Mentalhospital ash

The evolution of mental health treatment

  • The early days of mental health treatment

    The early days of mental health treatment
    In the Middle Ages, mental illness was regarded as demonic possession. For centuries, the mentally ill were often shackled and shunned and hidden away like a shameful secret. French physician Phillippe Pinel took over Bicêtre insane asylum and banned the use of chains and shackles, removing the inmates from the dungeons and providing them with sunny rooms. But of course mistreatment continued in other parts of Europe as well as the United States.
  • The Classification of mental illness - Emil Kraepelin

    The Classification of mental illness - Emil Kraepelin
    In the late 1800s, Emil Kraepelin was a pioneer in the development of psychiatry. He was convinced that all mental illness had an organic cause, and he was one of the first scientists to emphasize brain pathology in mental illness. A german psychiatrist, Kraepelin distinguished differences between types of mental illness: manic-depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, etc.. Patients were no longer seen as simply “insane.”
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    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

    ECT, was introduced in the 1930s and used a brief electrical jolt to induce a cerebral seizure. In the early years, according to the Mayo Clinic, “electroconvulsive therapy could be painful and downright dangerous. It was administered with neither anesthetics nor muscle relaxants, and the electrical current was much higher than today. Powerful seizures racked the body with a force that could break bones.” The procedure is still used but now in much more humane ways,
  • Lobotomies (Howard Dully)

    Lobotomies (Howard Dully)
    The number of lobotomies soared from 150 in 1945 to over 5000 in 1949. They sometimes involving drilling into the brain to cut nerves thought to be capable of regenerating into healthier connections. But, the most popular was Doctor Walter Freeman’s technique, where an ice pick-like object was inserted through the eye socket and tapped into the brain with a mallet. Many people who were wrongly lobitomized were merely improperly behaving young adolescents or unhappy house wives
  • Lithium

    An Australian psychiatrist named Cade introduced the use of lithium to treat psychosis in 1949. Lithium gained wide spread use in the mid-1960s to treat those with manic depression, now known as bipolar disorder. Lithium is a naturally occurring mineral that is kind of like to sodium and potassium. It affects chemical messengers which nerves use to communicate with each other. it is now the most commonly used medication to treat mood disorders
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    The Drug Revolution

    quite afew actually successful anti-psychotic drugs were introduced in the 1950s, including the powerful chlorpromazine (Thorazine). Studies showed that 70 percent of patients with schizophrenia improved on the anti-psychotic drugs. Later in the decade came the discovery of the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and the tricyclic antidepressants. which are other affective medications.
  • De-institutionalization

    In the 1960s, thousands of patients formerly housed in mental institutions were released to be sent to decentralized clinics for new medication and social services. However, many have had problems accessing the services and some are now living on the streets without medications or assistance. About one-third of homeless people are estimated to actually be untreated mentally ill.
  • Behavior therapy

    Behavior therapy
    Started in the mid-1950s, behavior therapy has become a widely used method to help people replace bad disturbing thoughts and beliefs with ones that help them feel and function better. Working with a therapist, they can use it to learn to deal with emotions, relate to other people in different ways and solve daily life problems. It has been shown to be highly effective and in over a short time.
  • National advocacy

    National advocacy
    In the 1980s, national organizations, such as the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill, the National Mental Health Association (now Mental Health America) and others, were created to protect, support, educate, and advocate for the mentally ill.
  • Prozac and its descendants, better and better medication

    Prozac and its descendants, better and better medication
    The late 1980s and through the years till today have introduced new and more effective antidepressants, starting with the very popular fluoxetine (Prozac). Today there is now medication (or combos of medication) to help with just about every mental ailment.