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A Condensed History of the Major Failures, Innovations, and Accomplishments of the Intelligence Test

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    5th Hour
    AP Psychology
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    History of Intelligence Testing

    Starting from the idea of an analysis that determines intelligence of the individual to the earliest impact on the intelligence test.
    NOTE: Exact dates are not known of the events, and so therefore the date of each will be on January 1st and will scale throughout the days of January depending on the amount of events that happened in each year.
  • Spearman introduces theory of individual intelligence

    Charles Spearman publishes his research paper entitiled "The Proof and Measurement of Association between Two Things," which introduced his idea that humans have only one "general intelligence" that can be analyzed and factored. Thus, Spearman would also invent the idea of "Factor analysis," comparing certain areas of the test (math, language, etc.) in 1915.
  • Binet-Simon "Test"

    The alleged first "test" which measured attention, memory, and verbal skills. It was known as the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale. The intelligence scale was not really a "test" compared to other tests of its time as much as it was a test to see how competent you were. Later in 1908, Binet would eventually revise this test to make it better and more complex, as it added "levels" of questions. This test would be published in the United States by Henry Goddard.
  • Binet's Test for Children

    After studying school children, Binet released this test shortly before his death. It concentrated on testing children who were "not as smart as the average child".This test was available to many teachers in the United States (thanks to Goddard).
  • Relating Intelligence to Age

    William Stern proposes a way of scoring intelligence test by taking a ratio of the "mental age" determined by numerous experiments relating to age of the person who took the test to the "actual age" of the test taker.
  • Stanford-Binet Test

    Lewis Terman revises the original Binet-Simon intelligence scale and renamed it, relating it to the intelligence quotient.
  • WW1 Testing

    Numerous tests were developed to assess recruits to the army in World War 1, where their scores would signify where they would be stationed. These tests could be taken through the use of a pen and paper, or said orally. The most prominent test was the Army Alpha and Beta tests.
  • Use of Intelligence Testing

    Until 1939, no major innovations were made to the intelligence test. Thus, the intelligence test was used in many situations, such as the Ellis Island screenings of immigrants, which lead to stereotypes of races based on the average scores of the IQ test.
  • Weschler on Intelligence

    American psychology David Weschler decribes the numerous different types of thinking strategies of man, and how they are not factored into the intelligence test of his time.
  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

    DIssatisfied with the Stanford-Binet test, David Wechsler created a new type of test using his ideas from 1940. Wechsler would also create two other tests for children and preschoolers. The tests gave three different scores based on verbal, composite, and performance IQ scores. Intelligence scores below 70, depending on the areas of the low score, would qualify for disabilities.
  • Multiple Intelligences

    An idea developed by both Howard Gardner and Sternberg which emphasized the idea of multiple intelligences on different levels from each other. So, for example, if an individual did not understand a certain area, like analyzing, than the individual would be more advanced at problem solving.
  • Emotional Intelligence

    Daniel Goleman releases his soon to be New York Times best seller book "Emotional Intelligence." The book popularized the idea of emotional intelligence, which was though of by both John D. Mayor and Peter Salovey. The idea of emotional intelligence was based off how understanding, managing, and using our emotions can affect our knowledge.
  • Emotional Intelligence Tests

    Numerous emotional intelligence test are released that assess an individual's ability to manage, percieve, understand, use, and identify a person's emotions, as well as how pessimistic or optimistic someone was.
  • Present Day

    The SAT, ACT, achievement, aptitiude, and WKCE tests are all present day assessments of one's intellectual ability.