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The Civil Rights Movement

  • White Primary is Abolished in Georgia

    White Primary is Abolished in Georgia
    White Primaries were elections held in southern states that did not allow black people to vote. Since the south was mainly a democratic party, they called themselves a private organization and they could decide who voted and who didn’t. It turns out the only people who they didn’t let vote was blacks. This meant that blacks couldn’t vote in the primary election that decided who would run for office.
  • White Primary is Abolished in Georgia

    White Primary is Abolished in Georgia
    Because the state was mainly democratic, the primary election basically decided who would win. Many blacks found this unfair and fought against White Primaries. In the case King vs. Chapman, The US Supreme Court decided that white primaries should be ended because it violated the 14th amendment. PICTURE:http://www.cocoacure.com/do-african-americans-present-a-united-front-literally-and-figuratively TEXT:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_primaries
  • Intergration of the Armed Forces

    Intergration of the Armed Forces
    Harry S. Truman, the president of the United States, signed the Executive Order saying African-Americans could fight beside whites. This order was put in place because during the Battle of Bulge in World War II, General Dwight Eisenhower only had white men and because of this he was short soldiers in his military units. He decided to allow black men to fight because he needed them to succeed. Although this decision was for the best, many people were against this.
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    In Topeka, Kansas, the Brown family began a revolution. After realizing that their daughter, instead of being able to walk seven blocks to the nearest school, had to walk one mile to get to the closest colored school, wanted to end segregation in schools. The girl’s father, Oliver Brown, came in contact with NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and they began to put together a case to send to court.
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    The US District Court of Kansas turned down their argument; the court decided to rule in favor of the Board of Education because of the Plessey vs. Ferguson case, which stated “separate but equal rights”. After being turned down, Brown and NAACP took their case to the Supreme Court. Their case was heard several times before the court decided that segregated schools can affect a colored child’s learning ability. This completely ruled against the Plessey vs. Ferguson case.
  • Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Rosa Parks, a black woman, and three other African- Americans were asked to move back a couple rows when white riders entered a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and needed somewhere to sit in the front. The three African Americans moved but Rosa Parks refused to and because of this, Rosa Parks was arrested and fined. This outraged the black community and they began protesting against segregation. Although it may have seemed as if Parks had lost her battle, she didnt.
  • Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
    Her boldness and bravery gave other people the courage to stand up for what they believed.
    TEXT:http://www.ushistory.org/us/54b.asp
    PICTURE:http://unit8juliav11.wikispaces.com/file/view/bus.gif/226132516/bus.gif
  • Change to Georgia's State Flag

    Change to Georgia's State Flag
    Three men wanted to change Georgia’s flag so it incorporated the Confederate flag. The people who believed the flag should include the confederate flag stated that it was to remember the centennial of the Civil War. Others disagreed with the change. Their argument was that during the Civil War, Georgia tried to resist integration; they believed the confederate flag represented racism. Although many poeple disliked the change, In the end, the state flag was changed to contain the Confederate flag
  • Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"

    Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"
    Because of the recent decision that schools should not be integrated, a group of nine students, also known as the "Little Rock Nine", decided they should be allowed to attend their local school in Arkansas, Central High School. When they tried to go into the building, the National Guard, who was assigned the duty of keeping blacks of the school by the governor, denied them access. After this upset the black community greatly, the National Guard was ordered to allow the children to go to school.
  • Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"

    Crisis at Central High School and the "Little Rock Nine"
    The white population in the school was upset about this and began to cause chaos in front of Central. The President, Dwight D. Eisenhower, ordered for the National Guard to patrol the school to make sure the Little Rock Nine and any other black students could be allowed access to the school.TEXT:http://www.ark-ives.com/photo/gallery/central.asp
    PICTURE:http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/civilrights/ar1.htm
  • Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in Atlanta Bombed

    Hebrew Benevolent Congregation in Atlanta Bombed
    The Congregation was bombed early in the morning. The UPI got a call from "General Gordon of the Confederate Underground" saying that he bombed the temple and he was prepared to bomb other businesses that didnt fire their African- American employies. The temple's rabi was a strong civil rights activist and strongly believed in integration;his congregation was targeted to warn the public that civil rights can put you in danger.
  • Sibley Commission

    Sibley Commission
    Even though it was decided that Georgia schools should integrate, many state schools did not. For some reason no one wanted integrated schools; even the General Assembly of Georgia voted to stop paying for state schools that were integrated. John Sibley began to research and find out the issue with school integration. Sibley found out something very interesting by interviewing many Georgians; many of them said they would rather have no schools then integrated schools!
  • Sibley Commision

    Sibley Commision
    After realizing how strongly Georgians felt about integrated schools, the Commission decided to say that all school systems are granted the right to integrate their schools. This decision made many white people mad and because of this, private schools began to open for white families who didn’t want their students in an integrated school.
    PICTURE:http://blog.mywonderfulworld.org/2009/02/february-is-black-history-month.html TEXT:http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2617
    TEXT:
  • Integration of UGA

    Integration of UGA
    Judge W. A. Bootle, who was a federal district court judge, said that two black students, Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter, must be allowed to attend UGA. This contradicted the state law saying that no state funded school could be segregated. Because the college was going against this law, it was a possibility the school would be closed.
  • Integration of UGA

