Art History Final Timeline

  • 1550 BCE

    "Mask of Agememmon"

    "Mask of Agememmon"
    Mask of Agememmon was determined to be from 1550-1500 BCE. It was discovered at Mycenae and depicts an iconic face. It is funerary mask made from sheet of gold hammered into shape. The mask is controversial because it was later discovered this mask was from a much earlier time than Agememmon seemed to be.
  • 1323 BCE

    "Tutankhamun's Death Mask"

    "Tutankhamun's Death Mask"
    Tutankhamun’s Mask from 1323 BCE is one of the most famous examples of death masks. It is believed to strengthen the spirit of the mummy and guard his spirit on the way to the afterlife. It is considered a devotional sculpture.
  • 190

    "The Unswept Floor After a Feast"

    "The Unswept Floor After a Feast"
    The Roman mosaic “The Unswept Floor After a Feast” was in the house of emperor Hadrians villa on the floor. It talks about excess, if you’re really wealthy you can throw food on the floor and waste it, don’t need to ration. It helps to show us the food habits of this time period
  • 990

    First moveable type

    First moveable type
    Bi Sheng of the Northern Song Dynasty created the first moveable type around 990-1051.
  • 1377

    Jikji

    Jikji
    A Korean moveable metal type. This was the first moveable type to use a metal-type.
  • 1390

    "The Craftsman's Handbook"

    "The Craftsman's Handbook"
    Cennino Cennini wrote “The Craftsman’s Handbook” in 1390, it discussed great details on how to make everything.
  • 1400

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    A rebirth of learning and the arts in Europe along with the revival and study of Ancient Greek and Roman culture.
  • 1400

    Da Vinci's Color Studies

    Da Vinci's Color Studies
    Da Vinci in the 1400s was also spending a lot of time studying color, the white against the darkest color will look the lightest, ideas about contrasting colors (but he hasen’t quite figured it out)
  • 1400

    "Tacuinum Sanitatis"

    "Tacuinum Sanitatis"
    Tacuinum Sanitatis was a book from 1400 CE that talks about how to achieve good health, farming, agriculture, and good diet. There are pictures in book that give us insight into the past food habits.
  • 1415

    The Development of Linear Perspective

    The Development of Linear Perspective
    Architect Fillipo Brunelleschi said to have invented linear perspective in 1415 during the beginning of the Renaissance. He used mirror with sight hole to see if his lines were straight.
  • 1425

    Development of Perspective

    Development of Perspective
    Masaccio painted Holy Trinity in 1425, 10 years after discovery of linear perspective. Perspective begins to move upward (2-point perspective but that hasn’t been quite developed yet), and Masaccio's painting is one of the first successful uses of linear perspective. The painting has more volume and a new style of Florentine realism, how to define perception in terms of painting.
  • 1435

    "Della Pictura"

    "Della Pictura"
    Alberti’s book, On Painting (Della Pictura) was written in 1435. It talks about color mixing and how there are only 4 trues colors as there are 4 elements, red blue green and gray being the 4 true colors. An infinite range of colors can come from these.
    It also talks about mixing of darks and lights, effects of black and white on a specific color, and how white and black are alterations of color, not true colors.
  • 1436

    "Lucca Madonna"

    "Lucca Madonna"
    Lucca Madonna by Jan Van Eyck was created in 1436. It depicts the virgin Mary nursing the baby Jesus. Mary becomes part of the architecture, the draping of the fabric depicts this. Images of lions around her reference Solomon, fruit on the window sill (apples or oranges) depict paradise if they are oranges or sin if they happen to be apples.
  • 1440

    Gutenberg printing press

    Gutenberg printing press
    Gutenbergs printing press was invented in 1440. It combines a moveable metal press with a screw press. The screw press was invented for other industries but Gutenberg used it to produce books at a new speed making more copies of books available. The Gutenberg bible was made 14 years later in 1454 and they tried to save money by jamming 42 lines per page instead of the regular 40.
  • 1470

    "Playing Chess with Death"

