Historical Foundations of Counseling

  • Pre 1900's

    Pre 1900's
    Guidance was given in form of advice by physicians, medicine men, teachers, etc.
  • Period: to


    Erford, B.T. (2014) Orientation of the Counseling Profession: Advocacy, Ethics, and Essential Professional Foundations (2nd ed.). Loyola University, MD: Pearson, Inc.
  • Binet-Simon Scale

    Binet-Simon Scale
    First Intelligence test. This test is later translated and revised to become the Stanford-Binet test used in the United States.
  • Jesse B. Davies

    Jesse B. Davies
    Designated 117 English teachers as Vocational Counselors to focus on problem solving, character, and prevention. This was the first guidance program in schools.
  • Period: to

    3 Leaders Emerge and Shape Guidance and Mental Health Care

  • Frank Parsons

    Frank Parsons
    Known as the father of the American guidance movement. Founded the Vocational Bureau of Boston. Presented a lecture on systematic guidance and his book "Choosing a Vocation" provided the framework for personality psychology after he died.
  • Clifford Whittingham Beers

    Clifford Whittingham Beers
    Established the National Mental Health Association following negative experience as a patient in a mental health facility in 1908.
  • Sigmund Freud

    Sigmund Freud
    An Austrian neurologist, who presented his ideas on neurosis in the United States.
  • National Vocational Guidance Association Founded

  • WWI

    World War 1 prompted a need for clinicians known as psychometrists due to large scale psychological testing.
  • Smith Hughes Act

    Smith Hughes Act
    Created grants to support counselor training and vocational education in public schools and universities
  • Group Counseling

    Group Counseling
    Group counseling already implemented and successfully used in hospitals, schools, and immigration.
  • Period: to

    The Great Depression

    The economy crashes and guidance became scrutinized for being to rigid and ignoring human development and experience. a Need for counselors to work with people in a non-traditional way came about.
  • Child-guidance Demonstration Clinics Created

    Child-guidance Demonstration Clinics Created
  • Carl Rogers

    Carl Rogers
    Developed nondirective and client-centered therapy.
  • Alfred Adler

    Alfred Adler
    Creator of collective counseling and founder of individual psychology.
  • Edward K Strong Jr.

    Edward K Strong Jr.
    Created the Strong Vocational Interest Blank to standardize support materials for guidance.
  • Abraham and Hannah Stone

    Abraham and Hannah Stone
    Marriage and family counseling established.
  • E.G. Williamson

    E.G. Williamson
    Developed clinical counseling and bases his theory on the belief that personality includes measurable traits due to occupational decisions.
  • Period: to

    Legislation is Passed to Aide Unemployment

    The Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933
    The Civilian Conservation Corps-1933
    The Works Progress Administration-1935
  • Alcoholics Anonymous

    Alcoholics Anonymous
    Self help group created for alcohol addiction.
  • Recovery Inc.

    Recovery Inc.
    Self help group created for mental illness.
  • Dictionary of Occupational Titles

    Dictionary of Occupational Titles
    The first edition was published by the U.S Employment Service as a vital source of information for guidance counselors.
  • Period: to

    World War 2

    The need for mental health counseling increased due to the large amounts of military personnel returning with shell shock, war neurosis, and battle fatigue.
  • Period: to

    Theory Development

    Joseph Wolpe-systematic desensitization
    Albert Ellis- rational emotiv therapy
    Eric Berns- transactional analysis
    Donald Super- career development theory
  • American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA)

    The American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA) is formed.
  • Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES)

    Supports professional counselors and educations who provide supervision.
  • Association for the Humanistic Counseling (AHC)

    "Based on Philosophical principles of humanistic approach to counseling" (Erford, 2014, p.38)
  • American School Counselor Association (ASCA)

    Created to advocated for professional school counselors to promote collaboration, leadership, and systematic change.
  • American Rehabilitation Counseling Association (ARCA)

    Created to advocate for counseling needs of individuals with disabilities.
  • Multiculturalism and Diversity

    Wrenn introduces the concept of the culturally encapsulated counselor to describe narrow cultured professionals.
  • Community Mental Health Centers Act

    Community Mental Health Centers Act
    Provided funding for community based mental health programs to address growing problems with drug use, family crisis, alcoholism, and marital discord. This eventually lead to creation of crisis centers, clinics, women's shelters, runaway shelters, rape counseling centers, and closing state hospitals.
  • Association for Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance

    Created for effective use of research and assessment.
  • National Employment Counseling Association (NECA)

    Division of the ACA and offers professional leadership to counselors who service clients in the career-development and employment setting.
  • National Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE)

    Created to evaluate high education programs
  • Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD)

    Created to "improve cultural, ethnic, and racial understanding in counseling" (Erford, 2014, p.36).
  • International Association of Addictions and Offender Counselors (IAAOC)

    Originally created in 1972, know as the Public Offender Counselor Association. This was later changed to the (IAAOC) to include addictions.
  • Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW)

    Created to provide leadership in the field of group work, group work standards, and training to support the research.
  • American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA)

    Created to represent clinical mental health counselors.
  • American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD)

    American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD)
    the APGA changes it's name to American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) to renew the commitment to the field of counseling and reflect changes in the profession.
  • Association for Counselors and Educators in Government (ACEG)

    Created to support all members of the armed services and their families with educational programs and counseling services.
  • Association for Adult Development and Aging (AADA)

    As noted by Erford (2014, p34) the "AADA serves as a focal point for information sharing, professional development, and advocacy related to adult development and aging issues; addresses counseling concerns across the lifespan"(AADA, 2013)
  • International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors (IAMFC)

    Created to support counselors in the practice of family and couples counseling.
  • Technology

    Technology is introduced and is becoming a huge trend and focus.
  • American College Counselors Association (ACCA)

    "The ACCA focuses on professional counselors who provide services at institutions of higher education, and it fosters student development in colleges, universityes and technical and community-college settings" (Erford, 2014, p.34).
  • American Counseling Association (ACA)

    American Counseling Association (ACA)
    APGA Changes its name again to the American Counseling Association (ACA), which is currently largest association today dedicated to representing professional counselors.
  • Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religous Values in Counseling (ASERVIC)

    Non religious affiliated, created to support professionals and counselors in ethical, spiritual, religious, and other human values for development.
  • Association for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Issues in Counseling (ALGBTIC)

    Created to promote education for understanding, awareness, and equality.
  • Counselors for Social Justice (CSJ)

    Created for counselors, professionals, and other community leaders in search of equality and injustice affecting people.
  • Continued Emphasis on Evidence Based Research

    As noted by Norcross and Hill (2003) in Erford (2014)
  • Association for Assessment and Research in Counseling (AARC)

    Changed from the Association for Measurement and Evaluation.
  • Association for Creativity in Counseling (ACC)

    A forum for counseling professionals and therapists to explore diverse and unique approaches.
  • The 20/20: A vision for the Future of Counseling Comittee

    The 20/20: A vision for the Future of Counseling Comittee
    Created by the ACA and the American Association of State Counseling Boards (AASCB) and is composed of 31 counseling organizations. They provide consensus on guiding principles and defining counseling.
  • Code of Ethics

    Most current Code of Ethics established by the ACA
  • California Becomes 50th State to License Counselors

    California Becomes 50th State to License Counselors
    After a 30 years plan from the ACA and other organizations, all 50 states require licensure for counselors.