational requirements. The mandate requires that only credit hours are used not competences and other measures of learning (Ferrer, 2019).
Udacity launches MOOCs
"Udacity launches Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) on behalf of Harvard and MIT" (Ferrer, 2019, Table 1).
San Jose State University and Udacity delivered massive open online courses" (MOOCs; Pearcy, 2014).
UF - ONLINE
University of Florida–Online became the first online-only public university (Ferrer, 2019).
Public online programs
In 2018, 98% of post-secondary academic institutions offered
some type of online programs (Ferrer, 2019, Jul 17).
First Ivy League Online Program
The University of Pennsylvania became the first Ivy League school to offer an online bachelor's program (Ferrer, 2019).
During COVID -19 pandemic, emergency remote teaching might be a viable option ( Milman, 2020, March 30).