    "Playing Chess with Death"
    Albertus Pictor created Playing Chess with Death, a fresco from Taby Church in Sweden in the 1470s. It depicts a human interacting with skeleton figure, the image only being seen a few times. This image with death playing chess inspired Ingmar Bergman's film The Seventh Seal in 1957
  • 1480

    Carlo Crivelli's "Madonna with Child"

    Carlo Crivelli's "Madonna with Child"
    Carlo Crivelli was a Venetian artist working in 1400. In 1480 he painted the Madonna with Child with tempura and gold on wood. It depicts cucumberates- melons and cucumber, and apples and the fly which are symbols of sin, and the cucumber and gold fish are symbols of redemption. There are perspective issues, somewhat surreal, the fruit is much bigger than Madonna’s head, and the fly is also very big compared to child. It looks like it is sitting on the painting not in it.
  • 1490

    "Danse Macabre" (Dance of Death)

    "Danse Macabre" (Dance of Death)
    Danse Macabre (Dance of Death) was created by Janez iz Kastva in 1490. It depicts a parade of skeletons in dance of death scene. One of the first depictions of this scene, you see a child peasant and king all together, death is true democracy.
  • 1500

    The Accademia del Desegno

    The Accademia del Desegno
    Georgio Vasari’s started the Accademia del Desegno in Florence, Italy, one of the first schools for artists.
  • 1509

    "Madonna of Loreto"

    "Madonna of Loreto"
    Madonna of Loreto was painted by Raphael in 1509-1510. He painted Madonna and child in many different ways, this one shows the tender relationship between Mary and child. It also shows joseph forlorn in the back, he could be imagining the future of the child, he is said to have some psychic ability.
  • 1526

    Lucas Cranach the Elder's "Adam and Eve"

    Lucas Cranach the Elder's "Adam and Eve"
    Lucas Cranach the Elder painted Adam and Eve in 1526. It depicts female temptation and sexuality that is tied to knowledge and sin. After the first sin nudity is tied to sexuality. It is a hyper stylized image.
  • 1538

    "Venus of Urbino"

    "Venus of Urbino"
    Titian painted Venus of Urbino in 1538. Depicts a demure reclining nude figure, tilt of head shows a shy “come hither” and she is a sensual, supple, available woman holding flower and gently touching skin. Venus figure is an object of male sexual desire.
  • 1547

    "La Transi de Rene de Chalon"

    "La Transi de Rene de Chalon"
    Ligier Richier created this sculpture in 1547. It was at the tomb of the Prince of Orange who died at the age of 25. It is a very gruesome memorial, life size skeleton with strips of dried skin over carcass, left hand holds heart high with a grand gesture. When it was first made his actual dried heart was in the hand, it was stolen and later replaced, and the right hand is over the heart.
  • 1562

    "The Triumph of Death"

    "The Triumph of Death"
    Pieter Bruegel the Elder painted The Triumph of Death in 1562. It's a combination of dance of death and triumph of death. Represents totality. Everyone dies at one time, war, famine, or etc, much of the scene has been burnt down and there are a bunch of skeletons taking over the living. They are conditioned by impending death surrounding them. Bruegel was interested in showing what everyday life looked like to him but this time with death.
  • 1563

    Giuseppe Arcimboldo

    Giuseppe Arcimboldo
    Giuseppe Arcimboldo painted Vegetables in a Bowl or The Gardener in 1563. He also did The Four Seasons (4 separate paintings, dignitaries are made out of veggies of each of the seasons). In both paintings he puts vegetables together to make faces. He also painted Reversible Head Made Out of Basket of Fruit, which depicted a basket of fruit that when flipped upside down creates a face, surrealism before it was a thing.
  • 1567

    "The Peasant Wedding"

    "The Peasant Wedding"
    The Peasant Wedding was painted by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, a painter from the Netherlands in 1567. He was a Flemish Renaissance painter and printer and this painting shows traditional practices of Flemish wedding. It is a comical painting, waiters carrying out some sort of grain porridge, man in corner is more elegantly dressed so historians assume he is the landowner, child in corner licking plate and guy is getting drunk off of most likely beer. It depicts what everyday life is like.
  • "Pieta"

