First computer builtSize of a desk weighed 700 pounds
Russia sends first satelite into orbit
US forms the Advanced Research Projects AgencyIn 1962 (the year of the Cuban Missile Crisis), the United States Air Force and ARPA began research and development in response to the Russion advances in space and nuclear technology. It became clear that in the event of a nuclear war, the United States would need a Command and Control (C&C) system that could survive one or more nuclear 'hits'. Work began on researching a decentralized system that would be robust enough to survive and function even if most of the network were destroyed.
Packet Switching networks developedThe origin is military : for utmost security in transferring information of networks (no single outage point).
Data is split into tiny packets that may take different routes to a destination.
Hard to eavesdrop on messages.
More than one route available -- if one route goes down another may be followed.
Networks can withstand large scale destruction (Nuclear attack - This was the time of the Cold War).
Internet is born4 computers are linked to the APRA network
People communicate over networkE-mail invented -- a program to send messages across a distributed network. Why is this relevant?
E-mail is still the main way of inter-person communication on the Internet today.
We will study how to use and send E-mail shortly in this course.
You will make extensive use of E-mail for the rest of your life.
Global networking becomes a realityFirst international connections to the ARPANET: University College of London (England) and Royal Radar Establishment (Norway)
Ethernet outlined -- this how local networks are basically connected today.
Internet ideas started.
Gateway architecture sketched on back of envelope in hotel lobby in San Francisco. Gateways define how large networks (maybe of different architecture) can be connected together.
File Transfer protocol specified -- how computers send and receive data.
Queen Elizabeth sends out an e-mail.Queen Elizabeth sends out an e-mail.
E-mail takes off Internet becomes realityNumber of hosts breaks 100.
THEORYNET provides electronic mail to over 100 researchers in computer science (using a locally developed E-mail system and TELENET for access to server).
First demonstration of ARPANET/Packet Radio Net/SATNET operation of Internet protocols over gateways.
First MUD (Multiuser Dungeon)interactive multiuser sites. Interactive adventure games, board games, rich and detailed databases.
ARPA establishes the Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB).
Packet Radio Network (PRNET) experiment starts with ARPA funding. Most communications take place between mobile vans
News groups bornComputer Science Department research computer network established in USA.
USENET established using UUCP.
Why is this relevant?
USENET still thrives today.
A collection of discussions groups, news groups.
3 news groups established by the end of the year
Almost any topic now has a discussion group.
TCP/IP defines future communicationDCA and ARPA establishes the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, for ARPANET.
Why is this relevant?
Leads to one of the first definitions of an internet as a connected set of networks, specifically those using TCP/IP, and Internet as connected TCP/IP internets.
Growth of internet blooms
Power of internet tealised5, 000 Hosts. 241 News groups.
NSFNET created (backbone speed of 56 Kbps)
NSF establishes 5 super-computing centers to provide high-computing power for all -- This allows an explosion of connections, especially from universities.
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) designed to enhance Usenet news performance over TCP/IP.
Commercialisation of Internet BornNumber of hosts 28,000.
UUNET is founded with Usenix funds to provide commercial UUCP and Usenet access.
Most Important development to dateWorld-Wide Web (WWW) released by CERN; Tim Berners-Lee developer. Why is relevant?
Originally developed to provide a distributed hypermedia system.
Easy access to any form of information anywhere in the world.
Initially non-graphic (this came later, MOSAIC, 1993).
Revolutionised modern communications and even our, way of life (?).
Multimedia changes the face of the InternetNumber of hosts breaks 1 Million. News groups 4,000
Internet Society (ISOC) is chartered.
First MBONE audio multicast (March) and video multicast (November).
The term "Surfing the Internet" is coined by Jean Armour Polly.
The WWW Revolution truly beginsNumber of Hosts 2 Million. 600 WWW sites.
InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services
directory and database services
Business and Media really take notice of the Internet.
US White House and United Nations (UN) comes on-line.
Mosaic takes the Internet by storm. Why is this relevant?
User Friendly Graphical Front End to the World Wide Web.
Develops into Netscape -- most popular WWW browser to date.
WWW proliferates at a 341,6
Commercialisation beginsNumber of Hosts 3 Million. 10,000 WWW sites. 10,000 News groups.
ARPANET/Internet celebrates 25th anniversary
Local communities begin to be wired up directly to the Internet (Lexington and Cambridge, Mass., USA)
US Senate and House provide information servers
Shopping malls, banks arrive on the Internet
A new way of life
You can now order pizza from the Hut online in the US.
First Virtual, the first cyberbank, open up for business
NSFNET traffic passes 10 trillion bytes/month
Microsoft enter12.8 Million Hosts, 0.5 Million WWW Sites.
Internet phones catch the attention of US telecommunication companies who ask the US Congress to ban the technology (which has been around for years)
The WWW browser war begins , fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft, has rushed in a new age in software development, whereby new releases are made quarterly with the help of Internet users eager to test upcoming (beta) versions
Internet gets biggerName server developed.
How many online today1.97 billion – Internet users worldwide (June 2010).