Instructional design background 2

The History of Instructional Design Technology

  • 20th Century

    20th Century
    When the field of Instructional Design Technology (IDT) began! Photo Credit: http://www.paperbackswap.com/Great-Events-20th-Readers-Digest/book/166891/
  • School Museum Opens for Visual Instruction

    School Museum Opens for Visual Instruction
    In St. Louis, the first school museum opens and “served as the central administrative unit[s] for visual instruction by [their] distribution of portable museum exhibits, stereographs, [three- dimensional photographs], slides, films, study prints, charts, and other instructional materials” (Reiser, 2018, p. 8). Photo Credit :http://news.stlpublicradio.org/post/salvaged-photographs-st-louis-street-department-circa-1900-1930-catalogued-new-book#stream/0
  • Instructional Films Introduced

    Instructional Films Introduced
    "...catalog of instructional films [were] published in the United States" (Reiser, 2018, p. 9). Photo Credit: https://wichm.home.xs4all.nl/filmsize.html
  • Visual Instruction Movement Took Off

    Visual Instruction Movement Took Off
    “Five national professional organizations for visual instruction were developed, five national journals focusing on visual instruction began publication, more than twenty teacher-training institutions began offering courses in visual instruction, and at least a dozen of large-city school systems developed bureaus of visual education (Saettler, 1990” (Reiser, 2018, p. 9). Photo Credit: http://sundaymagazine.org/2011/03/new-method-of-teaching-morality-to-the-young/
  • Audiovisual Instruction Movement

    Audiovisual Instruction Movement
    "...radio broadcasting, sound recordings, and sound motion pictures" continued technology advances, which increased "..interest in instructional media" (Reiser, 2018, p. 9). "With the advent of media incorporating sound, the visual instruction movement became known as the audiovisual instruction movement (Finn, 1972; McCluskey, 1981)" (Reiser, 2018, p.9). Photo Credit: https://www.lovefone.co.uk/blogs/news/technology-in-the-1920s
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    Loss of investments in visual instruction occurred when the Great Depression hit the economy (Resier, 2018, p. 9). Photo Credit: https://www.buzzfeed.com/davidbertozzi/the-great-depression
  • Merger of Visual Instruction Professional Organizations

    Merger of Visual Instruction Professional Organizations
    "the merging . . . of the three national professional organizations for visual instruction . . . was consolidated within one organization, the Department of Visual Instruction (DVI)..." (Reiser, 2018, p. 9). This organization is now the "Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT)," and has continued to be a "[lead] role in the field of instructional design and technology" (Reiser, 2018, p. 9). Photo Credit: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/128493395589432223/
  • Visual Instruction Textbooks were Published

    Visual Instruction Textbooks were Published
    Charles F. Hoban, Sr., Charles F. Hoban, Jr. and Stanley B. Zissman wrote Visualizing the Curriculum textbook (Reiser, 2018, p. 9). The authors believe that “the value of audiovisual materials was a function of their degree of realism" (Reiser, 2018, p. 9). Photo Credit: https://books.google.com/books/about/Visualizing_the_Curriculum.html?id=EewHAAAAMAAJ
  • World War II Use of Audiovisual Devices

    World War II Use of Audiovisual Devices
    During World War II, the military used audiovisual devices to produce training films such as slide projectors, audio equipment, and simulators and training devices (Reiser, 2018, p. 10). Photo Credit: https://www.airspacemag.com/history-of-flight/world-war-ii-the-movie-21103597/
  • Developing Military Training Materials Based on Research

    Developing Military Training Materials Based on Research
    Psychologists and educators were recruited to "... conduct research and develop training materials for the military services" "Robert Gagne, Leslie Briggs, John Flanagan, and many others...[based...] their work upon instructional principles derived from research and theory on instruction, learning, and human behavior (Baker, 1973; Saettler, 1990)" (Reiser, 2018, p. 13). Photo Credit: https://ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=22204
  • Visual Aid Films Used for War Training

