Civil rights

The Civil Rights Movement

  • White Primary Is Abolished in Georgia

    White Primary Is Abolished in Georgia
    The White Primary was a political creation that the Democrats used to "exclude anyone they wanted". In the South, this was a way that white Democrats could descriminate black voters. This particular descrimination prevented blacks from voting in elections that could further lead to the decision of the next political leader. For the Democrats, this established a "black-free" election in a heavily-supported Democratic area. (info) pic:
  • White Primary is Abolished in Georgia (continued)

    White Primary is Abolished in Georgia (continued)
    In Georgia, the White Primary was abolished in a federal court ruling due to the actions of Primus E. King, who was denied the opportunity to vote in Columbus. Because White Primaries were ruled unconstitutional, "more than 116,000 blacks registered to vote, shifting Georgia's political landscape to the urban regions."The majority of the black voting population was moved to the urban areas, which allowed them with a greater community chance to vote. (info)
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    The Civil Rights Movement

  • Integration of the Armed Forces

    Integration of the Armed Forces
    President Truman signed Exectutive Order 9981, which states: "It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin." Through this order, desegregation was established in the US Armed Forces. Previous conflict with racial segregation in the Armed Forces led to the creation of the act. Info: Pic:
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    In this case, Linda Brown fought against segregation in schools after being forced to walk a further distance to a black school when a "whites-only" school was at a closer distance. Together with the NAACP (The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Brown brought the case to the District Court of the District of Kansas, then continued to the Supreme Court on October 1, 1951. Info: Pic:
  • Brown vs. Board of Education (continued)

    Brown vs. Board of Education (continued)
    The Supreme Court ruled that "seperate but equal" could not apply in schools becasue it limited the extent of a child's ability to learn. This also stated that seperate education builidings were "inherently unequal". Because of this, the Plessy vs. Ferguson case was overturned in the field of education. Although the case did not ban segregation from all public locations, it did establish the rights and laws for public education to be non-segregated.
  • The Murder of Emmett Till

    The Murder of Emmett Till
    Emmett Till, and African-American boy, was murdered becasue he "spoke" to a white woman who was the wife of the store owner. (He said "Bye baby" to her...) Three days later, he was kidnapped, beaten, and shot. His body was found in the Tallahatchie River. This struck the Civil Rights Movement all throughout America, and became a symbol of how the miseries of discrimination can affect people. Info: Pic:
  • Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott (continued)

    Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott (continued)
    Soon after Parks was arrested, a man named Martin Luther King, Jr. and his colleague Ralph Abernathy established the idea for a boycott protesting the buses of Montgomery. On Monday, December 5th, the boycott went into action. Each protestor avoided the use of public bus transportation until the demands for fairness and black courtesy were met. In result, the Motgomery Improvement Association (MIA) was created, and Segregated Buses were declared uncontitutional on November 23, 1956.
  • Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
    On this date, Rosa Parks, a black woman, refused to move her seat for a white man. Even though she was in the "Colored Section", James Blake demanded for the seat. In result of her not moving, Blake resolved to an arrest. Parks was arrested and fined a total of ten dollars, but her actions sparked a revolution for the Civil Rights Movement. Info: Pic:
  • Change to Georgia's State Flag

    Change to Georgia's State Flag
    Senate Bill 98 was signed by Georgia Governor Marvin Griffin stating the change in Georgia's state flag. Twelve days earlier, the bill passed Senate with a "41-3" vote. The change, added to the flag by John Sammons Bell, consisted of factors from Georgia's previous flag, but replaced the three bars of "red, white, red" with the Confederate Battle Flag. This created conflict because it promoted Confederate domination in the South and defiance to desegregation. Info & Pic:
  • Crisis at Central High School and Little Rock Nine (continued)

    Crisis at Central High School and Little Rock Nine (continued)
    The Little Rock Nine was a group of nine high school students who attempted to study at Central High School. This added violence, physical abuse, & bomb threats. However, Earnest Green, Elizabeth Eckford, Jefferson Thomas, Dr. Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls Lanier, Minnijean Brown Trickey,Thelma Mothershed-Wair, Melba Pattillo Beals, & Gloria Ray Karlmark stood firm. In result of their hard work, the group led a pathway to assure that African-American's would have their rights enforced.
  • Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"

    Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"
    The crisis at Central High School in Arkansas was caused by the Little Rock County refusal to deseggregate schools. In result, the NAACP sued against the district in the trial known as Aaron vs. Cooper. Violence continued as the deseggregation plan continued, and the violence became intense to the point that District Judge Ronald Davies called in the Arkansas National Guard to mangage the problem. Info: (, Pics:(,
  • Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in Atlanta Bombed

    Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in Atlanta Bombed
    Tthe Hebrew Benevolent Congregation, a.k.a. the Temple, was bombed. This bombing caused the Temple to loose over $200,000 in repairs, and the city's Jews were in peril. The congregation was targeted because Rabbi Jacob Rothschild spoke critically about segregation, which caused conflict. Soonafter, trials were conducted, but the established fines were soon dropped, causing distress about segregation in the state of Georgia towards the Jews. Pic: Info:
  • Sibley Commission

    Sibley Commission
    The Sibley Commission was established to help defend schools of integration through public and state authorities. The state, however, went against the National Government when they voted to stop integration in schools. Sibley suggested that schools should have their own choice and the Atlanta School District desegregated that fall. "The report issued by the Sibley Commission laid the foundation for the end of massive resistance to desegregation." Pic: Info:
  • Sit-ins begin in Greensboro, NC

    Sit-ins begin in Greensboro, NC
    Ezell A. Blair, Jr., Franklin E. McCain, Joseph A. McNeil, and David L. Richmond staged a "sit-in" at the local Woolworth Co. They sat in the "Whites-Only" section of the cafeteria, and were denied service and asked to leave. They politely refused to leave until the counter closed. The following day, over 30 more students offered to help "defend the cause".This sit-in led to the beginning of desegregation beliefs in public places. Info: Pic:
  • Albany Movement

    Albany Movement
    The Albany Movement took place in Albany, Georgia. The SNCC workers- Charles Sherrod, Cordell Reagon, Charles Jones, & Dr. William Anderson- came to Albany to start a voting registration drive. Through nonviolent protests, they encouraged students to challenge the 1955 ruling of no segregation in bus & train stations. However, this resulted in a mass arresting with over 500 protesters jailed, including Dr. Martin Luther King, who was invited. Info: Pic:
  • Integration of the University of Georgia

    Integration of the University of Georgia
    On this date, two African-Americans won a court ruling that admited them into the University of Georgia. A once segregated school was now integrated on the accounts of a historic ruling that stated that UGA had used race as an excuse to integate their school. Riots broke out in result, and a court ruling known as Roy vs. Harris permitted the students to continue studying. In result, the school began to integrate, and many schools followed afterwards. Info & Pic:
  • Freedom Riders

    Freedom Riders
    On this day, the first freedom riders (seven blacks and six whites) traveled on buses to the Deep South to test the Supreme Court's ruling of the Boynton vs. Virginia case which stated that segregation in interstate bus and rail stations was unconstitutional. This led to violence from many white Southerners and the violence became so intense, that President Kennedy was pressured to have it stopped. They continued protesting in Mississippi. Info: Pic:
  • Birmingham, Alabama Protests

    Birmingham, Alabama Protests
    On this date, Martin Luther King Jr. and L. Shuttlesworth led nonviolent protests for civil rights. These protests and situations led to President Kennedy's Civil Rights Act of 1964, establishing rights to African-Americans. However, the protestors were targeted by police dogs and hosed with fire hoses to rid the demonstrators off the street. This showed a public outcry for civil rights. Info: Pic:
  • Assassination of Medgar Evers

    Assassination of Medgar Evers
    Evers was an insurance salesman, who was part of the NAACP. He worked hard to bring equality to Mississippi's Blacks, was a strong speaker to desegregation, arranged sit-ins, and fought reinforcement for Brown vs. Board of Education. Unfortunately, he was killed by Byron De la Beckwith, a white supremacist. He was tried and aquitted twice in 1964, and the case lay dormant until February 5, 1994, when he was charged guilty of murder. Info: Pic:
  • March on Washington, D.C.

