The History of Intelligence and Intelligence Testing

  • Army Alpha and Beta Testing

    Robert Yerkes developed Army Alpha and Beta tests. These tests were used to determine a person’s role in the army based on their score. The test was also given orally for those who were not able to read.
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    The History of Intelligence and Intelligence Testing

  • Art of Thought

    Graham Wallas published his work Art of Thought in 1926. He presented one of the first models of a human’s creative process. Wallas' model explained the creative insight and illuminations from a process of 5 stages: Preparation, Incubation, Intimation, Illumination, and Verification.
  • Edward Thorndike

    Edward Thorndike, from 1930 to 1940, delivered the concept of "social intelligence." He believed that "social intelligence" was the ability to get along with other people.
  • Primary Mental Ablities

    In 1935, L.L. Thurtone introduced the theory of primary mental abilities. He believed that theory was dived into seven basic clusters: Verbal Comprehension, Reasoning, Perceptual Speed, Numerical Ability, Word Fluency, Associative Memory, and Spatial Visualization.
  • David Wechsler

    David Wechsler suggested and thought that affective components of intelligence were essential to be successful in life.
  • Humanisitic Psychologist Discoveries

    Abraham Maslow, from 1950 to 1960, discovered the way humans are able to build emotional strength.
  • Wechsler Intelligence Scales

    David Weshler disagreed with the limitations of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. He then created his own scale where he multiple scaled which where based on age. They were Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI), and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The scored from these Intelligence scales were compared with others in the same age grouping. The scoring method has become a standard technique in testing.
  • The Shattered Mind

    Howard Gardner, in 1975, published his book "The Shattered Mind." It suggests the idea of multiple intelligences.
  • Multiple Intelligence Theories

    Howard Gardner introduces the multiple intelligence theory, which he believe comes in packages. This made in possible that people with brain damage may have ones ability destroyed, but may excel in another. His eight intelligences are Visual-Spatial Intelligence, Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence, Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence, Interpersonal Intelligence, Musical Intelligence, Intra Personal Intelligence and Naturalistic Intelligence.
  • Wayne Payne

    Wayne Payne introduced the term emotional intelligence in his doctoral dissertation, which was entitled "A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, tuning in/coming out/letting go)."
  • Components of Creativity

    Sterberg and his colleagues identified five components to creativity, which were expertise, imaginative thinking skills, a venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation, and a creative environment.
  • "Emotional Intelligence" Journal

    Peter Salovey and John Mayer, Psychologists, published their idea of "Emotional Intelligence," in an article in the journal "Imagination, Cognition, and Personality."
  • Popularization of Emotional Intelligence

    The concept of emotional intelligence spread like wild-fire after Daniel Goleman, psychologist and New York Times science writer, published his book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ.
  • Seligman Attributional Style Questionnaire

    The Seligman Attributional Style Questionnaire (SASQ) was originally designed to be a screening test for the life insurance company Metropolitan Life. The SASQ is a test that measures optimism and pessimism.
  • Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale

    Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale is an ability-based test in where test-takers are asked to perform tasks designed to assess their ability to perceive, identify, understand, and utilize emotions.
  • Reuven Bar-Ones EQ-i

    The Reuven Bar-Ones EQ-i is a self-report test designed to measure competencies. It includes awareness, stress tolerance, problem solving and happiness. "Emotional intelligence is an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one's ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures."
  • Emotional Competence Inventory

    The Emotional Competence Inventory was based on an older instrument known as the Self-Assessment Questionnaire. The ECI involves having people know the individual offer ratings of that person's abilities on a number of different emotional competencies.
  • Present Day Ability Tests

    The ACT, SAT, achievement, and/or aptitude tests are all used to determine one's intellectual ability.