Technology in Education

  • Education Before and During the American Revolution

    Education Before and During the American Revolution
    At this point in colonial history there were not many public schools. Some communities in the north created state funded free education, but for most people, schools relied off of financial contribution from parents. Many rural areas had no schools at all. There were some schools called 'dame' schools for women, and very few schools were developed in northern states for African American students. Schools that did exist were often one room school houses.
  • Period: to

    Evolution of Public Schools

  • The First Federal Education Aid

    The founding fathers solution to the lack of education access throughout the United States was to grant acres of land to joining states, so long as part of the land was used for public schools. This impacted State boarders, and impacted how and where communities developed.
  • The Founding Fathers Views on Education

    The Founding Fathers Views on Education
    The founding fathers believed that the security of our new democracy greatly depended on the education of the people. In order for people(white males at the time) to make informed decisions and contribute to the society, they would need to be educated in some forms. However, they also placed value on white women to be educated on raising children, maintaining a home, and even some reading and writing skills. However, with no organized form of education this was a momentous task.
  • Creation

    In 1801James Pillans was credited for creating the first black board in Scottland schools-a piece of black slate hung on the wall. The first wall mounted slate used in America was used by George Baron. It took awhile for teachers to accept this new form of technology, as many teachers still taught broad ranges of age and ability and found it difficult to use the large boards in ways that benefited all students.
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    Development of the Chalkboard

  • Public Schools

    The acceptance of public school was limited until around the 1830s when the idea began to take hold.
  • Horace Mann

    Horace Mann
    This Massachusetts legislator, and part of the board of education, was a major advocate for 'common schools'. He believed that schools should be available free of charge to all children because it would better the entire country by creating 'literate, moral, and productive citizens.'
  • Common Schools

    Common Schools
    Focus on the 'Three R's': Reading, writing and arithmetic, which we still see have an impact on schools today. This was a common phrase in my elementary school, however things are changing. Science is now a key part of the curriculum. There was also a strong emphasis on building morals to 'instill civic virtues'. This was the start of socialization, the general process in which children learn to become functioning, well behaved members of society.
  • Usage

    By the mid 1800s, largely in thanks to the rail road system, almost every classroom in America was using this version of the chalkboard. By this time, most teachers also began to see the benefits of using a chalk board as schools got larger, and slowly began dividing classes into ages. The chalk boards now allowed teachers to write questions, problems or agendas that related to all students.
  • Attendance Rates in Children 5-14

    In 1830 only about 55% of children were enrolled in school and by 1870 that number had risen to 78%
  • The Magic Lantern

    The Magic Lantern
    This magical device was introduced in the late 1800s and was primarily used by magicians, photographers and lecturers. However it eventually became so popular that they began making toy magic lanterns for children. This was also the start to using projectors and films in school for educational purposes.
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    Development of Projectors in Education

  • Film Strip Projector

    Film Strip Projector
    This new addition to a projector made teaching even easier because teachers would be able to pause the projection with the twist of a switch to ask questions and have discussion on a topic. Thomas Edison even predicted that this technology would end learning from books, or teachers, arguing that in 10 years the only learning would take place by observing. This of course turned out to be a false prediction but projectors as we've found have been here to stay.
  • Brown Vs The Board Of Education

    Brown Vs The Board Of Education
    This decision by the supreme court finally addressed the inequalities and racism experienced in schools, especially racially segregated in the United States. They deemed that segregating schools was unconstitutional, even if they are equal(which we know was very rare if even possible). While this was a huge step, I know many schools are still segregated. While not by race, they are segregated by district lines and there are huge disparities in schools to this day.
  • Development

    The black slate chalkboard stuck around until the 20th century, when the chalk board(or green board) was developed. It was sturdier, less harsh on the eyes, and easier to erase then the original black board. Even after the initial resistance some teachers had towards using the blackboard, it has become a staple in American classrooms, still being used in some to this day.
  • Overhead Projector