    Integration of UGA
    Students stayed calm and collected until January 11 when a group of upset students formed outside of Charlayne Hunter’s room and caused damage and disruption. State officials broke up the angry mob and decided to continue to fund a now segregated University of Georgia. TEXT:http://crdl.usg.edu/events/uga_integration/?Welcome PICTURE:http://athenscms.com/oa/zenphoto/010911-uga-desegregation-pioneers/
  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    A group of seven blacks and six whites decided to go on a journey to trial the Supreme Court’s recent decision saying that segregated buses were unconstitutional. Throughout the first couple of days, the group only had some negative encounters. As the excursion continued, the anger towards the group grew and eventually turned into dangerous and violent riots. When they reached their final destination, the heated mobs became even more brutal and vicious.
  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    This caused a large number of people to become concerned about the issue and President Kennedy to put a stop to the hostility. By the end of the year, the Interstate Commerce Commission changed policies regarding segregation in public transportation.
    TEXT: http://www.core-online.org/History/freedom%20rides.htm PICTURE:http://www.ibiblio.org/sncc/rides.html
  • Albany Movement

    Albany Movement
    In Albany, Georgia, the Local activists, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People joined together in the effort to end segregation once and for all by informing the country about white supremacy. It was a movement that showed the public what whites and the media were hiding from the country about the serious issue of segregation. This was headed by a local African- American doctor, William G. Anderson.
  • Albany Movement

    Albany Movement
    Another relevant person who was involved in the movement was Martin Luther King Jr. Although this did not work as the activists hoped it would, it got many American’s attention and eventually led to great change in the nation. TEXT: http://en.mwikipedia.org/wiki/Albany_Movement
    PICTURE:http://thealbanyjournal.com/2011/03/vintage-albany-31/
    PICTURE:
  • Birmingham, Alabama Protests

    Birmingham, Alabama Protests
    Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership conference joined together to bring "Project C" to the streets of Birmingham. Project C was the idea of confronting the issue of segregation rather than protesting with more violence and hatred. Many people, including Martin Luther King, were arrested for protesting but this wasn’t the end for the civil rights activists. There was more to come! TEXT and PICTURE: http://faculty.smu.edu/dsimon/Change-Civ%20Rts.html
  • March on Washington DC

    March on Washington DC
    Many African- Americans were become annoyed with how long it was taking to act on the issue of segregation. In an effort to show the president how urgent the issue was, a group of around 250,000 people marched through the streets of Washington, DC. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous, "I Have a Dream" speech. This got many people's, including the government's, attention. PICTURE and TEXT:http://faculty.smu.edu/dsimon/Change-Civ%20Rts.html
  • Bombing at the church in Birmingham

    Bombing at the church in Birmingham
    Four young girls were killed and many more people were hurt in a bombing at an African- American church. It took several years to find out who committed the crime. In the end, the FBI found out four remaining members of the Klu Klux Klan planted the bomb on the church because of their strong hatred towards African-Americans.PICTURE and TEXT:http://faculty.smu.edu/dsimon/Change-Civ%20Rts.html
  • John F. Kennedy

    John F. Kennedy
    John F. Kennedy was shot and killed Dealey Plaza, Dallas Texas while in the car with his wife Jacqueline. They were also with Texas governor John Connelly and his wife Nellie. He received many fatal bullet shots to the neck. At first, many believed it was Lee Harvey Oswald and he was arrested. They later realized that Jack Ruby was the person who actually assassinated JFK.TEXT and PICTURE:http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/November-22-1963-Death-of-the-President.aspx?p=2
  • Civil Rights Act 1964 Passed

    Civil Rights Act 1964 Passed
    This act was signed by President Lyndon Johnson. It outlawed segregation in public places, in employment opportunities, and segregation against women. All pools, theaters, parks, etc. were not allowed to be segregated.
    TEXT:http://ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=97
    PICTURE:http://www.blackpast.org/?q=aah/march-washington-jobs-and-freedom-august-28-1963
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 Passed

    Voting Rights Act of 1965 Passed
    This made everything that made it more difficult for African Americans to vote illegal. It was also signed by Lyndon B. Johnson and made it much more easy and safe for blacks to finally vote. TEXT:http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Civil+Rights+Act+of+1965 PICTURE:http://www.indypendent.org/2006/10/11/resisting-voting-rights-rollback
  • Summerhill Race Riots

    Summerhill Race Riots
    In a neighborhood called Summerhill in Atlanta, there was a four-day riot where the SNCC and their leader, Stokely Carmichael, participated in the riots. Prior to the riots, a police officer shot an African-American. One person died and many other people were injured. The mayor, Ivan Allen Jr., broke up the fighting and helped find a resolution to the issue in the community. TEXT: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summerhill_(Atlanta) PICTURE:http://album.atlantahistorycenter.com/store/Products/85950
  • Assassination of MLK

    Assassination of MLK
    Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated with one shot to the head. He had recently gone to Memphis, Tennessee, to lead a peace march. While on his balcony at this hotel, he was shot. One hour later, King was pronounced dead. Someone left a bag full of weapons at the crime scene and this eventually led to the uncovering of the men who were guilty
    behind the crime.PICTURE and TEXT:http://www.maryferrell.org/wiki/index.php/Martin_Luther_King_Assassination
  • All schools Integrated

    All schools Integrated
    Many African- American parents wanted integrated schools and as the demand for equalness in schooling became higher, the state began to act. Schools slowly but surley began to integrate. The process began in the 1960's. Not all schools in Georgia were integrated until 1971. TEXT:http://library.uncg.edu/dp/crg/topicalessays/schooldeseginteg.aspx PICTURE:http://citiography.wordpress.com/category/schools/