Cohort 7's History of Educational Technology

  • 35,000 BCE

    Early Forerunners of Ed Tech Before 1900

    Early Forerunners of Ed Tech Before 1900
    Primitive cave paintings demonstrated man's need and desire to communicate
    - Oral Traditions emphasized memory and training
    -The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction.

    "The aim of each age or society was to find the basic skills or subject content to transfer cultural heritage to learner behavior. Every significant shift in cultural values over time has led to new theories of learning and to new technologies of instruction" CHRISTIAN JARQUIN
  • 500 BCE

    Sophists Introduce Connections with Education and Technology

    Sophists Introduce Connections with Education and Technology
    Sophists provide headway for the educational field developing strategies with group instruction and found value in technology (statecraft & handicraft) use in education.
    Britannica- Sophists
    Julie Tomczak Sophists legacy is the word 'techne' or Technology:

    The idea was that one culture was inhabited by people of science versus people of letters. They combined two culture concepts into a single concept 'techne'. CHRISTIAN JARQUIN
  • 450 BCE

    Socratic Method Developed

    Socratic Method Developed
    Socrates (470 - 399 BC) developed the Socratic method of inquiry-based instruction, recorded and documented by his students. The instructor used a series of guided questions to lead the pupil towards a conclusion without the need to collect additional data. This method of questioning and discussion is still used in various forms today. (Saettler, 2004, 26)
    -Eric Brown Saettler, L. P. (2004). The evolution of American educational technology. Information Age Publishng.
  • 1440

    Johannes Gutenberg and the Printing Press

    Johannes Gutenberg and the Printing Press
    Around 1440, the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg allowed written texts to be mass produced and widely circulated and ushered the world into a new era where exposition as "a mode of thought, a method of learning, and a means of expression" (Postman, 1985, p. 63) was possible.
  • Period: to

    Inclusive Education Scaffolded into a K - Higher Ed Structure

    Amos Comenius believed that education should be for everyone, and that sequencing education to follow developmental stage was critical. Comenius proposed that education should not be provided as a social status, but as an ability.
  • Amos Comenius Publication of "Orbus Pictus" - The World in Pictures

    Amos Comenius Publication of "Orbus Pictus" - The World in Pictures
    Probably the most renowned and most widely circulated of school textbooks. It was also the first successful application of illustrations to the work of teaching.
    by ________OTHER STUDENT Orbus Pictus was 150 illustrated pictures each serving as a topic for one lesson. Teaching Latin and Science was accomplished by associating pictorial representation with cognate word symbols. It was so famous is continued to be published for 150 years.
  • Period: to

    Emergence of Psychology and Human Development

    Pestalozzi sought to psychologize instruction. He believed that the development of the learner was the supreme goal. This was the first that identified that knowledge was an evolution from the concrete to the abstract. He is often cited as the "Father of Pedagogy" http://www.jhpestalozzi.org/
  • The Blackboard comes to a Classroom near you.

    The Blackboard comes to a Classroom near you.
    The blackboard was first debuted in a classroom in the 1800's, in the middle of the 19th century almost every classroom has a piece of slate that represented their way of instruction. Authored by: Natalia Winkelmann https://resilienteducator.com/classroom-resources/the-history-of-the-classroom-blackboard/
  • The Sandbox

    The Sandbox
    "Ingenuity was refreshingly displayed in the use of instructional media. For example, a thin layer of sand was spread on each desk for writing practice." Source: Saettler, P. 1990. Early forerunners: Before 1900. In the Evolution of American Educational Technology (pp.23-52). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited Contributor: Bruno Sablan
  • Kindergarden or Garden of Children Created (GERMANY)

    Kindergarden or Garden of Children Created (GERMANY)
    Kindergarten aka (Garden of Children) was created by the German born Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), famous Educationalist in 1837. Children explore the environment through play with peers in their age group. The Bad Blankenburg Infant school used play, games, songs, stories, and crafts to encourage children’s imagination and widen their physical and motor talents.
  • Lancasterian Methods in the United States