    Overhead Projector
    Created by Roger Appledorn, this projector allowed teachers to create slides to display easily and even write on them for the whole class to see to solve problems, correct grammatical errors etc. This became a staple in classrooms, however it has been replaced slowly by digital and data projectors. We will discuss more on those later but I experienced both overhead and digital projectors in school and experienced the hesitancy on many teachers to use the new digital projectors.
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act
    This law established the rights of children with disabilities to receive a 'free and quality public education'. This law lead the ground work for future laws building on the rights for students with disabilities and special needs.
  • Creation and Usage of Whiteboards

    Creation and Usage of Whiteboards
    In 1980 the first chalkboards began being replaced by whiteboards, which were also meant with some hesitation. Teachers were concerned that it was harder for students to write on because the surface of the whiteboard was too smooth, and they argued that resistance of the chalkboard allowed for easier(or even more legible) writing. By 1990 just over 20% of classrooms now had whiteboards which eliminate dust contamination, and are easier to clean.
  • Data Projectors

    Data Projectors were the first form of projectors that were able to convert media from a computer to be displayed to a whole classroom of students. In order for this to be a useful medium to teachers it required good communication and instruction on how to use and manage the device. The first of these projectors weighed over 40 pounds so there were limitations in mobility and ease when it came to using them.
  • Smart Boards

    Smart Boards
    The first smart board was created in 1991 and has been making its way into classrooms ever since. Smart boards provide an interactive experience where students and teachers can access videos, websites, apps etc. at the touch of a finger or special pen. It has been proven to increase engagement in students.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act
    The first draft of these laws were passed in 1990, and once again in 1997 and 2004 expands and specifies on the rights of individuals with disabilities. This includes the right to assistive technology, which is a vital tool in allowing students even with the most severe disabilities, to communicate, engage and learn. These include motorized chairs, and computers that are able to scan the eye and head movements of students so they can use a computer with ease.
  • Word Processors

    Word processors allow students to focus on the content of what they are writing, rather then taking up time erasing, editing, rewriting, and correcting grammatical errors. By freeing up time to allow students to focus on content and delivery, they are able to compose better written arguments and statements. This drives a deeper level of thinking and a deeper level of content knowledge.
  • Probeware

    Probes and sensors have rapidly developed and are making their way into science classrooms. These sensors and probes allow students to instantly calculate and evaluate chemical compositions of materials in the real world rather then behind a desk in a lab. This is driven by the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics push in America, because the hands on nature of this technology allows students to relate the technology to the world around them.
  • 3D Projectors

    3D Projectors
    This projector has the ability to project a 3D image on a 2 dimensional surface, giving people a much more immersive experience. According to research from Texas Instruments students that use these projectors have a 46% increase in engagement and a 34% increase in test scores. However they do need special glasses to be able to see the image clearly, so you can see their may be logistical issues. Glasses can break or be lost so they would need to be managed carefully by teachers.
  • Using Apps as Education Tools

    From VR, to AI, to twitter apps in education give teachers endless possibilities, Elementary school teachers are able to use these apps to allow students to create their own digital story book, middle school teachers can use these apps to allow students to create their own 3D printable objects, and high school teachers can assign students to create their very own apps, increasing understanding of technology and giving them valuable skills that will be needed in the future.
  • Social Media in Learning

    Twitter pen-palls, platforms that allow students from different countries, speaking different languages to communicate and learn from each other. Not only are these students learning a different language, but they are also learning in real time about cultures from all around the world, and how students live in other countries from their first hand experiences. I believe this could be a valuable teaching tool for almost all classrooms, it could transcend curriculum lines.
  • Ubiquitous Computing

    More and more schools are moving to this idea-that students should have the same access to technology inside school and at home. This allows students to take research into their own hands instead of only being able to use valuable technology in a classroom setting. Whether this is computers, probes, or GPS this kind of computing supports a personalized learning process. I believe in the future part of having fair education will be access to technology.
  • 3D Printers

