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Evolution of the Training Profession: WWII-Present

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    WWII & Systematic Tranining

    During World War II, the training profession began to develop tremendously as many new individuals entered the workplace in order to replace those who were enlisting in the war.
  • Job Instructor Training (JIT)

    Job Instructor Training (JIT)
    During WWII, JIT was developed as a method of training supervisors to instruct their workers in a timely manner.
  • Training Society

    Training Society
    The idea of developing a training society was first discussed on this date.
  • The American Society for Training Directors

    The American Society for Training Directors was developed.
  • Theory of Human Motivation

    Abraham Maslow, published A Theory of Human Motivation (1943) in the Psychological Review Journal that theorized his hierarchy of needs model. This motivational model put forth that a higher need, such as self-actualization, is expressed only after lower needs are first fulfilled (Clark, 2010).
  • Research Center for Group Dynamics

    In 1946, social scientist Kurt Lewin launches the Research Center for Group Dynamics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His contributions in change theory, action research, and action learning earn him the title of the "father of organization development" (Clark, 2010)
  • Skills & Acts

    Edwin R. Guthrie's study (1946) breaks skills into acts (Clark, 2010).
  • National Training Laboratories Institute

    The National Training Laboratories Institute was developed.
  • Organizational Design

    Research on organizational design in relation to adult education began when a group of researchers from London's Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, led by Eric Trist, studied a South Yorkshire coal mine. Their research leads in the development of the Sociotechnical Systems Theory which considers both the social and the technical aspects when designing jobs (Clark, 2010).
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    Instructional System Design (ISD)

    Instructional system design arose out of the 50-60's as educational technology development paralleled and modeled the systems approach processes emerging within the military and industrial worlds (Clark, 2010).
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    Human Relationa Training

    During the 1950s, HUman Relations training grew increasingly popular and supervisors were beggining to be trained in psychology.
  • The Psychology of Learning

    Edwin R. Guthrie published the Psychology of Learning.
  • Behaviorism

    In 1953, B. F. Skinner's book m Science and Human Behavior was published. This book introduced behaviorism as an area of study in education research.
  • Cognitive Science

    By the mid 1950s, cognitive views of learning and development gained dominance over the stimulus-response approach (Clark, 2010).
  • Evaluating Training

    In 1956 Donald Kirkpatrick introduces his four-level model of evaluating training that remains one of the central parts Instructional System Design: Reaction, Learning, Behavior, and Results.
  • Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

    In 1956, a committee of colleges, led by Benjamin Bloom, published the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives for the cognitive domain. The taxonomy proved to be extremely valuable in the specification and analysis of instructional outcomes and the design of instruction to attain them (Clark, 2010).
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    Early Computer Based Training

    During the 1960s, individualized instruction was developed through the use of teaching machines, which was considered to be early computer-based training.
  • Gordon M. Bliss

    In 1960 Gordon M. Bliss, the executive director of ASTD at the time, began to urge members of the organization to seek widee responsibilities and to understand the vernaular which is used to report profits.
  • Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction

    Robert F. Mager propsed his model for instructional objective in his book, Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction.
  • ASTD Name Change

    The ASTD changed its name to The American Society for Training and Development.
  • Model of Cognitive Development

    Jean Piaget, a Swiss development psychologist, created a model of cognitive development which consists of four stages:the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operation stage, and the formal operation stage. This model is the basic foundation for constructivism.
  • Microcomputers

    Microcomputers, along with electromechanical devices, became increasingly available in 1965.
  • The Case Method

    The case method became a new popular form of training within many organizations.
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    Sociotechnical Systems Theory and Sensitivity Training

    Sociotechnical system theory and Sensitivity Training became very popular in the 1970s.
  • Adult Learning Theory

    Malcolm Knowles' book, The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species, introduced us to the Adult Learning Theory. Knowles coined the term andragogy at this time.
  • The 9 Events of Instruction

    Robert M. Gagne and Leslie J. Briggs published the Principles of Instructional Design and introduced us to the 9 events of Instruction.
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    Training Budgets

    As productivity slowed down in the US during the 1980s, many organiations began to focus closely on their training budgets, their bottom line, and how training budgets can help to achieve the bottom line.
  • Trainers' Competencies

    Models for Excellence, the conclusions and recommendations of the ASTD Training and Development Study, discussed the competency models that increasingly positioned the field of training and development as a part of human resources work.
  • Laptops

    In 1986, PC laptops became available and were used as training devices in the workplace.
  • Women and the ASTD Membership

    By 1989, women made up 47 percent of the ASTD's membership.
  • Learning Enterprise

    In 1990, Peter Senge published his book, The Fifth Discipline, which explained the concept of learning enterprises.
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    In the 1990s, many advancements in technology were developed and e-learning, computer based training, and online learning started to become more appealing than traditional learning.
  • Bill Clinton

    Bill Clinton was elected president of the US by running a campaign that focused heavily on job training.
  • Performance Support

    Technology has begun to aid in integrating performance support into the workplace.
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    Behaviorism continues to have a strong influence on learning designs.