    Lancasterian Methods in the United States
    Joseph Lancaster had a lasting impact on education by implementing instructional media and effective grouping. This changed the structures of schools for mass education and provided "order and system" to education, but lacked theory. Julie Tomczak The popularity of its system was it mass instruction at a low cost. foreshadowing free public schools. This provided to education, but was mechanical and lacked a systematic psychology of learning theory. JARQUIN CHRISTIAN
  • Classroom Chalkboard First Introduced

    Classroom Chalkboard First Introduced
    Individual slates were used in classrooms in the early 1800s; in 1841, the first classroom chalkboard was introduced, which allowed teachers to use a large chalkboard at the front of the room for whole-group instruction.
    History of Educational Technology STEPHANIE GONZALES
  • First American Kindergarten Established

    First American Kindergarten Established
    Margarethe Schurz, who was a former student of Friedrich Wilhelm Froebel, established the first kindergarten in the United States. While the Waterton, WI school was German-speaking, it sparked the beginning of the US kindergarten movement. In less than 50 years, there would be about 1400 English-speaking public kindergartens in the US.
    America's First Kindergarten
  • Introduction of the Oswego Method

    Introduction of the Oswego Method
    Edward Austin Sheldon, who was superintendent of schools in Oswego, NY, is credited with bringing about the first major attempt to psychologize instruction in the US. He revised the curriculum and classroom procedures of Oswego schools, introducing Pestalozzian object-teaching.
    The Oswego Movement
  • Socialization and Play in the Classroom

    Socialization and Play in the Classroom
    Friedrich Froebel transformed education in the US after his death, by bringing various forms of play (song, games, construction, occupations) into the classroom. This was the first time educators saw the benefits of using socialization for learning. Friedrich Froebel background
    How to Use Play for Learning
    Julie Tomczak
  • Introduction of the Quincy Method

    Introduction of the Quincy Method
    Francis Wayland Parker, who was superintendent of schools in Quincy, MA, introduced a new form of American Pestalozzianism. While similar to the Oswego method, the Quincy method of object-teaching utilized a wider variety of everyday objects and materials from the sciences.
    The Quincy Plan
  • Typewriter Introduced in Elementary Schools

    Typewriter Introduced in Elementary Schools
    [Michael Fitzgerald] The typewriter is a mechanical invention that spans decades and implementations. It was originally quite large to be useful as a means of educational technology. However, with years of refinement, typewriters were eventually introduced to elementary schools as early as the 1890s. Cothran, A., & Mason, G. (1978). The Typewriter: Time-Tested Tool for Teaching Reading and Writing. The Elementary School Journal, 78(3), 171-173. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1001415
  • First School Museum Opens

    First School Museum Opens
    The first school museum opens in St. Louis, MO. School museums, which can be seen as precursors to library media centers in schools, provided teachers objects like maps, slides or other objects to supplement their instruction. K. Diamond
  • First Catalog of Instructional Films Published in the US

    First Catalog of Instructional Films Published in the US
    In the United States, the first catalog of instructional films was published, and then adopted later that year for use in the public school system in Rochester, NY. This was the first school system to adopt films for regular instructional use. - Erin McPheters
  • Thomas Edison Proclaims Film will Replace Books

    Thomas Edison Proclaims Film will Replace Books
    Edison pioneered the development of machines for displaying motion pictures, and he was confident that these devices would be used extensively to help teach students. "Books will soon be obsolete in the schools. Scholars will be instructed by the eye. It is possible to teach every branch of human knowledge with the motion picture. Our school system will be completely changed inside of ten years" Though his prediction did not take fruit, the visual instruction movement grew from (1914- 1923)
  • The National Education Association forms the Department of Visual Instruction, predecessor of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT)

    The National Education Association forms the Department of Visual Instruction, predecessor of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT)
    The National Education Association (NEA) establishes the Division of Visual Instruction (DVI) in 1923 as school administrators become interested in the use of new media, such as slides and motion pictures, to improve instruction.
    J. Duenas
  • Period: to

    AudioVisual Instruction Movement and Instructional Radio

    Technological advances in radio broadcasting, sound recording, and sound motion pictures led to increased interest in instructional media. Thanks to sound, the visual instruction movement became the Audiovisual Instruction Movement
  • Chicago Pioneers Remote Learning During Polio Epidemic

