Salman Haji

  • Oct 31, 624

    Establishment of the First Mosque, Medina

    Establishment of the First Mosque, Medina
    The Prophet's house hosted the first mosque in Islamic history. The style of the mosque, which was in the courtyard, established the norm for mosque architecture for centuries to come. Notable features of the hypostyle mosque included palm trees as providers of shade, which was later incorporated in many mosques into arches within the mosque itself. The mosque also set the standard because it had a qibla to direct worship and was used in addition as a court, religious school, and community ctr.
  • Period: Oct 30, 661 to Oct 30, 750

    Syrian Ummayads

  • Oct 30, 691

    Syrian Ummayads' Dome of the Rock

    Syrian Ummayads' Dome of the Rock
    The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem symbolizes the eclecticism of the Ummayads as a natural result of the influences of the Byzantine and Sassanian traditions. The domed octagon resembles a Roman mausolea and Christian martyria and highly imitates the nearby church of the Holy Sepulchre. Mosaics were also used in the interior and exterior walls as a reference to Byzantine churches. This building was the first qibla and one of the first buildings to commemorate Islamic victory.
  • Oct 30, 715

    Syrian Ummayads' Great Mosque of Damascus

    Syrian Ummayads' Great Mosque of Damascus
    This mosque also symbolized the eclecticism of the Ummayads by bringing in Islamic and Byzantine/Christian influences together. Caliph al-Walid I used the Prophet's house in Medina as a model for the hypostyle mosque while incorporating the structure of a Christian basilica. Like the Dome of the Rock, this building also involved political themes, as its establishment was meant partly to assert the power and presence of the new faith.
  • Period: Oct 30, 750 to Oct 30, 1258

    Abbasid Caliphate

  • Period: Oct 30, 756 to Oct 30, 1017

    Caliphate of Cordoba (Spanish Ummayads)

  • Oct 31, 760

    Abbasid Shift Capital to Baghdad

    Abbasid Shift Capital to Baghdad
    The shift of the Muslim caliphate from Damascus to Baghdad resulted in a shift of neighbouring influences. While the Ummayads drew heavily upon Byzantine influences vis a vis their location in the levant, the Abbasids were able to utilise Iraq and Baghdad as the portal to access precious Chinese and Sassanian/Persian influences in art and architecture. Splashware from China, found in original as well as imitation work, is evident of this.
  • Oct 31, 785

    Spanish Ummayads' Great Mosque of Cordoba

    Spanish Ummayads' Great Mosque of Cordoba
    Like its twin in Damascus, the Great Mosque of Cordoba was built on the site of a Christian church bought and then demolished by the Moors. The new exiled Ummayad rulers reminisced of Syria, and did everything to resemble its origins; even Byzantine craftsmen were commissioned to make mosaics for the mosque. It was, however, different in many ways, including its use of vanishing points to suggest infinity and alternating red and white voussoirs. It was used politically to challenge the Abbasids.
  • Oct 30, 800

    Abbasid's Earthenware Bowl from Iraq

    Abbasid's Earthenware Bowl from Iraq
    This bowl signifies the secular bias of Abbasid pottery as well as Chinese influence from the Silk Road trade route. This imitation of Chinese stoneware has the Arabic word "ghibta" (happiness) written on it twice in a Chinese-type calligraphic script; it was one of the first instances to mark epigraphy as the main element of ornament.
  • Oct 30, 800

    Abbasid's Splashware Bowl from Samarra

    Abbasid's Splashware Bowl from Samarra
    This type of ceramic art clearly draws from Chinese influence, as faciliated by the Silk Road trade route. Many imitations of "splashware" techniques are found in Samarra as one of the most common and probably cheapest forms of ceramic art. This period was also significant because Abbasid potters highly prized Chinese porcelain, and this obsession led to the application of an opaque white glaze to ordinary earthenware.
  • Nov 2, 800

    Abbasids' Stucco Wall Revetment

    Abbasids' Stucco Wall Revetment
    This polychrome painted stucco piece has its roots in classic naturalism and two-dimensionality of early Byzantine art. Borders of pearl roundels and vegetal motifs are evident. We also see the Chinese motif of yin and yang appear very frequently, possibly a signal of Chinese infuence. This moulded, bevelled style made it easy to produce and helped support the fast growth of Samarra, Iraq.
  • Nov 2, 836

    Transfer of Abbasid Capital to Samarra

    Transfer of Abbasid Capital to Samarra
    The forced shift of the Abbasid capital from Baghdad to Samarra by caliph al-Mutasim resulted in a different kind of patronage. The caliph brought architects and materials from different parts of the empire to build his new city. This unique dynamism produced its own style and resulted in its imitation - the Samarran Friday mosque was the basis of the Ibn Tulun mosque in Cairo. In addition, it developed the production style of rapid stucco revetments.
  • Period: Oct 30, 910 to Oct 30, 1171

    Fatimid Caliphate

  • Period: Oct 30, 1000 to Oct 30, 1300

    Seljuq Dynasty

  • Oct 31, 1000

    Seljuks' Friday Mosque in Isfahan

    Seljuks' Friday Mosque in Isfahan
    This mosque was typical of the 4-iwan mosques found mainly in Iran which had a courtyard surrounded by 4 huge vaulted arches. The iwans were not all the same size, however; major iwans often correlated with the position of the domed chamber. Saljuq domed chambers had the tendency to be externally simplistic with an emphasis on the external zone of transition.
  • Nov 2, 1000

    Fatimids' Lustreware Bowl

    Fatimids' Lustreware Bowl
    The number and variety of themes and motifs expanded widely in Fatimid times and was evident in lustrewares, and most bore abstract and vegetal designs. People, animals and their actions are magnificently recorded in the pottery, and could be connected to symbolism of love, for example, or to eclecticism of classical themes due to Egypt's relation to Hellenistic art and to Mediterranean influences in general. In this period too, some of the first instances of potters' signatures are seen.
  • Oct 31, 1013

    Fatimid's Mosque of al-Hakim

    Fatimid's Mosque of al-Hakim
    This mosque is important to note because of its innovations that characterise the Fatimid style. Some include the use of towers as outstanding corner structures on the facade, which gave them a new overbearing function. Also included is the building of domes on the two corners of the qibla wall that are at opposite ends of the mihrab dome. This resembles Maghribi T-Style mosque architecture, possibly linking to the Fatimid's North African origins.
  • Period: Oct 30, 1023 to Oct 30, 1031

    Caliphate of Cordoba (Spanish Ummayads)

  • Period: Oct 30, 1040 to Oct 30, 1157

    Almoravid Dynasty

  • Nov 2, 1068

    Pillage of the Fatimid Palace Treasury

    Pillage of the Fatimid Palace Treasury
    In 1068, the Fatimid palace treasury was pillaged by soldiers who felt that their pay was not satisfactory. This act brought the artwork of the treasury to the public eye and the market. This dispersal of court-restricted art and wares allowed for a democratization of art in that an affluent bourgeoisie adopted and debased courtly themes from the art. This event helps us question the quantity of art yet to be discovered as part of private royal collections.
  • Oct 31, 1125

    Fatimid's Al Aqmar Mosque

    Fatimid's Al Aqmar Mosque
    The Al Aqmar mosque was important primarily because it was one of the first instances in which the technique of facade-street level alignment was utilised. Because it was built in a city that had already been laid out, the mosque needed to bridge its alignment to the street and to Mecca; this was done by skewing the entrance apart from the main mosque area. It was also important because it showed symbols of the ceremonial nature of the Fatimids and the relationship between the caliph and vizier.
  • Period: Oct 30, 1130 to Oct 9, 1269

    Almohad Dynasty

  • Oct 31, 1153

    Almohad's Great Mosque of Tinmal

    Almohad's Great Mosque of Tinmal
    The mosque in Tinmal is noteworthy for many things. First, it has its minaret behind its mihrab, which was an innovation for the Muslim world yet would be copied by many mosques in the Maghrib. Secondly, it possessed the characteristic "Maghribi T-shape" layout, characteristic of many mosques in the region.
  • Nov 2, 1169

    Yellow and Saladin's Invasion

    Yellow was a taboo colour in Fatimid era art and architecture, but this changed when Saladin overthrew them in 1169. He and his Ayyubid and Mamluk successors made yellow their colour.
  • Oct 31, 1200

    Seljuk Mina'i Bowl

    Seljuk Mina'i Bowl
    Seljuk mina'i ware was the most expensive type of ceramic in the period, and was highly traded. Mina'i was the term for ceramics born from a unique firing process in which the first firing would typically cover the work in an opaque white and the second, cooler, firing was done with an addition of metallic oxides (silver and copper) to make the ceramics shiny. Often referred to as haftrangi ceramics because of its use of different colours and the permitting of a high degree of detailing.
  • Period: Oct 30, 1232 to Oct 30, 1492

    Nasrid Dynasty

  • Period: Oct 30, 1244 to Oct 30, 1465

    Marinid Dynasty

  • Period: Oct 30, 1250 to Oct 30, 1517

    Mamluk Sultanate

  • Period: Oct 30, 1256 to Oct 30, 1335

    Ilkhanid Dynasty

  • Nov 2, 1256

    Founding of the Ilkhanid Dynasty

    Founding of the Ilkhanid Dynasty
    The Mongol invasions of Abbasid lands accelerated its demise and resulted in the founding of a Mongol dynasty in Iran. This signified the period of intense mixing of Chinese, Persian and Arab artwork. The Persian national epic the Shahnama, for example, were chosen by Mongol patrons to have copies made with illustrations that showed Chinese and Mongol themes, including phoenixes and dragons. Eventually, this hybridity resulted in the conversion of the Mongols to Islam.
  • Nov 1, 1285

    Mamluk Mosque Lamp

    Mamluk Mosque Lamp
    This mosque lamp signifies the heraldic motifs and epigraphic style present in many Mamluk works, not just in glass art. They were used for religious and political propaganda - when lit, the calligraphy would spread not only the word of God, but the names of patrons. These showed mastery of Mamluk craftsmen in firing techniques; the lamps would be fired only one time with all the colours, yet none of them mixed together. This allowed them to avoid deforming the lamp's shape if fired many times.
  • Period: Oct 30, 1299 to

    Ottoman Empire

  • Nov 1, 1300

    Ilkhanid Lajvardina Jar

    Ilkhanid Lajvardina Jar
    This storage jar was important in that it exemplifies the lajvardina technique, the successor to the mina'i style. Lajvardina ceramics were well recognized because of their greatly lavish blue glaze. The style was highly mastered by Ilkhanid craftsmen but abandoned after the collapse of the Ilkhanids. Here, we also see the gold patterning that recalls the Mongol's fascination with luxury textiles as well as the tendency to follow Iranian culture and aesthetic styles.
  • Nov 1, 1300

    Ilkhanid's Great Mongol Shahnama

    Ilkhanid's Great Mongol Shahnama
    The patronage of the great Iranian epic, the "Shahnama", was fostered by the Ilkhanid rulers to make their commitment to ruling Persian lands more obvious. It is notable for many paintings that showcase dense designs and spatial complexities, diverse ranges of colours and depictions of drama and violent action. Elements from China and Western Europe were visible as well. The larger context placed the publishing of the Great Mongol Shahnama as a greater movement of resurgence to Iranian values.
  • Oct 31, 1350

    Nasirids' Alhambra

    Nasirids' Alhambra
    The Alhambra was unique because it did not rely extensively on Syrian Ummayad architecture, but rather was eclectic in the way that it drew upon elements from all dynasties from the Iberian peninsula. The presence of horseshoe and stilted arches as well as muqarnas vaults are testaments of this. It is also unique in the way that it merged with nature - water fountains and streams, trees and bushes, sunken flower beds and strategic uses of light are all evidence of this.
  • Nov 1, 1356

    Mamluk's Sultan Hassan Funerary Complex

    Mamluk's Sultan Hassan Funerary Complex
    The basic plan of the mosque includes a large central courtyard with 4 iwans and 4 courtyards surrounding it, which represent the 4 main schools of Sunni theology. It's important to notice the positioning of the complex across from the Citadel of Muhammad Ali, which could be strategically placed to challenge and intimidate enemies from the citadel. The complex also includes a madrasa and a mausoleum.
  • Nov 2, 1361

    Collapse of Sultan Hassan Mosque's Minaret

    Collapse of Sultan Hassan Mosque's Minaret
    One of the minarets built by Sultan Hassan as a part of his mosque complex collapsed and killed three hundred people. The public received this omen as God's judgment on the sultan's overweening architectural ambition, and he was deposed a few months later.
  • Period: Oct 30, 1370 to Oct 1, 1526

    Timurid Dynasty

  • Nov 2, 1400

    Decreased Mamluk Brassware Production

    Decreased Mamluk Brassware Production
    Between 1380 and 1450, Mamluk brassware production had sudden decreases. Economic factors might have contributed to the decrease - shortages of expensive metals, for example. The metalworking industry suffered considerably also as a result of continous inflation which resulted in armed conflicts, famines, plagues, and fires.
  • Nov 2, 1417

    Timurids' Ulugh Beg Madrasa

    Timurids' Ulugh Beg Madrasa
    This building characterizes the Timurids' mastery of geometrical concepts and proportional relationships needed to create harmonious and symmetrical designs. The size (especially of the enormous pishtak portal) above all emphasizes the factors of axiality, rhythm, repetition, anticipation and echo to yield full effect. The madrasa also showcases the Timurid/Persian style of hazarbaf, mosaic faience and haft-rangi.
  • Nov 1, 1488