    3D Printers
    3D printers have endless benefits in school. They encourage spatial learning, interest in data and technology, and can be used as a vital teaching tool. Instead of hearing a lecture, labeling a diagram or learning from text, students have the ability to create entire worlds at their finger tips. Students can learn valuable educational material while learning valuable skills that will be needed in future jobs, and give them the knowledge they need to be successful in those jobs.
  • Tablets

    Increasingly tablets are being in classrooms. Many students believe that tablets will drastically change how students learn in the next 10 years, however it will be important for teachers to not only use tablets to aid in existing practices such as note taking or group work, but to find new ways to use this technology in order to do something previously not possible. In biology you could have students record nature and speed up or slow down the video to analyze the real world.
  • Highschool Graduation

    Highschool Graduation
    Due to economic needs and culture, most children did not graduate high school until the 20th century. As unions were formed and workers were paid livable wages and given more time with family, culture changed to place more emphasis on education. As a result in 1910 only 14% of people 25 and older graduated high school, in 1970 that number was only 55%, and as of 2017 it has reached 90%.
  • Geographic Information System

    This system, primarily used by state, and federal governments to make decisions about placement of things that will impact the public such as landfills, bridges, buildings, etc. Patricia Gonzalez decided to use this technology to help her students learn about geography, problem solving, and group decision making by asking her students to decide where the landfill should be placed in their State. She combined pedagogical, technological, and curriculum knowledge to build the lesson.
  • Augmented Reality

    Similar to virtual reality, once fully developed students will be able to use Google Glass and AR systems to seamlessly blend information and experience. It is currently being used as an app in some schools to aid in teaching in astrology, but I believe in the future it will be a bigger game changer then smart boards! Allowing individual students to interact with information in previously unfound ways.
  • Elearning

    2020 brought a new meaning to elearning, as students across the world that were able to switch to virtual classrooms lost the in person benefits of school. Teachers were forced to adapt suddenly-a big part of teaching-but in a way many never had to before. Teachers had to find new interactive online activities to drive engagement and keep students connected. Zoom was one of the largest platforms teachers used to hold classes.
  • Learning Management Systems

    Covid19 increased the need for learning management systems, a system that has the ability to track a students development and progress, so that teachers and programs can tailor curriculum to a students needs. The best systems are incorporated with online textbooks, or interactive lesson, which will cater to the child instantly, not allowing the child to move forward until they have mastered the current content. Increasing the pace for students that do.
  • Virtual Reality In Schools

    Virtual Reality In Schools The possibilities of virtual reality in school, in my opinion are endless. Imagine what being thrown in the past could do, or solving geometric problems in VR would do for engagement. Anthony White recognized the need for engagement in 2021 and had students begin developing their own virtual worlds that could be made public. This drove engagement while teaching them valuable skills.
  • Artificial Intelligence(AI) in Education

    Artificial Intelligence(AI) in Education
    AI is already being used in schools for grading multiple choice answers, monitoring students progress, and even teachers strategies. Some people believe that because of the strong presence and assistance that already exist with AI that this will become a strong assistant. Helping students with questions when the teacher is preoccupied and even grading written assignments.
  • Student Benefits of Artificial Intelligence

    AI provides in-depth analysis of what videos, links, games, and websites most engage students which allows teachers valuable insight into what works best for each of their students. This helps teachers, especially in the age of eLearning, create activities and curriculums that interest and engage students. This form of technology provides teachers to do things that weren't previously possible-compare tangible data rather then only going off of what they can see.
  • 3D Printed Schools

    The covid19 pandemic has left thousands of children without access to education throughout the world. The nonprofit Thinking Huts is on a mission to provide school buildings for underserved children and communities around the world by 3D printing these school buildings. Follow the link to learn more, but it is amazing what technology can do.