Historical Foundations of Counseling

By akeith
  • Changing Nation

    The U.S. economy is transforming from primarily agriculture to industry and manufacturing. Urbanization occurs along with the idea of preparing individuals for career development to support the changing economy.
  • Vocational Program in Schools

    A high school superintendent Jesse B. Davis created the first vocational program to support career development for students.
  • A Mind That Found Itself

    Yale graduate Clifford W. Beers writes a book describing the horrendous treatment of mentally ill in facilities which creates the mental hygiene movement. This movement created a shift in societal thinking of the treatment of mentally ill individuals. Programs for helping people were created.
  • Frank Parsons

    Known as "the father of the American vocation movement", Parsons created the Vocational Bureau of Boston. Parsons worked to create systematic guidance.
  • National Mental Health Association

    Beers works to formulate the National Mental Health Association to continue the movement for the humane treatment of individuals with mental illness.
  • "Choosing a Vocation"

    A year after Parsons died his book was published. This famous work created the framework for personality testing to help establish a guideline for a suitable career.
  • Sigmund Freud

    Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud is invited to the U.S. to share his insight regarding neurosis. While some of his theories were (and still are) highly disputed, Freud would become known as the "father of psychoanalysis".
  • National Vocational Guidance Association Founded

    A bulletin is published which would later become The Journal of Counseling and Development. This journal is the most notable source in the entire field of counseling.
  • Smith Hughes Act

    Government established grants support vocational education programs in public schools and support counselor training in major universities.
  • Group Counseling

    Group counseling is utilized to support individual with similar characteristics in gaining career development and helps immigrants become adjusted to the U.S.
  • Community Clinics

    Community clinics were established to support the mental health needs of children. A scientific approach to testing was utilized to formulate diagnoses and establish psychoanalysis treatment or environment modification. Society is beginning to focus on more than just career counseling.
  • Alfred Adler

    Adler, known as the father of individual counseling, initiates collective counseling. He performs group counseling with prisoners and children. Adler later expands to family counseling and theorizes the relation between child problems and family experiences.
  • The Strong Vocational Interest Blank

    Standardized tools for the guidance movement which were utilized for decades.
  • Great Depression

    The unemployment crisis creates a focus on the field of career counseling. The push is to employ as many people as possible. Develops the attitude of "placing square pegs in square holes".
  • Creation of Marriage and Family Counseling

    The first marriage and family counseling center is established in NYC by Abraham and Hannach Stone. This would encourage strong and healthy relationships and positive outcomes for family units.
  • E.G. Williamson

    Williamson worked to establish the idea of counseling as a focus on mental health and not just on career development.
  • AA

    The Great Depression led to a spike in alcoholism which prompted the creation of self help groups, most notably the Alcoholics Anonymous and its famous "12 Step" program.
  • Government Supports Career Counseling

    During the Great Depression the U.S. government became more aware of the importance of career counseling to help unemployed workers return to the workforce. They created new legislature to support career education and in 1939 developed a dictionary of occupational titles to assist counselors.
  • Carl Rogers

    Rogers initiates "client-centered" counseling and encourages an emphasis on techniques and strong training for counselors. He wrote "Counseling and Psychotherapy" to explain his theory regarding the client-centered approach and ability for individuals to make positive changes in their lives with support of counseling.
  • World War II

    Over 1 million men were rejected from the U.S. military due to mental health reasons which prompted the government awareness of the severity of the issues within the country. Men returning home from war were labeled with "shell shock" and treated by counselors. Due to increased concerns with the mental health of its servicemen, the government increased funding for training programs to support detection and treatment of mental illness.
  • Expansion of the Field of Counseling

    Following WWII the government was more focused than ever on supporting mental health and vocational development in the U.S. population. They worked to train individuals, create facilities and staffed them with counselors.
  • American Personnel and Guidance Association

    The association was formed and would later become known as the American Counseling Association.
  • Sputnik

    The fear of falling behind the Soviets in math and science sparked the increased number of guidance counselors in public schools to assure all student needs were being met.
  • Cultural Sensitivity

    During the 60s and 70s many changes were occurring within the U.S. in regards to human rights. G. Wrenn introduced the topic of cultural sensitivity. This sparked a debate regarding the training of counselors.
  • Civil Rights Act

    The creation of the act prompts the need for increased numbers of counselors in U.S. schools.
  • Licensure

    The American Personnel and Guidance Association pushes for standards to establish licensing requirements for counselors.
  • Counseling Becomes a Recognized Profession

    An act in Virginia is identified by the ACA as the birth of the counseling profession.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Developed to protect individuals with disabilities from being discriminated against. Counselors are working to support these individuals in finding careers and in finding the appropriate community supports.
  • State Licensure

    All 50 states have now established licensure requirements for practicing counseling to assure a standard of professionalism.
  • Affordable Care Act

    This allowed for more individuals to have access to mental health services due to increased insurance coverage.
  • Growth

    The American School Counselor Association has grown to over 25,000 members. The 20/20 is working to assure that all counselors across the country are meeting the same licensing standards to develop consistency.