Mind 2 (1)

Multimedia Timeline: Philosophical & Psychological Foundations

  • School Museums

    School Museums
    The first school museum was opened in St. Louis in 1905. It was the early use of media in U.S. education that helped present instructions and aid teachers during instruction.
  • Instructional films

    Instructional films
    In early 1910, films started to be used for instructional use. Motion picture projector was one of the first media devices utilized in schools.
  • Behaviorism

    The origins of behavioral psychology start with John B. Watson in 1913, who proposed that psychologists should focus on the observable behavior of individuals, rather than the invisible, inner workings of their minds.
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    Audiovisual Instruction and Radio

    The popularity of radio broadcasting, sound recording, and sound motion pictures in education increased the interest in instructional media.
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    Training films for military

    Audiovisual devices were greatly used in the military. Training films were produced and found effective during World World II. They realized this could be the solution to training a large number of individuals with different backgrounds effectively and efficiently. After the war, there was an interest in using audiovisual devices in schools. This was the first time principles of learning were being identified but the educational practitioners were not aware of it.
  • Cone of Experience

    Cone of Experience
    Edgar Dale's Cone of Experience reflects the same idea of the "hierarchy of media" that the book Visualizing the Curriculum mentioned. According to the theory, the level of realism in audiovisual material is what makes it valuable.
  • Theories of Communication

    Theories of Communication
    The models of communication by Shannon and Weave focused on the process that includes a sender and a receiver of the message, with a channel, and a medium in between. During the planning of communication, the process should be emphasized.
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    Instructional Television

    The interest in using television to deliver instruction increased. Many television stations presented instructional programs since it was considered a quick, efficient, cheap way of satisfying the country's instructional needs.
  • Programmed Instruction

    Programmed Instruction
    American behavioral psychologist B.F. Skinner believes that learning can be best accomplished with smaller steps, smaller chunks of information, and some adequate reinforcement and rewards. This programmed learning method which is self-paced and self-administered, inspired Skinner to also invented the learning machine to design individual instruction.
  • Bloom's Taxonomy

    Bloom's Taxonomy
    In the 1950s, behavioral objectives were given more attention after Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. There are different learning outcomes regarding the cognitive domain.
  • Computers

    Computer-assisted instruction were used to individualize instruction. Researchers had developed some of the first software to be utilized in America's public school system.
  • The launch of Sputnik

    The launch of Sputnik
    The Soviet Union launched Sputnik which made the United States want to design instructional materials to improve math and science education, but they developed these materials without tryouts with learners, which turned out not effective. This issue led to the construct of formative evaluation.
  • Discontinue Instructional television

    Discontinue Instructional television
    Supports were switched to public television than in-school applications of instructional television due to the expense of installation and maintenance, teachers resisted using it, and not being able to properly present different conditions for student learning.
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    Computer-assisted instruction

    In the 1950s, one of the first CAI programs was designed to be used in public schools. However, by the end of the 1970s, CAI was considered to have little impact on education.
  • Criterion-Referenced Measurement

    Criterion-Referenced Measurement
    Criterion-referenced test measures how well one can perform a task or the extent that they had acquired the behaviors based on a set of criteria without comparing their results with others.
  • Gagne's Conditions of Learning

    Gagne's Conditions of Learning
    Gagne developed a taxonomy of learning outcomes, the concept of learning hierarchies, and related concepts of instructional events and conditions of learning. His Condition of Learning theory is based on behaviorism. Learning is a behavior that is affected by the environment and the learner's own thinking process.
  • Formative Evalaution

    Formative Evalaution
    Micheal Scriven named the tryout of instructional materials and revision process formative evaluation and the final form of testing will be summative evaluation.
  • The term "Educational/Instructional technology"

    The term "Educational/Instructional technology"
    The term audiovisual instruction was replaced with educational or instructional technology. The biggest professional organization also changed its name to Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). People who studied the impact of the media on instruction thought that instructional media, at that time, did not have a strong influence on educational practices.
  • Cognitive Information Processing Theory

    Cognitive Information Processing Theory
    This theory was created by Atkiinson and Shriffin to group together the parts of a persons brain which helps them learn and remember material. The information is stored in three different areas of the brain which is sensory, short term, and long term.
  • Systems Approcah

    Systems Approcah
    In the 1970s, many instructional design models were created. The military adopted the model to guide the development of training materials. In academia, many instructional improvement centers were created to help faculty use media and instructional design procedures to improve instruction quality.
  • Computers In Education