    Chicago Pioneers Remote Learning During Polio Epidemic
    In 1937 Chicago Public Schools leveraged radios to provide remote learning for students during a polio outbreak. Teachers created on-air lessons and local radio stations donated air time so students could continue learning at home (Foss, 2020).
    - Allison Kibbey Source: Link text
  • Libraries as AV Centers and Selectors

    Libraries as AV Centers and Selectors
    M. Shane in "The audio-visual library: An acquisition plan" published in the Peabody Journal of Education asserts that libraries should serve as not only places to check out audio-visual materials but also should be directly involved in their selection and purchase.
    From Johnson's (2008). Educational technology and college librarianship in College & Undergraduate Libraries (https://doi.org/10.1080/10691310802557815). K. Diamond
  • Division of Visual Aids for War Training Established

    Division of Visual Aids for War Training Established
    During World War II, the US federal government established a new division within the Office of Education. The Division of Visual Aids for War Training produced training films for civilians preparing to become war industry workers. In general, the films reduced training time without reducing the effectiveness of the training.
    Division of Visual Aids for War Training
    Example of a Training Film
  • DVI renamed the Department of Audio-Visual Instruction (DAVI)

    DVI renamed the Department of Audio-Visual Instruction (DAVI)
    The DVI, the direct predecessor to the AECT, adopted a new constitution and was renamed the Department of Audio-Visual Instruction (DAVI)
    J. Duenas
  • Advent of Public ("Educational") Television Stations

    Advent of Public ("Educational") Television Stations
    The Federal Communications Commission allotted 242 TV channels for educational programming, which resulted in the onset of a large number of educational TV stations. STEPHANIE GONZALES
  • The Science Of Learning And The Art Of Teaching- Skinner

    The Science Of Learning And The Art Of Teaching- Skinner
    Skinner ushers in a new era of instructional design with a systematic approach focused on programmed instructional materials. This was to be achieved by breaking down lessons into smaller parts, frequent questions and immediate feedback, self-pacing and positive re-enforcement. A. Rappe Skinner, B. F. (1954). The science of learning and the art of teaching. Harvard Educational Review, 24, 86–97. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1955-02985-001
  • Computer Assisted Instruction Begins

    Computer Assisted Instruction Begins
    Starting in the mid-1950's, researchers at IBM designed a Computer Assisted Instruction program to be used in public schools. Though widespread adoption of computers didn't happen until much later, this was the first use of CAI in education. -Erin McPheters
  • Jon McCarthy coined the term "Artificial Intelligence"

    Jon McCarthy coined the term "Artificial Intelligence"
    Jon McCarthy of Dartmouth College coined the term Artificial
    Intelligence and wrote a proposal to the Rockefeller Foundation titled, ‘A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence’ on August 31, 1955, along with Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, and Claude Shannon.
    J. Dueñas
  • Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

    Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
    Benjamin Bloom publishes his foundational work which organizes knowledge and skills into six categories: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. Each category built upon the previous one and represented a more complex and abstract cognitive domain. K. Diamond
  • Sputnik Indirectly Launches Formative Evaluation

    Sputnik Indirectly Launches Formative Evaluation
    Shocked by the success of Sputnik, the US government invested millions of dollars into improving math and science education. Years later, they found that the hastily-produced instructional materials created with these funds were not very effective. This led to the development of formative evaluation, a process in which educational materials can be tried out and revised before they are finalized.
    It Started With Sputnik
  • Xerox 914

    Xerox 914
    "Angele Boyd is a business analyst at the International Data Corp. She says copier technology created a more democratic information system. "Until then, you needed to go to a press or you needed to go to a third party external print shop to produce that kind of quality output," she says." Source: O'Connell, K. (2013, October 23). Happy Birthday, Copy Machine! Happy Birthday, Copy Machine. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2013/10/23/239241106/. Contributor: Bruno Sablan
  • A Constructivist Approach to Educational Technology

    A Constructivist Approach to Educational Technology
    In the late 1960s-1970s, Seymour Papert, developed LOGO, the first visual programming language in which children created and engaged with mathematical thinking through the use of technology. He redefined what educational technology meant in schools as "play" or constructing modern knowledge through the creation of a product or experience with technology. This philosophy became known as constructivism.
    By: Alexis Cobo
  • Stanford University receives a $1 million grant from the Carnegie Corporation to study computer-assisted math instruction.