    "Pieta"
    Pieta was created by Michelangelo from 1598-1599. It is a sculpture of the death of Christ and Mary mourning her son. He is laying in her lap, shows tenderness between mother and child. There are not many references to crucifixion of Christ all though there are few. Mary looks young- a virgin is able to keep her youth, her body enlarges and widens as it goes down- looks natural to support a human being. Jesus face looks serene. Mary’s hand gesture shows disbelief as to what happened to her son.
  • The Age of Absolutism

    The Age of Absolutism
    French Academy’s and the age of absolutism was the period of European history where monarchs successfully gathered the wealth and power of the state to themselves. Art was still seen as menial or a luxury hobby for the rich.
  • The Baroque Period

    The Baroque Period
    The Baroque Period was from 1600-1750, it was past the point where religious things were the only thing acceptable to paint. Everything was bold and extravagant and filled with luxury.
  • "Still Life with Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Cucumber"

    "Still Life with Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Cucumber"
    Juan Sanchez Cotan, a Spanish painter, created Still life with quince, cabbage, melon, and cucumber from 1602-1603. It's a dark painting, meditation on goodness, purity, and excess. In this period these fruits symbolized good and evil.
  • "Still Life with Dead Game, Fruits, and Vegetables in a Market"

    "Still Life with Dead Game, Fruits, and Vegetables in a Market"
    Frans Snyder who lived from 1579-1657 was a flemish painter who painted Still Life with dead game, fruits, and vegetables in a market in 1614. It depicts an overly exaggerated scene of a market, peacock symbolizes vanity and pride, boar is lust and gluttony, deer is purity of the heart, all present in the painting.
  • Artemisia Genrileschi

    Artemisia Genrileschi
    Artemisia Genrileschi was a female artist, the daughter of a well known painter who taught her and paid for her to become an apprentice to someone who later sexually assaulted her. This forever tainted her image. Judith Slaying Holofernes, 1614-1620, is an image that has been recreated by others. Subject of women trying to take over powerful men, shows when Judith overpowered Holofernes when he is asleep drunk. Semiautobiographical portraits to show how she was feeling after assault.
  • "Vanitas Still Life with Self Portrait"

    "Vanitas Still Life with Self Portrait"
    Pieter Claesz painted Vanitas Still Life with Self Portrait in 1628. It reminds viewers of the transience of material life, under all these moving and thinking parts there are bones (the skeleton), clock shows the passage of time. His portrait is painted in the reflection of a silver ball, thinking about his own mortality and how none of the wealth and riches of life matter. Everyone ends up in the same place, Christian ideals, and it focused on ideas of vanity, memorialized the material world.
  • "Venus and Adonis"

    "Venus and Adonis"
    In the Baroque Period, women are depicted in more variety of ways, Peter Paul Rubens "Venus and Adonis" from the mid 1630s hows Venus and her son cupid. She has been hit with cupids arrow and is falling in love with hunter Adonis. Women who has a strong femininity- she’s in control of her sexuality.
  • Willem Claesz Heda's "Still Life"

    Willem Claesz Heda's "Still Life"
    Willem Claesz Heda created Still Life, oil on wood, in 1634. It focuses on mortality without skeleton/skull, shows peeled lemon, common theme for how the beautiful object is turning bitter.
  • "The Milkmaid"

    "The Milkmaid"
    Johannes Vermeer, one of the most well-known Dutch painters created The Milkmaid in 1657-1658. The milkmaid is not idealized the way princesses were, solid substantial presence in the image, she’s pouring milk into a Dutch oven, lots of different kinds of bread on the table.
  • "The Dissolute Household"

    "The Dissolute Household"
    Jan Steen painted The Dissolute Household in 1664. It depicts domestic life, what food was like in the household. In the painting people are celebrating something and there is lots of sin in the picture. The man is flirting with the maid who is filling up his wife’s drink, women is so busy trying to celebrate she is stepping on the bible, large ham has been abandoned on floor being eaten by the cat.
  • The Age of Enlightenment

