The History of Intelligence

  • G-factor

    Charles Spearman developed the General Intelligence Theory which accounted for imperfect correlations in intelligence. His model is considered to be the first theory of intelligence.
  • Binet-Simon Test

    Binet-Simon Test
    Alfred Binet, Victor Henri, and Theodore Simon worked together to creat the Binet-Simon Test for the french government in order to help decide which students were more likely having difficulty in school. Since all children in France were required to go to school, this test helped identify which ones need special education.
  • Henry H. Goddard Translation and the Eugenics Movement

    Henry H. Goddard Translation and the Eugenics Movement
    Henry H. Goddard, an American Psychologist, created a translation of the origional Binet-Simon test to be used in the American Eugenics Movement as a tool to diagnose mental retardation. Some U.S. citizens were forceably sterilized if their IQ scores weren't sufficiant in the eyes of the government.
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    Military intelligence tests

    Mental tests were mass produced because of the need of an efficiant way to evaluate and assign military recruits.
  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales

    Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
    Lewis Terman, an American psychologist from Stanford University, revised the Binet-Simon test because of its limitations in scale, measuring diversity, and use of quantitative measurements as opposed to using qualitative measurements; thus, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales were created. This test became the most popular test in the U.S. for years to come.
  • Raymond Cattell Intelligence Theories

    Raymond Cattell Intelligence Theories
    In a revision of Spearman's G-factor, Raymond Cattell came up with two types of cognitive abilities: Fluid Intelligence ( the ability to solve novel problems by using reasoning) and Crystallized Intelligence (a knowlege based ability that is dependent on education and experience).
  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales

    Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales
    David Wechsler created an intelligence of his own because he disagreed with the current most popular intelligence tests. Although this test sharedmany similarities with the Binet IQ test, it eventually surpassed it in popularity.
  • Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence

     Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
    David Wechsler created another intelligence test because he was unsatisfied with the current Binet IQ tests, and he needed a way to find out more about his patients at the Bellevue Clinic.
  • Three Stratum Theory

    Three Stratum Theory
    John B. Caroll proposed this theory about human cognitive abilities after re-analyzing earlier intelligence data and theories. The theory was composed of three levels. Level one consisted of highly-specialized narrow abilities. Level two consisted of eight broad abilities. Level three consisted of the general intelligence factor.
  • Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory

    Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory
    This theory was a result of more recent advances in human cognitive ability research. It is a mixture of two theories of human cognitive abilities. The Gf-Gc theory by Raymond Catell and the Three-Stratum Theory by John Bissel Caroll are included in this theory.