    Visual Aid Films Used for War Training
    Training films were produced to "[prepare] U.S. civilian to work in industry," ...from this "the federal government established the Division of Visual Aids for War Training" (Reiser, 2018, p. 10). The films were helpful because they "reduced training time without having a negative impact on training effectiveness" (Reiser, 2018, p. 10). Photo Credit: http://www.rfcafe.com/references/radio-news/training-visual-aids-october-1945-radio-news.htm
  • After World War II-Instructional Design Evolved

    After World War II-Instructional Design Evolved
    The psychologists continued to work after the war "for organizations such as the American Institute for Research" in order to continue "solving instructional problems" (Reiser, 2018, p. 13). The aftermath of the war led continuation of the instructional design evolution. Photo Credit: https://www.allposters.ca/-sp/Uniformed-Women-Celebrate-the-End-of-World-War-II-1945-posters_i12139309_.htm
  • Introducing Television for Instruction

    Introducing Television for Instruction
    The audiovisual movement continued to enhance with introducing television as "a medium for delivering instruction" (Reiser, 2018, p. 10). The growth stemmed from "the Federal Communications Commision set[ting] aside 242 television channels for educational purposes," which developed "public...education television stations" (Reiser, 2018, p.10). Photo Credit: https://kelseyalbert.wordpress.com/2012/09/20/1950s-tv-ad/
  • Ford Foundation Provided Educational Television

    Ford Foundation Provided Educational Television
    During the 1950's, instructional television began to flourish due to "funding... [from] Ford Foundation," which provided "...a closed-circuit television system that was used to deliver instruction in all major subject areas at all grade levels throughout [some] school system" (Reiser, 2018, p. 10).
  • B.F. Skinner's Article Published Addressing Instruction

    B.F. Skinner's Article Published Addressing Instruction
    "The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching," article was published by B.F. Skinner which explained that "...the requirements for increasing human learning and the desired characteristics of effective instructional materials...such present instruction in small steps, require active responses to frequent questions, provide immediate feedback, and allow for learner self-pacing" (Reiser, 2018, p. 13). Photo Credit: http://authorquotesnew.com/2290/b-f-skinner-quotes/#
  • Behavioral Objectives Introduced into the Field of Education

    Behavioral Objectives Introduced into the Field of Education
    Benjamin Bloom and colleagues' Taxonomy of Educational Objectives text was publish to inform the public that "...tests should be designed to measure...types of outcomes" (Reiser, 2018, p. 14). Photo Credit: https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Instructional_design/Learning_objectives/Bloom’s_Taxonomy_of_the_Cognitive_Domain
  • Sputnik Led to the Transformation of Improving Instructional Materials

    Sputnik Led to the Transformation of Improving Instructional Materials
    When Sputnik was launched, the government provided funds to "[improve] math and science education in the United States" (Reiser, 2018, p.14). This was another moment in history that continued the need for instructional materials. Photo Credit: https://www.cuny.edu/site/cc/higher-education/science1.html
  • Robert Mager's Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction Text

    Robert Mager's Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction Text
    Robert Mager wrote Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction in order "to teach educators how to write objectives" (Reiser, 2018, p. 13). Photo Credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_F._Mager
  • Robert Glaser's Criterion-Referenced Measures Began

    Robert Glaser's Criterion-Referenced Measures Began
    Criterion-referenced testing came about to "measure how well an individual can perform a particular behavior or set of behaviors" (Reiser, 2018, p. 14). This development contributed to the instructional design process by showing how much a student has learned what the "instructional program was designed to teach" (Raiser, 2018, p. 14). Photo Credit: https://www.chronicle.com/article/Robert-Glaser-Scholar-Who/130856/
  • First IDT Definition

    First IDT Definition
    The first IDT field definition that was approved by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology was “the design and use of messages which control the learning process” (Reiser, 2018, p. 2). Photo Credit: https://21bites.com/blogs/blog/proteins-definition-and-functions
  • Robert Gagne's The Conditions of Learning Text