    Stanford University receives a $1 million grant from the Carnegie Corporation to study computer-assisted math instruction.
    Computer-aided Instruction pioneers Patrick Suppes, Richard Atkinson, and William Estes of Stanford University received a $1 million grant from the Carnegie Corporation to study computer-assisted teaching of math and construct an automated computer-based program.
    - Javier Dueñas Source: Link text
  • The Conditions of Learning

    The Conditions of Learning
    In 1965, Robert M. Gagne published 'The Conditions of Instruction,' that discussed five types of learning outcomes and the conditions to promote learning, events of instruction (teaching activities), and learning hierarchies. This work has had a significant impact on the field of instructional design. - Erin McPheters
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    [Michael Fitzgerald] The Elementary and Secondary Education Act was enacted in 1965. Title I—Financial Assistance
    Title II—Financial Assistance
    Title III—Supplementary Educational Centers and Services
    Title IV—Educational Research And Training
    Title V— Enhance State DOEs
    Title VI—General Provisions Jeffrey, J. (1978). Education for children of the poor: A study of the origins and implementation of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
  • Michael Scriven First Proposes Formative and Summative Evaluation

    Michael Scriven First Proposes Formative and Summative Evaluation
    After determining that many materials made to improve math and science education in the US were ineffective, Michael Scriven proposed the process of evaluating the effectiveness of instructional materials as they were in development and revising the materials before they were produced in their final forms to maximize the learning of the students. He named the process formative evaluation and the process of evaluating materials after their release as summative evaluation. STEPHANIE GONZALES
  • Logo programming - Cynthia Solomon, Seymour Papert, Wally Fuerzeig

    Logo programming - Cynthia Solomon, Seymour Papert, Wally Fuerzeig
    Synthia Solomon, Seymour Papert, and Wally Fuerzeig developed “Logo” which was the first game used for educational purposes. As stated, “from its inception Logo was more than just a programming language. It was also a computer environment made up of people, things, ideas.” (Solomon et al., 2020 p.4) Logo programming was utilized as an educational tool to teach coding and had a turtle-shaped cursor. Logo was incredibly significant to the fields of programming, and games in education. TRizos
  • Birth of the Internet

    Birth of the Internet
    The first workable prototype of the Internet came with the creation of ARPANET, the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. Funded by the U.S. Department of Defense, ARPANET allowed multiple computers to communicate on a single network and delivered its first message: a “node-to-node” communication on October 29, 1969.
    -J. Duenas
    Link text
  • Two Possible Technologies Debut

    Two Possible Technologies Debut
    At the First National Convention of Television for the Hearing Impaired, two possible technologies for captioning television shows debut. (https://www.ncicap.org/history-of-cc)
  • Theory of Transactional Distance

    Theory of Transactional Distance
    Realizing the promise of technology and its ability to communicate from a distance, compelled Michael G. Moore to publish the Theory of Transactional Distance originally published in 1972. Michael Moor would go on to pioneer the field of Distance Education which relies heavily on educational technology. (Luis Alvarado)
    Moore, M. "Theory of transactional distance." Keegan, D., ed. "Theoretical Principles of Distance Education (1997),
    Routledge, pp. 22-38.
  • Facilitation of Testing by Scantron

    Facilitation of Testing by Scantron
    The scantron paved instructional technology by allowing to grade more efficiently even though the hype might have seemed to have died down it is actually a widely used technology that has the ability to also run an analysis to a students performance. Authored by: Natalia Winkelmann https://edtechmagazine.com/higher/article/2016/12/scantron-technology-creates-more-efficient-testing
  • 1977 – Oracle started by Larry Ellison, Bob Miner, and Ed Oates

    1977 – Oracle started by Larry Ellison, Bob Miner, and Ed Oates
    Oracle has implemented technology which has affected education as noted “Oracle helps schools, higher education, and research institutions around the world enhance teaching and learning with innovative cloud solutions that improve student retention and success” (Education and research,” n.d). In Higher Education institutions utilize PeopleSoft, and Campus Solutions which house transcript processing, financial aid, admissions, recruiting, and other vital enrollment management processes. T Rizos
  • Dick and Carey Publish ADDIE Instructional Design Model