    The Age of Enlightenment
    The Age Of Enlightenment was when science and reason were rising to the top. Newton comes up w idea of color wheel, uses prism to look at science behind light and color and came up w theory that red yellow and blue are the primary colors by using the prism. Prism proves to us that white is the combination of all colors (with light emitting media). Relationship between different forms like sounds and color, discovered the color magenta by mixing red and violet, color that’s not in the rainbow.
  • Palace of Versailles

    Palace of Versailles
    Completed in 1710 as a power move and opportunity for Louis 14th to reinforce ideas about sovernty, called himself the sun king and saw Versailles as a monument to his power and reign. Layers of decadent buildings laid out with a central focus (the sun) and the rooms around it like planets. He moved the entire French court to palace, love of extravagance and gold, decadent aesthetic, how the regime forces their ideology of excess. Rococo was a result of his successor Louis 15th and his Madame.
  • Rococo

    Rococo
    Rococo comes from French word meaning small stones that decorated small artificial caves. In the 1730s rococo has taken over baroque, builds off of its attitude toward excess. There are increased cultural contact with different trade routes to China and Portugal.
  • "Ancient Rome"

    "Ancient Rome"
    Discovery of Greek and Roman cities were part of the newfound interest in the classical period unlike the rococo period. An example of this is Ancient Rome by Giovanni Paolo Panini from 1757. It feels excessive and overdone, oil on canvas painting.
  • Etienne Louis Boullee

    Etienne Louis Boullee
    Etienne Louis Boullee was an architect during the neoclassical period and created term for talking architecture. Very few of his buildings were actually built. His style was a return to the grandeur and severity of Greek architecture, clean lines and geometry w vanishing points. Even buildings that weren't built were influencers, beautiful drawings w distinct style, emphasis on distinct columns and large open spaces and geometry.
  • Joseph Mallord William Turner

    Joseph Mallord William Turner
    Joseph Mallord Willam Turner- Norham Castle, 1845, focused on the energetic properties of the forces of nature, this is the experience of being blinded by a sunrise or engulfed in a storm, an elemental vortex
    Snow Storm- Steamboat of a Harbors Mouth 1842, try as we might we will never be able to overcome nature if it tries to destroy something, shows boat in a sea storm
    Three Seascapes 1827, close to abstraction, painted sea scape and flipped canvas upside down and painted another sea scape
  • John Constable

    John Constable
    John Constable-, informed lots of work that developed in the Hudson river school community, puts emotional investments in depictions of the sky and sea, mood and tone of sky depicts the emotional space of the painting
    Hampstead Health with Bathers 1821-22
    The Gleaners, Brighton 1824
    The Sea Near Brighton 1826- shift to the sky being the focus, it is bigger than the ground and people aren’t present, Romantic notion, sublime is the experience we have when we witness something much larger than us
  • "The Death of Marat"

    "The Death of Marat"
    Jacques Louis David painted The Death of Marat in 1793. They were friends and part of the French Revolution. Rococo period- everything was extravagant. Marat had disease so he had to stay in a bathtub. Painting shows after he was murdered,he holds a letter that murderer wrote, she stabs him in bathtub and leaves. Normally angels are in a memorial painting but there are none. Marat looks kinda like Jesus in painting, gentle look, someone who died for a good cause, highly romanticized image.
  • Beginning of Impressionism

    Beginning of Impressionism
    A painting style originating in Western Europe that attempts to capture subtle light qualities or fleeting moments with small strokes of strong color.
  • Henry Fox Talbot

    Henry Fox Talbot
    Henry fox Talbot (1800-1877) created photosensitive paper for calotype or talbotype photographs. He had ego problems.
  • "Theory of Colors"

    "Theory of Colors"
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote The Theory of Colors and did long analysis of color (he is a German poet). Studied psychological effects of color, how they make you feel and the impact on your brain. One of the first people to research after images and optical illusions.
  • "La Grand Odalisque"

    "La Grand Odalisque"
    Jean Augustine Dominique Ingres painted La Grand Odalisque in 1814. Venus figure who is a prostitute, facing backwards, not full power over her sexuality.
  • "The Raft of the Medusa"