    Robert Gagne's The Conditions of Learning Text
    Robert Gagne's The Conditions of Learning "discussed the five types of learning outcomes (verbal information, intellectual skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes, and cognitive strategies)-each of which required a different set of conditions to promote learning" (Reiser, 2018, p. 14). This text explains that "instruction should be designed" for people to learn basic skills before they gain advance skills (Reiser, 2018, p. 14). Photo Credit: http://isdgo.com/portfolio/gagne
  • Michael Scriven's Formative Evaluation

    Michael Scriven's Formative Evaluation
    Michael Scriven decided that instructional materials should start in draft form "...with learners prior to the time the materials were in their final form" (Reiser, 2018, p. 14). Michael Scriven called the "tryout and revision process formative evaluation, and contrasted it with what he labeled summative evaluation, the testing of instructional materials after they are in their final form" (Reiser, 2018, p. 14). Photo Credit: https://alchetron.com/Michael-Scriven
  • Cognitive Information Processing Theory

    Cognitive Information Processing Theory
    Atkinson and Shriffin developed the “basis for information processing theory” (Reiser, 2018, p. 54). It is based on “three memory systems in the learner (sensory, short-term, and long-term memory) . . . to receive information from the environment and transform it for storage and use in memory and performance” (Resier, 2018, p. 54). Photo Credit: https://www.quizover.com/course/section/information-processing-cognitive-view-information-by-openstax
  • Instructional Design Models Grew

    Instructional Design Models Grew
    Instructional design models continued to be created and became the "'standards' in the field" and are "still ...taught to graduate students studying instructional design" (Reiser, 2018, p. 15). Photo Credit: https://blog.commlabindia.com/elearning-design/evolution-of-instructional-design
  • Commission on Instructional Technology Second Definition

    Commission on Instructional Technology Second Definition
    The second definition focuses on “process” (Reiser, 2018, p. 2). They describe it as “a systematic way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the whole process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research on human learning and communication, and employing a combination of human and nonhuman resources to bring about more effective instruction” (Reiser, 2018, p. 2). Photo Credit: https://www.canstockphoto.com/definition-25964108.html
  • ADDIE Model

    ADDIE Model
    The Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE) process was developed (Reiser, 2018, p. 24) to show “the conceptual components of instructional design” (Reiser, 2018, p. 27). Photo Credit: http://ivanteh-runningman.blogspot.com/2013/07/addie-model.html
  • Commission on Instructional Technology First Definition

    Commission on Instructional Technology First Definition
    The Commission on Instructional Technology's first definition is “...the media is born of communications revolution which can be used for instructional purposes alongside the teacher, textbook an, and blackboard . . . The pieces that make up the instructional technology [include]: television, films, overhead projectors, computers, and other items of “hardware” and “software”” (Reiser, 2018, p. 2). Photo Credit: https://sfmagazine.com/post-entry/march-2017-definition-of-a-business/
  • Gagne’s Theory of Instruction

    Gagne’s Theory of Instruction
    Gagne’s Theory of Instruction focused on “five major categories of learning” (Reiser, 2018, p. 56). The categories are as followed: “verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, attitudes, and motor skills” (Reiser, 2018, p. 56). Photo Credit: http://gagnelearning1.blogspot.com
  • Military, Academia, Business and Industry Incorporating Instructional Design

    Military, Academia, Business and Industry Incorporating Instructional Design
    The U.S. military adopted instructional design model to "guide the development of training materials" (Reiser, 2018, p. 15). Academia brought about "instructional improvement centers" to help "...faculty use media and instructional design procedures to improve the quality of their instruction" (Reiser, 2018, p. 15). In the business and industry sectors, instructional design was used to enhance training (Reiser, 2018, p. 15). Photo Credit: http://www.unitetheusa.org/id140.html
  • AECT Definition of the IDT Field