    Dick and Carey Publish ADDIE Instructional Design Model
    By the end of the 1970s, more than 40 instructional design systems are developed, including seminal works such as Dick and Carey’s 1978 ADDIE model for Instructional Design Model (Reiser, 2001b). The ADDIE model's generic approach is most often used by instructional designers and training developers.
    -Allison Kibbey Source: Link text
  • ISTE: A Professional Organization for Educators

    ISTE: A Professional Organization for Educators
    In 1979, ISTE, the International Society for Technology Education was founded on the premise of providing support to educators across the world to harness the power of technology. Today, ISTE offers services which include standards for teachers, instructional coaches, administrators, and district leaders. Additionally, ISTE provide grant funding, professional publications, research, and a learning community global technology education.
    By: Alexis Cobo
  • Wordstar

    Communications as we know it today, in which everyone is for all intents and purposes is their own publisher, would not exist if WordStar had not pioneered the industry." Source: Bellis, M. (2020, August 27). WordStar Was the First Word Processor. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/wordstar-the-first-word-processor-1992664 Contributor: Bruno Sablan
  • Learning at the Back Door: Reflections on Non-Traditional Learning in the Lifespan

    Learning at the Back Door: Reflections on Non-Traditional Learning in the Lifespan
    Charles Wedemeyer researches learning as a natural human train that can be renewed continually through life long learning. His seminal work published in 1981, viewed learning in both traditional and non-traditional environments. (Luis Alvarado)
    Wedemeyer, C.A. (1981). Learning at the Back Door: Reflections on Non-Traditional Learning in the Lifespan. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Period: to

    Electronic Systems Created for Alternative and Augmentative Communication

    Electronic systems with synthesized voices were created to assist with pictographic communication. Woltosz, Walter. (1994). Dynamic Displays: The Changing Face of Augmentative Communication.. 860. 413-420. 10.1007/3-540-58476-5_163.
  • Commodore 64

    Commodore 64
    "The Commodore 64 is the single most popular computer system ever sold. By the end of its life, the Commodore 64 had sold more units than any computer before or since. Estimates vary from as few as 12 million to as many as 30 million." Source: Fenlon, W. 10 Most Popular Computers in History. Retrieved from https://computer.howstuffworks.com/10-most-popular-computers-in-history10.htm Contributor: Bruno Sablan
  • Computer use in schools on the rise

    Computer use in schools on the rise
    The availability of microcomputers enables schools across the world to start implementing PC technology into their buildings. By 1983, computers are being used in more than 40% of all elementary schools and more than 75% of all secondary schools (Reiser, 2001, 59).
    -Eric Brown Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part I: A history of instructional media. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(1), 53–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02504506
  • Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow

    Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow
    Through it’s Apple Classrooms of tomorrow initiative, Apple develops and researches the use of computers in K-12 classrooms by providing computers to classrooms in diverse classrooms across the country (Ross, 2020).
    -Allison Kibbey Source: Link text
  • Microsoft Powerpoint

    Microsoft Powerpoint
    The program, initially named Presenter, was released for the Apple Macintosh in 1987. PowerPoint was developed for business use but has wide applications elsewhere such as for schools and community organizations. Source: The Editors of Encyclopedia Brittanica. (2019, March 29). Microsoft Powerpoint. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/technology/Microsoft-PowerPoint Contributor: Bruno Sablan
  • Virtual Learning Management Systems transform instruction and provide new opportunities in education

    Virtual Learning Management Systems transform instruction and provide new opportunities in education
    The invention of Learning Management Systems (LMS) provided a new outlook on teaching by offering a common virtual location for teachers to share materials, provide feedback, and communicate with students (Correia, 2018). Julie Tomczak Correia, A.P. (2018) (Ed.). Driving Educational Change: Innovations in Action. eBook. https://ohiostate.pressbooks.pub/drivechange/
  • Learning Sciences

    Learning Sciences
    "Researchers in the interdisciplinary field of learning sciences, born during the 1990s, study learning as it happens in real-world situations and how to better facilitate learning in designed environments – in school, online, in the workplace, at home, and in informal environments." Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_sciences Contributor: Bruno Sablan
  • Tactile Symbols System Created

    Tactile Symbols System Created
    In the 1990s the TX School for the Blind and Visually Impaired created a system of tangible symbols to assist with literacy among Blind/ Visually Impaired/ DeafBlind learners. These symbols are individualized according to student interest and usage. Haygood, L. (2022, May 25). The question of symbol standardization: An invitation to discussion. Paths to Literacy. Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://www.pathstoliteracy.org/question-symbol-standardization-invitation-discussion/
  • First interactive whiteboard (SMART Board) is developed

    First interactive whiteboard (SMART Board) is developed
    The world's first interactive whiteboard is developed in 1991 by SMART Technologies, a company founded just 4 years earlier in 1987. The first board used LCD screen technology.
    -Eric Brown Source: smarttech.com
  • Birth of the (Commercial) Internet

    Birth of the (Commercial) Internet
    U.S. Congress passes the Scientific and Advanced-Technology Act; this Act allowed the National Science Foundation to give commercial access to the Internet, instead of only research or educational institutions. While the Interest existed in some form since ARAPNET in the early 70s, the Scientific and Advanced-Technology Act opened up the Internet to users outside of the government and academia. K.Diamond
  • International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (IAIED) is established

    International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (IAIED) is established
    The mission of the IAIED is to advance knowledge and promote research and development in the field of Artificial Intelligence in Education and is part of an alliance of seven research societies that focus on advances in computer-supported learning.
    J. Duenas
    Link text
  • Mosaic Browser

    Mosaic Browser
    "NCSA Mosaic was neither the first web browser (first was the WorldWideWeb of Berners-Lee) nor the first graphical web browser...but it was the web browser credited with popularizing the World Wide Web." Source: History-Computer.com. Mosaic Browser. Retrieved from https://history-computer.com/Internet/Conquering/Mosaic.html Contributor: Bruno Sablan
  • Modern Internet Infrastructure and Domain Name System Established

    Modern Internet Infrastructure and Domain Name System Established
    In April 1995, NSF (the National Science Foundation) decommissioned NSFNET and paved the way for the establishment of the modern, self-governing Internet infrastructure used today. Most notability, this included the use of domain names. [A Brief History of NSF and the Internet] https://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=103050 A. Rappe
  • Introduction of Turnitin

    Introduction of Turnitin
    Used by over 30 million students worldwide, Turnitin has significantly affected education, allowing educators to detect plagiarism in student papers, ensure originality, and protect intellectual property rights while raising concerns about the ethics of using educational technology to police student behavior.
    J. Duenas
  • Explorelearning Gizmo Simulation

    Explorelearning Gizmo Simulation
    Explorelearning contains hundreds of computer simulations for math and science subjects. Along with simulations Explorelearning provides teachers with guided worksheets, questions, and labs to conduct with students. The use of the simulations provide students with hands-on exploring through a computer.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.07.017 Sheila Castro
  • PhET simulations founded

    PhET simulations founded
    PhET (originally Physics Education Technology) is created as an open educational resource project at the University of Colorado Boulder. The project offers free, interactive, research-based science and mathematics simulations to supplement and/or replace hands-on classroom inquiry activities across the world.
    -Eric Brown
    Source: About PhET
  • Open Educational Resources / Creative Commons License

    Open Educational Resources / Creative Commons License
    While the OER Movement began a year previously with MIT's open source course ware, the movement began in earnest with the creation of Creative Commons licensing, or CC. CC licenses were developed by Larry Lessig and others. Content creators can license their work, allowing others to remix and share the original work, under some or no restrictions. CC licenses put the creation of OER into the users' hands. K. Diamond
  • Flocabulary Developed

    Flocabulary Developed
    Integrating hip hop with learning, Flocabulary is a platform that creates education hip hop songs, video, and resources for students.
    https://www.cbsnews.com/news/flocabulary-educational-hip-hop-schools/ Sheila Castro
  • Google Scholar Launched