    March on Washington, D.C.
    250,000 protesters gathered at Washington, D.C. to protest Civil Rights in the USA. Led by MLK Jr., they protested for the elimination of segregation in public schools, relief from police brutality, provisons for jobs, a law passed against racial discrimination in public job offering, a $2 minimum wage, and a self-government for D.C. The Civil Rights movement was in favor of Kennedy, and hope of desegregation continued forward. Info: Pic:
  • 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed

    16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed
    A bomb went off at 16th Street Baptist Church, killing four girls: Denise McNair, Addie Mae Collins, Carole Robertson, and Cynthia Wesley. Witness reports showed that Robert Chambliss, a member of the KKK, placed the bomb at the church to be detonated. Civil Rights activists believed that the reason for the bombing was against themselves, for many popular Civil Rights Activists met at the church. In result, the four men responsible were tried and convicted. Info & Pic:
  • John F. Kennedy Assassinated

    John F. Kennedy Assassinated
    President John F. Kennedy was assassinated at the brink of the Cold War. He was shot riding in a motorcade through Dealey Plaza, in Dallas, Texas. The accused murderer was Lee Harvey Owswald, a "former Marine and defector to the Soviet Union". Unfortunately, America lost a great president that day, and we will never forget his constant trials to sustain the Civil Rights Movement. Info: Pic:
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 Passed

    Civil Rights Act of 1964 Passed
    President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The act made racial discrimination in public areas illegal and attempted to fix the complication in the South with unfair African-American votes, This act gave power to the attorney general to imply legal action under suspicion of a habitual resistance to the act. Info: Pic:
  • The Murder of Civil Rights Workers James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner

    The Murder of Civil Rights Workers James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner
    The three men killed were Civil Rights activists who tried to register black voters. They came to Mississippi to investigate the burning of a Black church, were later arrested for false charges, jailed for a short period, and were handed to the KKK, who beat and murdered them. On Oct. 1964, 18 men were arrested by the FBI for the murder and served 3 years in jail. Four decades later, Edgar Ray Killen was tried and convicted of the crime. Info & Pic:
  • Selma to Montgomery March

    Selma to Montgomery March
    Martin Luther King Jr., the SNCC, and the SCLC led a nonviolent protestor march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama. This protested voting rights and caused conflict, but soon led to President Lydon B. Johnson signing the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Info:
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 Passed

    Voting Rights Act of 1965 Passed
    President Lyndon B. Johnson signed a law that gave authority over the National Government to oversee voting. This ensured that "discriminatory literacy tests" would be banned and voting rights would be expanded for non- English speaking voters. This also oversaw states that used the literacy tests to determine voting ability and states with a voting regestration of less than 50% turnout. This act helped segregation disappear from obstructing voting rights. Info & Pic:
  • Summerhill Race Riot (Atlanta)

    Summerhill Race Riot (Atlanta)
    This riot began with the murder of an African-American man as the police inspected a suspicious vehicle. A police officer killed the man, and many neighbors in the small town banned together to riot.The SNCC brought a truck to help the "morale" of the rioters, and Stokely Carmichael was blamed for standing in a car and "inciting riots". Mayor Ivan Allen tried to settle the situation peacefully, but the crowds wouldn't listen. Info: Pic:
  • Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated

    Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated
    At the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, Martin Luther King Jr. was shot and killed. Soon afterwards, James Earl Ray confessed and was convicted of killing King. The entire counrty surly grieved for this leader, but Atlanta greived the most because it was the hometown of the beloved activist. MLK was born and raised in Atlanta, Georgia, and his death caused the entire city to grieve more than cities around the country. Info & Pic: Info:
  • All GA Schools Integrated

    All GA Schools Integrated
    After the Brown vs. Education case, desegregation began slowly in the South during the 1960's. For Georgia, however, desegregation didn't begin until the 1970's. The reason for this was due to the many "loopholes" that Georgians created to postpone desegregation as long as possible. Eventually, integration began with a "one black, one white" teacher ratio. This caused problems in Georgia, but they were resolved. Info: