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Educational Technology

  • 1452

    Gutenberg Printing Press

    Gutenberg Printing Press
    Gutenberg printed the first book ever, the Bible. This event was the beginning stage of printing and binding of books. Later, printing presses would be used to mass produce books for educational purposes.
  • Period: 1452 to

    Educational Technology Timeline

    “Teachers need to integrate technology seamlessly into the curriculum instead of viewing it as an add-on, an afterthought, or an event.” – Heidi-Hayes Jacobs
  • Stereoscope

    The stereoscope first appeared in England at the World's Fair in 1851. By the 1860s, it could be found in every parlor in America. In the early 1900s, the stereoscope was used in public schools. mostly to teach economic geography. The Invention of the Stereoscope
  • School Slate and Chalkboard

    School Slate and Chalkboard
    The school slate was used by children in America to practice writing, arithmetic, and drawing. Chalk was used to write on the slate. Attached to each slate was a cloth or rag for erasing.
  • Dewey's Theory of Progressive Education

    Dewey's Theory of Progressive Education
    In 1897, John Dewey developed a theory on progressive education. This theory is based on five theoretical standpoints: what is education, what is school, the subject matter of education, nature of the method, and the school and social progress. The "subject matter of education" relates to educational technology in that it states that the school curriculum should reflect that of society.
  • Pencil

    Prior to the pencil, chalkboards, chalk, and slates were used in classrooms. Pencil and paper were mass produced to provide a new educational tool for the classroom.
  • Lantern-Slide Projector/16mm Projector

    Lantern-Slide Projector/16mm Projector
    Victor Animatography Company produced the first portable lantern-slide and 16mm projector
  • Educational Radio

    Educational Radio
    The University of Wisconsin operated the oldest educational radio station. WHA Radio was owned by the State of Wisconsin.
  • Film Projector

    Film Projector
    The film projector was able to bring still objects into the classroom. The use of this projector was the beginning of applying multiple intelligence into the classroom. Thomas Edison predicted that "scholars would soon be instructed through the eye."
  • Overhead Projector

    Overhead Projector
    The overhead projector was first used as a training tool for World War II. This technology became a useful tool in business and education. It would be used in the classroom for the next 80 years.
  • Constructivism - Jean Piaget

    Constructivism - Jean Piaget
    Constructivism Theory is based on how people learn. People construct their own opinions of the world based on their experiences and reflection on these experiences. Technology integration of constructivism is the designs and environments that engage students.
  • Ballpoint Pen Invented

    Ballpoint Pen Invented
    Prior to 1938, the fountain pen was the only way to write using ink. This type of pen required the user to dip fountain pen in ink. The invention of the ballpoint pen simplified the writing process. In 1945, Reynolds International Pen Company began to mass produce these pens and schools made the transition from fountain pens.
  • ENIAC Computer

    ENIAC Computer
    The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was the first programmable electronic digital computer. It was created during World War II for the purpose of computing values for artillery. The Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania was contracted by the US Army to create an electronic computer.
  • Vacuum Tubes 1943-1956

    Vacuum Tubes 1943-1956
  • First Computer Used for Instruction

    First Computer Used for Instruction
    Flight simulators were the first computers used for instruction. They were used to train MIT pilots. In 1954, United Airlines purchased four flight simulators from Curtiss-Wright for 3 million dollars.
  • Slide Rule

    Slide Rule
    The slide rule was used in mathematics prior to the calculator. This device made it easier to use logarithms to assist with multiplication and division. Due to the affordability of calculators, slide rules were used until the mid-1970s.
  • Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Development

    Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Development
    Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy is a set of hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives. The framework consists of six major categories: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Bloom's Digital Taxonomy is used when adding technology to instruction and curriculum.
  • Sputnik I

    Sputnik I
    On October 4, 1957, scientists in the Soviet Union launched a satellite called Sputnik 1. The United States government was shocked to find out that the Soviet Union were ahead of us in math and science. In 1958, Congress passed the National Defense Educational Act ($1 billion) to help U.S. students compete in math and science with the Soviets.
  • Behaviorism and Educational Technology

    Behaviorism and Educational Technology
    Behaviorism is defined as "the theory that human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of conditioning. without appeal to thoughts or feelings, and the psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns" (Google Dictionary). Behaviorism-based technologies demonstrate the possibilities of achieving dramatic gains through control.
  • IBM 650

    IBM 650
    The IBM 650 introduces its first commercially available digital computer. It sold for $500,000 and contained 2kb of memory.
  • Robert Gagne's Conditions of Learning Theory

    Robert Gagne's Conditions of Learning Theory
  • First Handheld Calculator

    First Handheld Calculator
    Texas Instrument invented the first handheld calculator with integrated circuits in 1967. The calculator first sold for $149.95. Public school systems grappled with whether calculators should be allowed in schools and how they would change math instruction. In 1975. National Advisory Committee on Mathematical Education issued a report on calculators. They recommended that calculators should be used for 8th grade and up.

    Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the foundation of the internet. It was the first network to utilize packet switching and TCP/IP protocol suite. It was developed as a communication system in case of a nuclear war.
  • Scantron

    A Scantron is a form of Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) that is used for grading bubble sheet when testing. This device allowed teachers to mass grade multiple choice or true-false questions on tests. The OMR is still used in most primary and secondary schools.
  • Intel Invents Microprocessor Chip

    Intel Invents Microprocessor Chip
    In 1972, Intel introduced the first single-chip microprocessor, Intel 4004. This computer on a chip was the beginning of the computer revolution. As this chip became smaller and faster, computer devices also became smaller and faster.
  • Apple Computer

    Apple Computer
    Apple computer is developed. The company sells 50 Apple Computer 1. The Apple Company would begin marketing to primary schools and be known as the educational computer.
  • Personal Computer in Schools

    Personal Computer in Schools
    Personal computers were starting to be used in the classroom in the late 70s. They were mostly used for drilling and practice programs. In the early 80s, high school students began programming in BASIC.
  • First USENET Newsgroups

    First USENET Newsgroups
  • CD-ROM Drive

    CD-ROM Drive
    CD-ROM drive is a player that can read compact disc read-only memory. The format for the CD-ROM was developed in 1982. It can hold 700MB of data and can store music, data files, and software. Prior to the internet, all educational software was stored on a CD-ROM.
  • Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

    Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
    Howard Gardner's theory states that students learn in multiple ways. These ways include visual, interpersonal, logical, verbal, musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. Gardner also studied how individual learning styles can be applied to technology-enhanced learning environments.
  • Hand-Held Graphing Calculator

    Hand-Held Graphing Calculator
    Casio produced the first handheld graphing calculator in Tokyo, Japan. It offered 82 scientific functions and graphing capabilities. When the graphing calculator was first introduced, it was mostly used by college students. Now it is also used in high school math courses.
  • Situated Cognition Theory

    Situated Cognition Theory
  • Technology Innovation Challenge Grant

    Technology Innovation Challenge Grant
    This program provided grants to LEAs to build capacity and improve teaching and learning with technology.
  • Mark Perry's Distributed Cognition Theory

    Mark Perry's Distributed Cognition Theory
    Distributed Cognition Theory is a "branch of the cognitive sciences that proposes cognition and knowledge is not confined to an individual; rather, it is distributed across objects, individuals, artifacts, and tools in the environment." It is widely applied to the field of distance learning and computer-supported collaborative learning.
  • Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory

    Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
    The social cognitive theory, developed by Albert Bandura, states that students learn through their own actions or through observing others.
    "Technology can show video models of good student performances and can increase self-efficacy through self-modeling videos."
    PowerPoint Presentation: Learning Theories and Technology Implications