    Google Scholar Launched
    Google Engineers Anurag Acharya and Alex Verstak create Google Scholar. This freely accessible search tool allows for easy searches of scholarly literature using the familiar google search interface. [The Gentleman Who Made Google Scholar] https://www.wired.com/2014/10/the-gentleman-who-made-scholar/ A.Rappe
  • Introduction of "Web 2.0"

    Introduction of "Web 2.0"
    The development of "web 2.0" opened up the internet to the potential for user-generate content, which included things like blogs, YouTube, Wikipedia, Flickr, (and websites like this one). This development brought about a new way for users to interact with the internet and would ultimately pave the way for social media and open source platforms and tools.
  • Launch of SpringShare (LibGuides)

    Launch of SpringShare (LibGuides)
    Educational technology entrepreneur Slaven Zivkovic launches SpringShare's LibGuides, an electronic content management system used by library workers to create interactive pathfinders. Unlike static guides, LibGuides allows users to create instructional and interactive content that points patrons to resources and also instructs how to use these resources. Found in 6000+ libraries in 80 countries, LibGuides boasts over 20 million users. K. Diamond
  • First MOOC Created

    First MOOC Created
    Although the term MOOC (Massive Open Online College) was officially coined in 2008, David Wiley of Utah State University created the first official course for anyone who wanted to participate in 2007, enrolling 50 students from 8 countries and 5 face-to-face students.
    -J. Dueñas
  • Introduction of Cloud Computing

    Introduction of Cloud Computing
    [Michael Fitzgerald] Cloud computing enables large data storage and computing power without having to require users to directly manage it. It allows instructors to use an open platform to communicate ideas and information. The concept of cloud computing was proposed by Google/IBM in 2007. Wang, B., & Xing, H. (2011). The application of cloud computing in education informatization. International Conference on Computer Science and Service System, 2673-2676. doi: 10.1109/CSSS.2011.5973921.
  • Connectivism

    Developed by G. Siemens and S. Downes, Connectivism is the "first internet-native learning theory." Related to Constructivism, Connectivism argues that learning derives from "chaos, network, and complexity. Learning is a process that occurs not entirely under the control of the individual." Connectivists contend that technology should not be forced into current practice, but that learners should explore independently. K. Diamond
  • The Classroom of the Future -Ipad Classrooms

    The Classroom of the Future -Ipad Classrooms
    A "mobile PC", was the first thing rumored that would revolutionize classrooms. Ipads provided classrooms the opportunity of less expensive but efficient PCs capable of doing the functions as a classroom desktop. Authored by Natalia Winkelmann https://www.teachthought.com/the-future-of-learning/the-past-present-and-future-of-the-ipad-in-learning/
  • Canvas LMS launches

    Canvas LMS launches
    The Canvas learning management system was launched by Instructure in 2011. The LMS was developed by graduate students at Brigham Young University in 2008. Canvas was among the first learning management systems to work on cloud computing and virtualization environments.
    -Eric Brown Source: Pressbooks
  • Zoom Communications

    Zoom Communications
    "As the Covid-19 virus sweeps across the planet, leading to quarantined cities and shut-down schools, Zoom has emerged as one of the leading tools to keep businesses up and running and students learning. Source: Konrad, A. (2020, March 13). Zoom CEO Eric Yuan Is Giving K-12 Schools His Videoconferencing Tools For Free. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/alexkonrad/2020/03/13/zoom-video-coronavirus-eric-yuan-schools/?sh=49d8887f4e71 Contributor: Bruno Sablan
  • Online Coding Bootcamps

    Online Coding Bootcamps
    Coding coding bootcamps first appeared in 2011. With the rising cost of college education, these programs offer a shorter, often 6-12 months in duration, and an affordable way to study. The outlook for developers is 22% and currently only a third of developers have a computer science degree. This deficit may be filled by training in coding bootcamps.
  • 2012 – Kahoot founded by Morten Versvik, Johan Brand, and Jamie Brooker