    AECT Definition of the IDT Field
    The AECT created another definition by describing it as “educational technology is a complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organization, for analyzing problems and devising, implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems, involved in all aspects of human learning” (Reiser, 2018, p. 3). Photo Credit: https://speciality.medicaldialogues.in/cpr-dnr-physician-assisted-suicide-icmr-definitions-on-end-of-life-care-details/
  • Computers are Introduced as an Instructional Design Tool

    Computers are Introduced as an Instructional Design Tool
    Once personal computers were used in society, computers became a popular tool for instructional design (Reiser, 2018, p. 11). Photo Credit: http://astmachines.com/1980-a-vision-with-an-exemplary-implementation/
  • Computer-based Instruction for Educators

    Computer-based Instruction for Educators
    With public access to computer, educators were sold on the idea of using "personal computers as ... instructional tool[s]" since they were "inexpensive, ... compact enough for desktop use, and could perform many functions..." (Reiser, 2018, p. 11). Photo Credit: http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/personal-computers/17/299
  • B.F. Skinner's Contribution to the Field

    B.F. Skinner's Contribution to the Field
    B.F. Skinner believed “that learning can be understood, explained, and predicted entirely on the basis of observable events, namely, the behavior of the learner along with its environmental antecedents and consequences” (Reiser, 2018, p. 53). Photo Credit: https://www.biography.com/people/bf-skinner-9485671
  • Behavioral Learning Theory

    Behavioral Learning Theory
    “Behavioral learning theory is empirically based, which means that behavior is observed both before and after an intervention such as instruction has been implemented, and the observed changes in performance are related to what occurred during the intervention” (Reiser, 2018, p. 53). Photo Credit: https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/the-psychology-book/9781465439291/OEBPS/xhtml/PSYBOO078BEHSHA.xhtml
  • Human Performance Improvement Movement

    Human Performance Improvement Movement
    The human performance improvement movement "emphasiz[ed] on on-the-job performance (rather than learning), business results, and noninstructional solutions to performance problems- has broadened the scope of the instructional design field" (Reiser, 2018, p. 16). Photo Credit: http://www.execheads.com/performance-matrix/
  • Constructivism Theory

    Constructivism Theory
    Constructivism “is a theory that equates learning with creating meaning from experience” (Ertmer & Newby, 2013, p. 55). “Constructivists look at the learner as more than just an active processor of information; the learner elaborates upon and interprets the given information (Duffy & Jonassen, 1991)” (Ertmer & Newby, 2013, p. 58). Photo Credit: http://www.innovativelearning.com/teaching/constructivism.html
  • AECT published Instructional Technology: The Definitions and Domains of the Field

    AECT published Instructional Technology: The Definitions and Domains of the Field
    AECT published Instructional Technology: The Definitions and Domains of the Field that describes the IDT field (Reiser, 2018, p. 3). The text states that “instructional technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning” (Reiser, 2018, p. 3). Photo Credit: https://www.amazon.com/Instructional-Technology-Definition-Domains-Field/dp/1617359041
  • Constructivist Views of Teaching and Learning Influence

    Constructivist Views of Teaching and Learning Influence
    The constructivist views of teaching and learning has effect the instructional design field (Reiser, 2018, p. 16). The focus of this view is "emphasis on designing 'authentic' learning tasks-tasks that reflect the complexity of the real-world environment
    in which learners will be using the skills they are learning..." (Reiser, 2018 p. 16). Photo Credit: http://www.bamradionetwork.com/top-10-education-quotes/tag/8477-authentic-learning
  • Situated Learning Theory

    Situated Learning Theory
    Situated Learning Theory has been described as a “work in progress (Kirshner & Whitson, 1997) [and] learning is always situated (Sawyer & Greeno, 2009)” (Reiser, 2018, p. 55). Furthermore, “learning from a situated perspective occurs through the learner’s participation in the practices of a community, practices that are mutually constituted by the members of the community” (Reiser, 2018, p. 55). Photo Credit: http://www.harapnuik.org/?p=6344
  • 21st Century

