History of Emotional Disabilities

By vesco16
  • 1500

    Individuals Displaying Mental, Emotional, or Behavioral Disorders

    Individuals displaying mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders were thought to be possessed or under the influence of the devil. These individuals were put through inhumane treatments with the hope being to exorcise the evil spirits. Many individuals were also housed in asylums or "madhouses."
  • Development of Mental Functions

    Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and George Berkeley were influential in developing the concept of mental functions. This concept drew attention away from the notion that behaviors were caused by spirits or possession. The concept depicted the existence of the mind as distinct from the soul. Unfortunately, individuals that were seen as "possessed" due to their behaviors, continued to be placed in asylums.
  • Moral Treatment

    -Philippe Pinel, a French physician, became famous for advocating for more humane treatments for those individuals suffering mental illness. This became known as moral treatments.
  • The Wild Boy of Aveyron

    Jean Itard wrote the book The Wild Boy of Aveyron based on his efforts to educate a boy that had been abandoned in a forest that displayed behaviors similar to those of someone with a mental illness. Itard's work helped establish teaching as an important component in the treatment of those with mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
  • Benjamin Rush

    Known as the father of American psychiatry, Rush argued for more humane treatment of the mentally ill and stressed the importance of education.
  • Enlightened Approach Toward Education

    A more enlightened approached toward educating those with emotional needs started to develop. Many of the teaching strategies used during this time, continue today. Those include: individualized assessment and instruction, sequenced learning, structured activities, and multisensory approaches.
  • Wilhelm Wundt

    Wilhelm Wundt established the first experimental psychology laboratory and developed experimental methodology that was later used to investigate behavior throughout the world.
  • Clinic for Child Development

    The Clinic for Child Development was opened by Arnold Gesell and the idea of mental health programs in public schools was advanced.
  • Juvenile Psychopathic Institute

    The Juvenile Psychopathic Institute was established to help children who engaged in antisocial or criminal behavior. This also started the study of repeat juvenile delinquents.
  • Psychopathology and Education of the Brain-Injured Child

    Psychopathology and Education of the Brain-Injured Child was published by Alfred Strauss and Laura Lehtinen. This work discussed the characteristics that interfere with a child's ability to learn. This included: inattentiveness, hyperactivity, distractibility, and volatility. The basis for the structured classroom model was provided from this work.
  • A Teaching Method for Brain-Injured and Hyperactive Children

    Written by William Cruickshank and colleagues, this work adapted the structured approach to experimental classrooms for children with behavior problems.
  • The Disturbed Child

    Written by Pearl Berkowitz and Esther Rothman, this work advocated for a modified psychoanalytic approach to the instruction of emotionally disturbed children.
  • Project Re-ED

    Organized by Nicholas Hobbs, Project Re-ED (Re-Education of Emotionally Disturbed children) was an ecologically based model for residential schools for seriously disturbed children.
  • The Early Identification of Children with Educational Handicaps

    In this work written by Eli Bower, emotional disturbance is defined which influences the definition used by the federal government.
  • Educating Emotionally Disturbed Children

    The structured model for classroom instruction was expanded in this work by Norris Haring and E. Lakin Phillips.
  • Council for Children with Behavior Disorders

    The Council for Children with Behavior Disorders (CCBD) was formed as a division of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC).
  • Conflict in the Classroom

    Written by Nicholas Long, William Morse, and Ruth Newman, this work presented diverse theoretical views about the identification and education of children with emotional disorders.
  • P.L. 94-142-Education for All Handicapped Children Act

    This law mandated services for children with disabilities, including students with an emotional disturbance.
  • National Mental Health and Special Education Coalition

    Created to help serve the population of students with emotional needs.
  • Term Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) adopted

    The National Mental Health and Special Education Coalition adopted the term emotional and behavioral disorders.
  • Federation of Families for Children't Mental Health

    Created to help serve those students with emotional needs and their families.
  • P.L. 101-476-Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    This law was important for persons with emotional and behavioral disorders because it specified conditions for removing them from public school for disciplinary reasons and mandated FBA/BIP's. This law was amended in 1997 and 2004.
  • P.L. 107-110 No Child Left Behind Act

    The purpose of this law was to improve instruction in schools for all students, including those with emotional disabilities.