History of educational technology

The History of Educational Technology

  • 40,000 BCE

    Cawe Paintings

    Cawe Paintings
    40.000 thousand years ago paintings on Cave Walls started. They were for communication or religious purposes. There is no exact knowledge of the reason for these paintings but it is predicted that they could be for education.
  • 30,000 BCE

    Oral Communication

    Oral Communication
    The earliest formal teaching was through Oral Communication. Stories, Folklore, Histories, News, and other informations were transmitted orally. In ancient Greeks, people learned through speeches and oratories. Bates (2015, p. 214) indicates that "they had to be memorized by listening, not by reading, and transmitted by recitation, not by writing.".
  • 2700 BCE

    Written Communication

    Written Communication
    In ancient times, humans need to write speeches so that they would be permanent. There was no paper firstly so Humans used stone clay, clay tablets, animals’ skin, and for instance, firstly papyrus was used in Egypt for writing.
  • 2700 BCE

    Sumerian Abacus

    Sumerian Abacus
    Sumerian Abacus is a calculating tool and it appeared between 2700-2300 BC. Hayfa and Othman (2014, p. 2) determine that "The Sumerians invented the Abacus, a calculating board of columns with beads."
  • 500 BCE

    Written Documents

    Written Documents
    After Oral Communication, Written Documents were used in Educational Technologies. In the fifth century B.C, written documents existed in considerable numbers in ancient Greece.
  • 105

    The First Paper

    The First Paper
    The first paper was made in China in 105.
  • 382

    Manuscript Transcription

    Manuscript Transcription
    Manuscript Transcription started in 382. According to Huitfeldt and McQueen (2008, p. 307) "the first transcription might be
    given as ‘|20 he has a |21 whitewashed |22 small
  • 1101

    Slate Board

    Slate Board
    Slate boards were in use in India in the 12th century AD.
  • 1450

    Printing Press

    Printing Press
    Johannes Gutenberg invented the first Printing Press. Gutenberg's first work with this Printing Press was the Gutenberg Bible. Kreis (2004) examines that Gutenberg borrowed money to print the Gutenberg Bible. Kreis maintains that Two hundred copies were printed of the two-volume.
  • Blackboards

    Blackboards/chalkboards became used in schools around the turn of the 18th century. Blackboards were really effective in education, thus in some countries, it is still used.
  • Mimeograph

    The mimeograph was invented in 1875. Mimeograph is one of the earliest Technologies that enables producing classroom materials. It is like a copy machine.
  • Radio

    After Oral and Written Communication, Broadcasting and video were developed in Educational Technology. Radio was used effectively for many reasons like news and education. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) began broadcasting educational radio programs for schools in the 1920s.
  • Film Strip Projector

    Film Strip Projector
    Film Strip Projector started to be used in education since 1925.
  • Hypertext

    In the 1940s Hypertext was invented and started to use in education. Hypertext is a text that contains links to other texts.
  • Overhead Projector

    Overhead Projector
    Overhead Projector started to be used in education in 1940. Thanks to the overhead projectors the images could be seen large, and this brings lots of advantages in education.
  • Slide projector

    Slide projector
    Slide projectors become to be used in the 1950s, and they were used effectively in education in terms of showing photographic slides.
  • Whiteboard

    The first whiteboard was invented in the middle of the 1950s, and whiteboards were really effective in education. The effectiveness of them can be understood from the usage of whiteboards even in these days.
  • Computer Technologies

    Computer Technologies
    After broadcasting and video, Computer technologies started to use in Education. B.F. Skinner used teaching machines that were one of the first forms of computer-based learning in 1954. They were very beneficial in education.
  • Television

    After using radios in education, Televisions were developed. Thus the learners did not just hear the lesson they could see it as well. Television was first used in education in the 1960s.
  • Satellite Broadcasting

    Satellite Broadcasting
    Satellite broadcasting started to become available in the 1980s.
  • Internet

    The World Wide Web was formally launched in 1991. After the World Wide Web, search engines started to develop, such as Google was created in 1999, and it is still used for many learning or educational purposes.
  • SMART Board

    SMART Board
    After Blackboard, the first Smartboard started to be used in education in 1991. Additionally, Laptops, Microsoft slides, CD ROMs, began to be used. In these years video conferencing became also possible.
  • Smartphone

    The first Smartphone was invented in 1992. Thanks to smartphones the learners could search for a lot of information and use them. Briefly, Learners can benefit from most of the same features of computers in smartphones as well.
  • Online Course

    Online Course
    The first fully online courses started in 1995, while the opponents just loaded PDFs or slides.
  • Recorded Lectures

    Recorded Lectures
    Lectures started to be available for watching later or watching wherever you are. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) started making its recorded lectures available to everyone in 2002. For instance, Youtube started in 2005, iTunesU started in 2007.
  • E-Learning

    Including the MOOC (Massive open online courses), rapid e-learning, in other words, online learning in business and education consolidated.
  • Visual References

    Image by SCY from Pixaby
    Image by Norman Bosworth from Pixabay
    Image by Ben Burton from Pixabay
    Image by andreas160578 from Pixabay
    Image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images from Pixabay
    Image by Venita Oberholster from Pixabay
    Image by Vectronom Studios from Pixabay
    Image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images from Pixabay
    Image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images from Pixabay
    Image by Gordon Johnson from Pixabay
    Image by mmi9 from Pixabay
    Image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images from Pixabay
  • References Given by Lecturer

    .Tony Bates: https://opentextbc.ca/teachinginadigitalage/ Chapter 6.2. {Bates, A.W. (2015) Teaching in a Digital Age: Guidelines for Designing Teaching and Learning]
    Edutechwiki:http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Educational_technologyPart 4
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UFwWWsz_X9s (3.41 mins)
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oT-df_zdnfI (7.57 mins)
  • References

    Claus Huitfeldt, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, What is transcription?, Literary and Linguistic Computing, Volume 23, Issue 3, September 2008, Pages 295–310, https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fqn013
    Hayfa, N., & Othman, H. The Use of an Interactive Website as an Assistive Technology in University Calculus Courses: A Synergist for Teaching and Learning?.
    Kreis, S. (2004). The printing press. The History Guide. URL: http://www. historyguide. org/intellect/press. html (дата обращения: 02.04. 2018).