    21st Century
    With the rise of technology advances, the field of Instructional Design Technology has expanded it's scope of teaching and learning to incorporate digital technologies. Photo Credit: http://content.time.com/time/covers/europe/0,16641,20000101,00.html
  • e-Learning Development in the 21st Century

    e-Learning Development in the 21st Century
    Development of online instruction in "higher education, business and industry,and K-12 schools..." grew tremendously in the twenty-first century, which provided career opportunities for instructional designers to create online courses, while also "...attemp[ing] to identify interesting and effective means of delivering instruction online" (Reiser, 2018, p. 16). Photo Credit: https://blog.commlabindia.com/elearning-design/elearning-for-various-industries
  • Early 21st Century Technologies

    Early 21st Century Technologies
    Training is being presented through early 21st century technologies such as "video, satellite, CD-ROM, and mobile devices" (Reiser, 2018, p. 11). Photo Credit: https://www.betaarchive.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=13748
  • Online Courses Widely Used

    Online Courses Widely Used
    Online courses used to teach course material were increasing in middle, high schools, and higher education (Reiser, 2018, p. 11). This changed the traditional view of teaching in the classroom. Photo Credit: http://news.rice.edu/2012/07/17/rice-to-partner-with-coursera-to-offer-free-online-courses-2/
  • AECT Latest Definition of the IDT Field

    AECT Latest Definition of the IDT Field
    AECT committee came up with a new definition of the IDT field. The committee defines the field as “the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources” (Reiser, 2018, p. 4). Photo Credit: https://www.saba.com/blog/how-do-you-define-success-as-a-workplace
  • Social Media, Mobile Devices, Tablets Heavily Used to Teach & Share Information

    Social Media, Mobile Devices, Tablets Heavily Used to Teach & Share Information
    Different types of media such as social media are used for
    informal learning (Reiser, 2018, p.11-12) and to "share information, ...acquire new skills and knowledge" (Reiser, 2018 p. 12). Instructional designers have had to "learn how to design and promote these alternate means of facilitating skill acquisition" (Reiser, 2018, p. 16). Photo Credit: https://www.engadget.com/2018/05/31/uganda-social-media-tax-to-prevent-gossip/
  • Successive Approximation Model (SAM)

    Successive Approximation Model (SAM)
    The Successive Approximation Model (SAM) was developed as a “process model” to “provide support and benefits to many if not all models of instruction . . .it was devised to emphasize learning experiences over presentations of content” (Reiser, 2018, p. 33). Photo Credit: https://www.behance.net/gallery/66656517/SAM-Model
  • Pebble-in-the Pond Model

    Pebble-in-the Pond Model
    Pebble-in-the Pond model “focus[es] primarily on the instructional design phase of the whole instructional development process” (Reiser, 2018, p. 35). The model is a "metaphor" that represents “...an environmental pond in which instruction is to occur. The pebble is an instance of a problem that learners need to be able to solve in the context of the pond” (Reiser, 2018, p. 35). Photo Credit: http://www.training-pros.com/newsroom/learning-highlights/webinar-micro-instructional-design
  • Connectivism Theory

    Connectivism Theory
    Connectivism Theory is defined as “the formation of connections in a network and networks ‘learn’ by automatically adjusting the set of connections between individual neurons or nodes. Learning results . . . in the accumulation of more and more facts or memories but the ongoing development of a richer and richer neural tapestry” (Resier, 2018, p. 57). Photo Credit: http://masterfacilitator.com/connectivism-learning-theory-digital-age/
  • Smart Phones & Tablets in Higher Education

    Smart Phones & Tablets in Higher Education
    College students are using smartphones and tablets to complete schoolwork frequently according to a 2015 survey (Reiser, 2018, p. 12). This changes the way students are earning an education and how instructional media is being used in schools. Photo Credit: https://www.windowscentral.com/smartphones-didnt-kill-mini-tablets-they-became-mini-tablets