    Computers In Education
    While microcomputers became available to almost everyone, the interest in using them for instructional purposes increased. Personal computers become more prevalent and the impact of the computer on education becomes more noticeable than ever before.
  • Cognitive psychology

    Cognitive psychology
    The interest in finding potential applications of Cognitive psychology in the instructional design process increased. In the 1980's, psychologists and professionals shifted to cognitive learning theory and it's related instructional theories. Instructional strategies were designed to change how people processed and structured information.
  • Constructivism

    During early 1950s, there was an increased interest in Constructivism. Instructional principles related to constructivism require learners to solve realistic problems, work together, examine the problems from different points of view, take ownership of learning, and understand their role in the knowledge construction process. It also emphasized "authentic" learning tasks so that learners can use the skills they learned in the real-world.
  • Electronic performance support systems

    Electronic performance support systems
    Electronic performance support systems are computer-based systems that provide the performance tools and information that workers need to do their jobs.
  • Cognitive Load Theory

    Cognitive Load Theory
    Cognitive load theory founded by John Sweller shows how the brain stores long-term information in the form of schemas. Learning experiences should be designed to reduce the amount of stress and the working memory load since too much cognitive load can affect learning outcomes.
  • The rise of the Internet

    The rise of the Internet
    In 1993, the Internet was put on the computer so everyone can access. In 1994, Microsoft released Windows 95 and Yahoo was launched. Internet begins to become heavily utilized in different fields such as business.
  • Internet in Education

    Internet in Education
    The use of the Internet to deliver instruction for distance learning increased. They realized that to be effective, we can't simply put the instruction in the classroom online. Instead, it should be carefully designed. Because of this, there are new job opportunities for instructional designers.
  • E-Learning

    Due to the rise of the web, more and more colleges and universities were adopting e-learning programs.
  • Blogs

    Blogging makes web publishing possible. This revolution allowed people to distribute and create content whatever and whenever. Example: WordPress sites.
  • Learning management system

    Learning management system
    Learning Management system supports(LMS) faster distribution of knowledge content virtually. It is a measurement tool or a platform to track results of students' retention of the information in education. As e-learning become a trend later on, LMS has helped e-learning to be implemented more quickly.
  • Videos

    Youtube was founded in 2005. It gives anyone a place to make videos and share, which was the next step in broadcast democratization and a further development on the learning objects idea.
  • Web 2.0

    Web 2.0
    After Bryan Alexander emphasized the social aspects of its application, Web 2.0 started to be integrated into teaching and learning in 2006.
  • Virtual Worlds

    Virtual Worlds
    Second Life was launched in 2013 but gained popularity in 2007. It was used as a platform for higher education to deliver courses.
  • E-Portfolios

    E-portfolios allowed learners to keep their collection of work in an electronic format that showcases learning over time. However, it was not considered a standard form of assessment at the time.
  • Social Media

    Social Media
    Twitter was founded in 2006 and Facebook in 2004. Twitter, Facebook, and other social media have make global connection possible and allow people to engage in meaningful discussion. Ever since then, a person's contribution to the network become more important, which change the relationship between students and their academics.
  • Connectivism

    Connectivism was proposed by George Siemens and Stephen Downes in 2004-2005. It is considered the first learning principles for digital age that promotes learning that happens outside of an individual, such as through social media, online networks, blogs, etc.
  • Personal Learning Environments

    Personal Learning Environments
    After Web 2.0 became popular, Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) allows learners to manage their learning with a collection of tools. However, to provide individuals with the support they need when they are using different tools. Therefore, there was a swift to organize personalized resources from personalized set of tools.

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) deliver learning content online that are accessible to everyone and are free. Example: Coursera. This can be the product of Connectivism and the revolution of the Web.
  • Learning Analytics

    Learning Analytics
    With the increase amount of time and use of MOOCS and other online learning environments, the interest and need of learning analytics emerged. Educators can use Learning analytics to look at the data of each students' learning behavior and indicate their learning issues and gaps. Then, they come up with decision to modify the approaches to support students in different levels.
  • AI

    The field of AI was founded in 1956. Artificial intelligence and education were established in the 1970s. In the 1980s and 1990s, AI was used as an intelligent tutoring system in education. With the rise of the web and all the other technologies, AI was not given much attention until recent years. Today, it has definitely become more complex and improved with much more potential and possibilities.