    "The Raft of the Medusa"
    Theodore Gerucault painted The Raft of the Medusa in 1819, one of the most famous paintings in the world. We start to see artists veering away from allegorical and classical imagery, shows a gov’t vessel that had got lost off of west African coast. He built a model of the raft, interviewed people who survived experience and studied dead bodies at morgue, you get very clear view of who was dead and alive in painting, started to talk about current events.
  • "Napolean Bonaparte's Death Mask"

    "Napolean Bonaparte's Death Mask"
    Napolean Bonaparte's death mask from 1821. It was meant to be devotional, time before photography as a way for the person to be remembered.
  • Heliography

    Heliography
    Joseph Nicephore Niepce took the photo View from Window at Le gras during 1826 or 1827. Exposure took days to do develop the photograph. He invented and used the process of heliography for this photograph.
  • "The Course of Empire"

    "The Course of Empire"
    Thomas Cole- father of the Hudson river School painters, The Course of Empire 1833-36, series of paintings explaining humans relationship w nature, 1st painting is The Savage State, 2nd is The Arcadian State, we see peaceful scene w newly constructed building, nature is still dominant, 3rd is The Consummation of Empire, changing bc humans have taken over, 4th is Destruction, society will eventually implode bc we are destroying nature, final is Desolation, nature is a force that cant be stopped
  • Arch de Triumphe

    Arch de Triumphe
    Arch de Triumphe was created from 1806-1836. It was a monument commissioned by Napoleon who became first emperor of France. Signifies end of rule of royal family. Neoclassicism and French revolution are a formal pair, stylistic shift from classical period, created right at the beginning of romanticism.
  • Daguerrotypes

    Daguerrotypes
    Louis Daguerre (1787-1851) created the use of chemical emulsion to pull out an image which came to be known as a Daguerrotype. The first photo of a person was on accident. Daguerre took a photograph of the Boulevard du Temple in 1838 and captured the first person by photo. A man was getting his shoes shined in the street which allowed him to be standing still long enough to be captured within the exposure time.
  • "The Laws of Contrasts of Colors"

    "The Laws of Contrasts of Colors"
    Michel Eugene Chevreul was a French physicist. He wrote The Laws of Contrasts of Colors and provided examples of how juxtaposed colours can enhance or diminish others intensity and he described many ways to produce desired colour effects. He also produced scales of thousands of tints, studied after image and created a hemispherical color system instead of wheel. He studied how we account for the gradient light (spectrums of light and dark), and how colors have effects on the colors around them.
  • Victorian Postmortem Photography

    Victorian Postmortem Photography
    Victorian Postmortem Photography was a cheap fast way for lower class people to preserve their dead. People still wanted paintings but this was a cheaper substitute. Showed the living with the dead, the dead are dressed and posed in a lifelike way. Coffin wasn’t shown. Lots are of children and were intended to be a memento.
  • "Olympia"

    "Olympia"
    Edouard Manet created Olympia in 1856. It shows an empowered prostitute, has power over her sexuality, sitting up straight looking you in the eyes, a slave woman is painted in background.
  • Henry Ossawa Tanner

    Henry Ossawa Tanner
    Henry Ossawa Tanner- The Banjo Lesson, 1893, took photo, turned it into illustration and then painted it, showed images of black life in a way that wasn’t derogatory. Tanner was one of the first African American artist to achieve any notoriety in his life time, moved to paris in 1891 to study and live there, got into the 1896 Paris salon for his work of Daniel and the Lions den, first and only black student to attend school of fine art in Pennsylvania.
  • Modernism

    Modernism
    Modernism (1860-1970) - a rejection of history and conservative values, innovation and experimentation of forms w a tendency to abstraction, an emphasis on materials, techniques, and processes
  • "The Harvest of Death"

    "The Harvest of Death"
    The Harvest of Death showed photography meeting war time, it was shot by Timothy H O’Sullivan in 1863. One of the best known Civil war photographers, he would move bodies around on battlefield to set up the perfect photo. This photo shows union dead on the battlefield at Gettysburg Pennsylvania in 1863
  • "Woman With Parrot"

    "Woman With Parrot"
    Gustave Courbet painted Women with Parrot in 1866. It shows a reclining nude female, she looks disheveled with hair a mess, body is splayed out, not only a subject of male desire but one that has been used up. Painting was offensive to people on the edge of sexual revolution.
  • "Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1"