    Timurids' Seduction of Yusuf

    Timurids' Seduction of Yusuf
    This painting is characteristic of the way that the Timurids favoured the book arts, in addition to the geometrical architectural elements present in many of these artworks. The artists mastered the technique of controlling the viewers' eyes through a strategic use of different patterned geometric shapes that facilitate the movement and understanding of the artwork seen here. Naturalism was also brought to the forefront, with more emphasized realistic gestures and expressions.
  • Period: Oct 30, 1501 to

    Safavid Dynasty

  • Nov 2, 1507

    Safavid Capture of Herat

    Safavid Capture of Herat
    This event resulted in the turnover of the library of Herat and its craftsmen to Safavid rule. Thus, early Safavid painting combined the traditions of Timurid Herat and Turcoman Tabriz to reach a peak of Persian art marked by technical excellence and emotional expressiveness. The best example of this is the Shahnama-yi Shahi, known as the most lavishly illustrated Shahnama in history.
  • Period: Oct 30, 1526 to

    Mughal Empire

  • Nov 2, 1548

    Ottomans' Suleymaniye Complex

    Ottomans' Suleymaniye Complex
    The Suleymaniye Complex consisted of madrasas, hammams, fountains, and hospitals. This mosque in the center, built by the famous architect Sinan, showcased the domed square style. The entire mosque seems to be covered by domes. The domes were placed in a hierarchy that supported the larger dome and allowed the gentle transition from top to bottom. The domes' windows also created a strategic use for light into the mosque. Its four minarets and stained glass windows were unconventional in style.
  • Nov 2, 1575

    Ottomans' Iznik Tile

    Ottomans' Iznik Tile
    This type of famous artwork was ironically made from a cheap and humble material. Iznik wares had high aesthetic and technical quality but also survive long periods in great condition. What made them stand out was the use of a brilliant tomato red, imitations of book arts and the focus on floral motifs and distinctive feathery saz leaves. The intense bureaucratic supervision and financial control allowed for the extreme success of Iznik wares.
  • Mughals' Harivamsa (The Legend of Hari Krishna)

    Mughals' Harivamsa (The Legend of Hari Krishna)
    In accordance with Akbar the Great's policies on religious tolerance, pages of the Hindu epic "Harivamsa" were translated for Muslim audiences. Here, we see the eclecticism of Mughal art - Chinese mushrooming mountains, European detailing on the trees and faces of animals and people, and the presence of Hindu religious symbols.
  • Safavids' Ali Qapu Palace

    Safavids' Ali Qapu Palace
    The Ali Qapu palace showed Safavid themes of theatricality and drama. It's notable to recognize that it was built jutting into the square, rather than caving outward (like the rest of the main buldings in the square). This imposing effect on the public of the square contrasted the inviting atmosphere of the other buildings. The thin columns supporting the terrace ceiling gave the theatrical appearance that it is unsupported. Its unique musical muqarnas showed the sultan's love for music.
  • Resettling of Armenians to New Julfa

    Resettling of Armenians to New Julfa
    In 1605, Shah Abbas made a decision to make eastern Armenia his depopulated defensive zone, therefore forcibly resettling many Armenians to a suburb of Isfahan, New Julfa. This suburb became the center of Iran's luxury crafts and trade due to the Armenians' roles as goldsmiths, silversmiths, and silk merchants. Other Europeans carrying European and Christian art techniques living in New Julfa also influenced Iranian art.
  • Safavids' Shah Mosque

    Safavids' Shah Mosque
    This great mosque was built on the 4-iwan style, inherited from the Seljuks. It also employed the street-facade alignment first seen in Fatimid times to align the mosque and its facade to the street and to the direction of prayer. Its dome is also important to recognize in its differences from Mughal or Ottoman domes: colourful tiles covered the interior and even the exterior of the dome. Lastly, it utilised the haft-rangi method of tilework, cheaper and quicker compared to mosaic faience.
  • Mughals' Taj Mahal Complex

    Mughals' Taj Mahal Complex
    The Taj Mahal complex is based on the hasht-behesht (eight paradises) plan - a square field with 9 spaces, relating to Iranian and Sufi origins. It also features the pietra dura style of inlaid stonework. The complex's "Darwaza-i-Rauza" features eleven "chatri" umbrella domes typical of Mughal architecture. In the central chamber of the mausoleum, jali screens surround the tombs to provide gradual light.