Origins of Instructional DesignThousands of WWII soldiers were systemically trained. U.S. military faced the need to rapidly train large numbers of people to perform complex technical tasks. One example was the flight training program (Reiser & Dempsey, 2018)
History of Instructional DesignThe timeline will review the history of instructional design by examining both instructional media and design.
The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching (B. F. Skinner)"Programmed instruction materials exemplified an empirical approach to solving educational problems" (Reiser, & Dempsey, 2018). Examples are presenting instructions in small steps, active responses to questions, immediate feedback and learner self-pacing.
The Programed Instruction Movement"Programmed instruction has been credited by some with introducing the systems approach to education. By analyzing and breaking down content into specific behavioral objectives, devising the necessary steps to achieve the objectives, setting up procedures to try out and revise the steps, and validating the program against attainment of the objectives, programmed instruction became a technology of instruction foundation" (Reiser, & Dempsey, 2018).
Taxonomies of Education (Bloom's Taxonomy)Benjamin Bloom publishes his Taxonomies of Education, which identify level of reasoning skills. Bloom's Taxonomy indicates that within a cognitive domain there are different types learning outcomes and there is a hierarchical relationship amount those outcomes (Reiser, & Dempsey, 2018). When developing tests using Bloom's the test should measure those learning outcomes.
Popularization of Behavioral ObjectivesRobert Mager popularizes Learning Objectives and develops the term "criterion-referenced measures" to assess student entry-level behavior and post-training competency (Reiser& Dempsey, 2018). He authored Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction is used to teach educators how to write objectives.
Criterion-Referenced MeasuresFirst termed this by Robert Glaser. Glaser indicated these measures could assess student entry-level behavior and to what extent the student had acquired the behaviors a course was designed to teach (Reiser & Dempsey, 2018).
The Conditions of LearningRobert Gagne' developed five domains of learning (Reiser & Dempsey, 2018).
Gagne' also developed nine events of instruction:
1. Gain attention
2. Inform learners of objectives
3. Stimulate recall of prior learning
4. Present the content/stimulus
5. Providing learning guidance
6. Eliciting performance
7. Providing feedback
8. Assessing performance
9. Enhancing retention and transfer
Formative and Summative EvaluationMichael Scriven coined the the terms formative and summative evaluations. This was based on the fact that there was a need to evaluate instructional materials with students prior to the materials final approval (Reiser & Dempsey, 2018).
1970, Interest in the Systems Approach"During the 1970s, interest in the instructional design process flourished in a variety of sectors" (Reiser & Dempsey, 2018). Many sectors (military, academia and business) adopted instructional design models as a way to guide the development of training materials. By the end of this decade, over 40 instruction models were created.
The Gerlach and Ely Design ModelThe model is based on systematic planning with emphasis on clearly defining teaching goals and methods for reaching each of the learning outcomes. It consists of 10 elements:
Specification of Content
Specification of Objectives
Assessment of Entering Behaviors
Determination of Strategy
Organization of Groups
Allocation of Time
Allocation of Space
Selection of Resources
Evaluation of Performance
Analysis of Feedback
ADDIE Model (Originally developed by U.S. Army in 1975)Most of the current instructional design models are spin-offs or variations of the ADDIE model. The model consists of five phases -Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.This is the idea of receiving continual or formative feedback while instructional materials are being created. This model attempts to save time and money by catching problems while they are still easy to fix (https://www.instructionaldesign.org/models/addie/).
The Kemp Design Model-Identify instructional problems, and specify goals...
-Examine learner characteristics...
-Identify subject content, and analyze task components...
-State instructional objectives...
-Sequence content within each instructional unit...
-Design instructional strategies...
-Plan the instructional message and delivery.
-Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives.
-Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.(https://www.instructionaldesign.org/models/kemp_model)
The Definition of Instructional Technology (Silber, 1977)“Instructional Technology is the Development (Research, Design, Production, Evaluation, Support-Supply, Utilization) of Instructional Systems Components (Messages, Men, Materials, Devices, Techniques, Settings) and the Management of that development Organization, Personnel) in a systematic manner with the goal of solving educational problems” (Silber, 1970).
Dick & Carey Model (Walter Dick, Lou Carey, and James Carey's Model)Stage 1: Identify Instructional Goals
Stage 2. Conduct Instructional Analysis
Stage 3. Identify Entry Behaviors and Learner Characteristics
Stage 4: Write Performance Objectives
Stage 5. Develop Criterion-Referenced Test Items
Stage 6. Develop Instructional Strategy
Stage 7: Develop and Select Instructional Meterials
Stage 8: Develop and Conduct Formative Evaluation
Stage 9: Develop and Conduct Summative Evaluation
(Dick & Carey, 1978)
ARCS ModelFour components:
1. Attention: It refers to the learners’ interest.
2. Relevance: The learning process should show the usefulness of the content.
3. Confidence: This component focuses on developing success expectation among learners, and success expectation allow learners to control their learning processes.
4. Satisfaction: Learners should be satisfied of what they achieved during the learning process.
(Keller, 1979 and https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02905780)
The 80's (The Birth of E-learning)In contrast to early periods instructional design had minimal impact during the 80s. However, some curriculum development efforts did involve the use of basic instructional design processes (e.g., Spady, 1988). The use of personal computers for instructional purposes did have a major effect on ID practices (Reiser & Dempsey, 2018).
Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web.
The Diamond Model (Robert M. Diamond)Contains two phases. Phase 1 is project selection and design. Phase II is the production, implementation and evaluation for each unit of instruction.
(Diamond, R. M. (1989). Designing & improving courses and curricula in higher education: A systematic approach. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.)
The 90's (Constructivism and the Importance of Performance)A trend that occurred in the 90s and had a major impact on the ID field was the human improvement movement. This movement put emphasis on on-the-job training (OJT) and performance problems. Another factor that gained attention was Constructivist views of teaching (Reiser & Dempsey, 2018). The internet offered opportunities to train many people long distances. Desktop simulation gave advent to levels of Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI).
Four-Component Instructional Design model or 4C/ID-ModelThis model prescribes instruction for learning in a complex environment. This model focuses on incorporating requisite skills with now learning and focus on creating a learning environment.(http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/id/4c_id.html)
Blackboard, Inc. developed a standard platform for course management and delivery.
Smith & Ragan ModelA system-oriented model with three phases: analysis, strategy and evaluation. Analysis involves analyzing the learning environment, learners and learning tasks. The strategy phase is where the educator determines the strategies necessary for organization, delivery, and management of the instruction. The evaluation phase involves a formative evaluation and will take place during the development and after implementation.
(Smith & Ragan, 2005).
ASSURE Model (Heinrich and Molenda)The ASSURE model is an enriched evolution of the ADDIE model. The ASSURE model has six steps, which do not exactly correspond to ADDIE’s five, ASSURE also presents design phases, and shares with it the two main features: the initial focus on analysis and the cyclic structure.
The Backward Design Model of Curriculum Planning (Wiggins & McTighe)There are three stages to backward design: Stage 1: Identify Desired Results
Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence of Learning
Stage 3: Design Learning Experiences & Instruction
2000's (The Rise of Online Learning)This era brought about the increasing use of the internet as a way of presenting education to learners (Reiser & Dempsey, 2018).
No Child Left Behind Act and Data Driven Decision Making (DDDM)A landmark in education reform designed to improve student achievement and close achievement gaps.
DDDM became important in education because of the federal and state test-based accountability policies. DDDM helps educators to use information they have to actionable knowledge to improve student outcomes. (https://www2.ed.gov/teachers/nclbguide/nclb-teachers-toolkit.pdf)
Pebble in the Pond Model (Merrill, 2002)Another design alternative to ADDIE that is a problem-centered approach where the problem, something learners must solve, is the catalyst for instructional design. This model begins with the assumption that some initial evaluation and analysis has occurred and that the solution to the problem is instruction instead of some other option (Allen & Merrill, 2017, p. 35) and (Reiser, & Dempsey, 2018).
AECT committee definition of the field of educational technologyEducational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources (Januszewski & Molenda, 2008).
Common Core Standards (Competency-based education)Launched officially in 2009, Common Core is a set of high-quality academic standards in mathematics and English language arts/literacy (ELA).