    "Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1"
    Arrangement in Grey and Black No.1 also called "Whistler's Mother" was painted by James McNeil Whistier (American) in 1871. It shows reverence and respect for his mother but there is a severity there, not a sexuality explorative Venus like women.
  • "The Gross Clinic"

    "The Gross Clinic"
    The Gross Clinic painted by Thomas Eakins in 1875 is said to be one of the greatest paintings. What we see in this painting is the surgical theater. This process was started to be used for preventative and restorative surgeries not just amputations. Eakins appears in the painting studying and taking notes. This work marks excitement about the developments in science.
  • "Modern Chromatics"

    "Modern Chromatics"
    Ogden Rood wrote the book Modern Chromatics where he divided color into 3 concepts, luminosity, purity and hue (we now call them tint shade and hue).
  • "L’Inconnue de la Seine" (the forgotten of the Seine)

    "L’Inconnue de la Seine" (the forgotten of the Seine)
    L’Inconnue de la Seine (the forgotten of the Seine (a river in Paris)) was created in the 1880s. A girls body was found in the river, appeared to be a suicide. The person who found her found her face so pure and beautiful with no signs of death. He had to make a cast of her face and tons of reproductions of cast were created to be hung in home. Women of the time modeled their style after her, a CPR doll was based off of her face as well.
  • Charles Sanders Pierce

    Charles Sanders Pierce
    Charles Sanders Pierce- 1839-1914, discussed the representation (signifier)- the signs form, an interpretant- what the audience or individual makes of the sign, and an object (signified)- what the sign refers to
  • Arts and Crafts Movement

    Arts and Crafts Movement
    Arts and Crafts Movement
    Late 1800s- rejects the idea of the speed of progress and industry, started by William Morris and supported by John Ruskin, anti-industrial now that the assembly exists things are made badly, focus on labor reform, everything is made by hand and focus on ornate hand work w natural world elements, socialist critique Ruskin felt the industrial revolution was an excuse for culture to use servile labor, go back to handicraft and the kind of labor that has love and attention
  • "The Sick Husband"

    "The Sick Husband"
    Vassily Maksimov painted The Sick Husband in 1881 showing a woman praying for her sick husband in a rustic working-class home in Russia. An icon corner is oriented to face east normally, eliminate worldly distractions to focus on praying. Icons of Christ and patron saints specific to issues in household, oil lamp is usually hanging in front of icon and they trim the lamp to keep it burning at all times, symbolizes daily practice for Christians.
  • "Bar at the Follie Bergere"

    "Bar at the Follie Bergere"
    Edouard Manet painted Bar at the Follie Bergere in 1882, it shows another prostitute. Women were part of business and the painting shows a bar maid and notable prostitute in Paris. Also shows bowl of oranges that symbolizes prostitute, she is aware of herself being looked at.
  • "The Potato Eaters"

    "The Potato Eaters"
    Vincent Van Gogh painted The Potato Eaters, what Van Gogh thought was his master piece, depicts what the lives of the working class looks like, very dark and dirty looking, eating potatoes off of one plate
  • James Van Der Zee

    James Van Der Zee
    James Van Der Zee- photographer, Evening Attire was photograph from 1922. He was a main documenter of the Harlem Renaissance, photograph black lifestyle, put an image into the world of black life that wasn’t dictated by white ideas. Photo of Marcus Garvey, Garvey had idea that African Americans should move back to Africa to take away the history of pain and suffering.
  • Van Gogh's "Portrait of Artist's Mother"

    Van Gogh's "Portrait of Artist's Mother"
    Vincent Van Gogh, Portrait of Artist’s Mother, warmer painting, shows his good feeling towards her.
  • Man ray

    Man ray
    Man Ray (1890-1976) made room for dadaism. Used unreal double exposure and questioned truth in an image.
  • Marie Cassatt

    Marie Cassatt
    Marie Cassatt was an American painter, made painting/drawings of lots of mothers with their child, Maternite (1890), Portrait of Artists Mother (1889-1890), women were not able to be educated in art/painting, really limited what they could create
  • Art Nouveau

