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Historical Foundations of Counseling

  • First school guidance program

    First school guidance program
    Jesse B. Davis introduced the first guidance program in schools.
  • The start of the mental hygiene movement

    The start of the mental hygiene movement
    Clifford Whittingham Beers recounted his time spent in a mental health facility in his book "A Mind that Found Itself". This sparked the beginning of the mental hygiene movement.
  • Vocational Bureau of Boston was founded

    Frank Parsons, the "father of the American guidance movement" founded the Vocational Bureau of Boston.
  • Freud introduces ideas to United States

    Freud introduces ideas to United States
    Sigmund Freud, the "Father of Psychoanalysis" introduced his ideas to the United States. His ideas were not well received initially, but his work has had a major impact on the field of psychology and has greatly influenced the work of many others.
  • National Vocational Guidance Association

    The NVGA was founded and published The Journal of Counseling and Development.
  • World War I

    World War I
    Army Alpha and Army Beta tests were created to assess the mental fitness of the millions of individuals who were serving their country in WWI.
  • The Smith-Hughes Act

    The Smith-Hughes Act
    This act helped to provide vocational training in schools. It helped promote vocational education in agricultural, industrial and home economics fields.
  • The beginning of group therapy

    Alfred Adler began using what he called "collective counseling" or group therapy.
  • 1st Marriage and Family Counseling Center

    The first center was opened in New York City by Abraham and Hannah Stone.
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    The main focus of counseling at this time was job placement due to the large number of individuals seeking employment. The setting for counseling expanded to public schools, colleges, and community locations.
  • WWII

    Over one million men were rejected from serving their country due to psychiatric issues. This revealed that mental health issues were extensive throughout the United States, and mental hygiene clinics were set up at recruitment centers.
  • Client Centered Counseling

    Client Centered Counseling
    Carl Rogers took a new approach to counseling where the client was in control of determining growth and change. He considered the client to be the expert of their own life and placed a new emphasis on counseling techniques.
  • The Humanistic Approach is born

    The Humanistic Approach is born
    Some of the Existentialists, Erikson, Adler, Horney, Fromm and Frankl's theories deviated from the traditional view of psychology in the United States at the time, which favored psychoanalysis. Their work and influence helped develop the humanist approaches to psychotherapy.
  • National Mental Health Act

    This act was introduced in response to the need for mental health professionals after WWII.
  • ASCA

    The American School Counselor association joined the American Personnel and Guidance Association as its own branch.
  • NDEA

    The National Defense Education Act was passed. It was created in response to Russia's launch of Sputnik and sought to increase the number of school guidance programs and counselors in order to get more students properly trained in math and science.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    As the Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964, it provided minorities with more opportunities than ever before. As such, more counselors were needed to advise them through their educational and career choices.
  • Licensure in 50 states

    Licensure in 50 states
    The APGA called for licensure requirements across all 50 states.

    The American Mental Health Counselors Association was chartered as a national organization for licensed counselors in community and non-school settings.
  • NBCC established

    NBCC established
    The National Board for Certified Counselors was created.
  • ADA

    The Americans with Disabilities Act was passed to help protect individuals with disabilities from being discriminated against and to help provide them with more equal opportunities. Counselors would now work to help provide opportunities for these individuals
  • State licensure

    State licensure was adopted by 41 states. By 2009, all states had licensure requirements.
  • ASCA Framework

    The ASCA published The ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counselors.
  • California passes licensure requirements

    California passes licensure requirements
    Governor Schwarzenegger signed the legislature for California to become the final state to require licensure requirements for counselors. All 50 states now have licensure requirements.
  • ACA

    The Affordable Care Act was signed into law. This act includes increased coverage for mental health issues.

    Any mental health counselor who provide services for the VA or TRICARE must have a master's degree or higher from a CACREP accredited program.
  • Today and beyond

    Today and beyond
    The counseling profession continues to grow and become more unified. The ASCA itself now has more than 25,000 members and continues to grow.