    2012 – Kahoot founded by Morten Versvik, Johan Brand, and Jamie Brooker
    Kahoot serves as an interactive, game-based media which is utilized within classrooms in K-12 and Higher Education as well as other organizations. The platform “makes it easy to create, share and play learning games or trivia quizzes in minutes” ("About Kahoot! | Company history & key facts," 2020). Kahoot functions as a tool utilized in order to gamify or engage participants. It is versatile, and a modern form of media utilized in order to teach and assess learning outcomes. T Rizos
  • Nearpod Interactive Presentation Launched

    Nearpod Interactive Presentation Launched
    The Nearpod software was launched for teachers & administrators to create interactive presentations in which their audience can follow along on their mobile devices or computers. Nearpod integrates games, activities, videos, and more to enhance presentations.
    https://nearpod.com/blog/the-nearpod-journey-continues/#:~:text=From%20the%20moment%20we%20launched,sharing%20Nearpod%20with%20each%20other. Sheila Castro
  • Culture and Online Learning

    Culture and Online Learning
    Fascinated by the opportunity of distance education Charlotte "Lani" Gunawardena focused her research on instructional technology and will witness the evolution of different technologies in education, Lani became a pioneer of investigating cultural implications within distance learning. Her book published in 2014 provides a good summary. (Luis Alvarado)
    Jung, I. & Gunawardena, C. N. (Eds.), (2014). Culture and Online Learning: Global Perspectives and Research Sterling, VA: Stylus.
  • K-12 Computer Science Standards Framework

    K-12 Computer Science Standards Framework
    The K-12 CS Framework was developed with the vision of aligning districts across the country to bringing computing education to all students K-12. The framework provides standards, benchmarks, and suggested environments for students, coaches, and instructors to engage critically with computational thinking and computer science education.
    By: Alexis Cobo
  • STEAM - Art Application in Learning

    STEAM - Art Application in Learning
    John Made, former president of the Rhode Island School of Design, began to support the addition of art in STEM in 2016. The purpose of the inclusion of the arts wasn't to reduce teaching in other subjects, but rather to apply those subjects with design principles and art practices. STEAM encourages creativity and ingenuity in addition to an understanding of STEM principles.
  • Recent Trends in Educational Technology

    Recent Trends in Educational Technology
    The Horizon Report is published annually by The New Media Consortium. This report summarizes the trends that are the horizon within the field of educational technology. In a recent report, the authors note the following developments:
    1. Collaborative Learning approaches
    2. Deeper Learning approaches
    3. Online learning, robotics, virtual reality, artificial intelligence, wearable technology, and Makerspaces
  • Facial Recognition Technology for School Safety

    Facial Recognition Technology for School Safety
    After the fatal shooting of 17 people and the injury of 17 more at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, RealNetworks made its facial recognition technology available for free to schools in the US and Canada, hoping to stop shooters and raising questions of whether facial recognition is adequately-equipped to prevent school shootings in the future.
    -J. Dueñas
    Link text
  • Rise of Gamification during COVID

    Rise of Gamification during COVID
    Gamification in educational technology grew rapidly as COVID shifted learning into hybrid or remote settings. Educators, especially in the k-12 setting, increasingly looked for ways to adapt content online. Gamification is noted to increase engagement and make learning more enjoyable.
  • COVID-19 Pandemic Triggers Emergency Remote Teaching

    COVID-19 Pandemic Triggers Emergency Remote Teaching
    When the COVID-19 pandemic caused schools and universities around the world to shut down, this triggered an emergency shift to remote teaching and learning. In-person classes were transformed into remote environments, often utilizing videoconferencing tools, like Zoom, Microsoft Teams, and Cisco Webex.
    Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT)
    ERT Study
  • Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

    Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
    These two technologies have made our lives faster and more convenient.
    -It helped in segmenting the entire process of education online and led to easy access of the subjects through various integrated software’s.
    -It leads to the development of artificial instructors, virtual facilitators, intelligent tutors, interactive websites
  • Virtual Reality

    Virtual Reality
    Virtual Reality is a ground-breaking technology that transforms the traditional methods of classroom teaching. The technology helps students to understand the toughest of abstract topics through immersive learning. Imagine how interesting it would be to take a tour inside the human brain or to travel in space amidst the beautiful constellations! All this is possible with Virtual Reality. https://elearning.adobe.com/2020/01/augmented-reality-and-virtual-reality-in-school-education/