Brain in hands

Eras in Intelligence Theories

  • Historical Foundations (up to 1690)

    Historical Foundations (up to 1690)
    The earliest work delving into gifted and talented could be argued to be that of Plato and Aristotle. In conjunction with philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, and Pascal (among others), they started the discussion of intelligence.
  • Modern Foundations (1691-1869)

    Modern Foundations (1691-1869)
    This time period marked the start of psychology as a separate entity. Darwin, Mill, and Galton were influential people of this time period.
  • John Stuart Mill

    John Stuart Mill
    Utilitarianism was published. John Stuart Mill looked at nurture as a determining factor of intelligence. He was influenced by John Locke and the idea of "tabula rasa." Mill also felt that differences in intelligence could be attributed to differences in environmental and circumstantial factors.
  • Sir Francis Galton

    Sir Francis Galton
    Hereditary Genius was published. Galton proposed that nature was the biggest influence on intelligence, and that intelligence was fixed from birth. He originated and named the eugenics movement and the intelligence test. In addition, he had ideas about improving the genetic stock- a superior "breed" of humans. Galton was also influenced by the work of Charles Darwin.
  • The Great Schools (1870-1901)

    The Great Schools (1870-1901)
    During this time period, the study of intelligence became an accepted area of study. Many European schools worked on the study of intelligence in their psychology programs, and philosophers such as Freud and Cattell became prominent.
  • Sigmund Freud

    Sigmund Freud
    Published Ego and Id in 1923. Although better known for his studies in ego and sexuality, he was also the father of psychoanalysis.
  • The Great Schools' Influence (1903-1937)

    The Great Schools' Influence (1903-1937)
    Theories and investigations revolving around aspects of intelligence grew during this time period. Some of the people to note are: Binet, Goddard, and Piaget.
  • Henry Goddard

    Henry Goddard
    Goddard was instrumental in translating the Binet-Simon IQ test into English. He was also responsible for mass distribution of the test.
  • Alfred Binet

    Alfred Binet
    Binet believed in a combination of nature and nurture that led to intelligence. He is best known for creating the IQ test, and was influenced by Lewis Terman.
  • Leta Hollingsworth

    Leta Hollingsworth
    Leta Hollingworth establishes the Speyer School, for gifted children ages 7-9. She was also credited for creating the term, "gifted children." The "school" was meant to study how children perform when separated by educational ability. In fact, "There were seven classrooms with 175 students, which had an average IQ on the Stanford Binet test of between 75-90 and two classrooms with students that tested at the level of 130+ on the same IQ test."
  • Contemporary Explorations (1938-1969)

    Contemporary Explorations (1938-1969)
    Standardized testing for intelligence became normalized at this point in time.
  • JP Guilford

    JP Guilford
    In a time when intelligence testing was gaining popularity, Guilford was instrumental in looking at creativity as an aspect of intelligence.
  • Current Efforts (1970-2017)

    Current Efforts (1970-2017)
    Statistics, scientific research, and new measurements of analysis are available with the onset of computers and more scientific methods have helped to expand the definition of intelligence.
  • Joseph Renzulli

    Joseph Renzulli
    Renzulli worked on theories that were applied directly to the classroom, such as the School-wide Enrichment Model.
  • Caorl Dweck

    Caorl Dweck
    Dweck has been instrumental in the fixed vs. growth mindset. Her work has been targeted to influence the ability to grow within intelligence and work on GT students to take risks despite the possibility of failure.
  • GT Teacher

    GT Teacher
    Teachers work with GT students on a daily basis. Teachers need to be ready to work and learn about the needs of their GT students. Students need teachers who are ready to learn!