    Art Nouveau
    Art Nouveau- 1890-1910, in France, inspired by natural forms and structures like the curved lines of plants and flowers
  • "The Three Stages of Women"

    "The Three Stages of Women"
    "The Three Stages of Women" by Edvard Munich (1894), shows 3 forms of women, the virgin bride, the sexual side, the matron, and death.
  • "The Basket of Apples"

    "The Basket of Apples"
    Paul Cezanne painted The Basket of Apples in 1895, this was after photography was invented, painters were able to let go of photo realism, take time to think of the nature of something and depict it in more emotional way now. This was one of the few paintings he signed, not very good perspective but that was his choice.
  • Ferdinand DeSaussure

    Ferdinand DeSaussure
    Ferdinand DeSaussure created the system of signifier and signified, the sign is the object or thing itself, signifier is the physical existence (sound, word, image) and the signified is the mental concept
  • "He that is Without Sin"

    "He that is Without Sin"
    Polenov painted He that is Without Sin in 1908. It is a religious allegory painting, shows characters for Catholic/Russian Orthodox mythology. Type of painting excepted in Russia at this moment, lots of drama like Renaissance painting.
  • "Death and the Maiden"

    "Death and the Maiden"
    Marianne Stokes painted Death and the Maiden in 1908- more allegorical tender image, female representation of angel of death.
  • Egon Schiele's "Tote Mutter"

    Egon Schiele's "Tote Mutter"
    Egon Schiele was an Austrian working during WW1, hyper sexual images, working with prostitutes a lot. Tote Mutter (Dead Mother) was painted in 1910- unborn baby and mother who died giving child birth, shows child painted in warm colors bc it is alive while mother is in dark colors.
  • Romare Bearden

    Romare Bearden
    Romare Bearden- Quilting Time 1979, involved in Harlem Renaissance. These artist for the first time in American history are forming an identity for themselves. Thrived in the 1920s but died down during the great recession, worked as a social worker, made work that deals w the idea of community, art is important for community building.
  • "Concerning the Spiritual in Art"

    "Concerning the Spiritual in Art"
    Concerning the Spiritual in Art- Wassily Kandinsky 1912, the inner need is built up of 3 mystical elements, personality, style, and pure artistry. Describes geometric space of a triangle that become less religious having the religious meaning being sucked out. The form alone has the power of inner suggestion, value Is modified and different colors of shapes has different spiritual values, he is trying to come up w a theory.
  • "The Banquet of the Starved or Comical Repast"

    "The Banquet of the Starved or Comical Repast"
    James Ensor painted The Banquet of the Starved or Comical Repast in 1915 which shows a grouping around table. It evokes the last super and Christ and his apostles are replaced by vulgar masked people, during WW1, very small meal, depicting the famine that happened in Belgium at the time.
  • 0.10 Exhibition

    0.10 Exhibition
    Suprematist movement- Kazimir Malevich first exhibit for this movement was 0.10 Exhibition, history needed to be erased and had to start at 0. First black square painting to replace Mary or Jesus, just as good as a portal icon, he has the reference in his mind so the abstraction is significant.
  • "Mina Loy"

    "Mina Loy"
    Man Ray took Mina Loy in 1918, it was a portrait. Mina was a poet involved in the Dada surrealist scene, she’s wearing an earring made out of a thermometer. She wrote Feminist Manifesto where the state takes care of removing a female’s virginity possibly by machine, looking for a world of equality w no gender roles or expectations.
  • "Marlene"

    "Marlene"
    Hannah Hoch was a collage artist, Marlene (1920), images that question gender bias are seen in her work. Marlene shows resistance to female body being a complete entity, shows female body pieces, female lips are in the corner out of reach to the viewers.
  • Vladimir Tatlin’s "Monument to the Third International"

    Vladimir Tatlin’s "Monument to the Third International"
    Constructivists- Vladimir Tatlin’s Monument to the Third International 1919-1920, never actually built, tower to the Bolshevik party
  • Art Deco

    Art Deco
    Art Deco- a movement starting in the 1920s that used luxury, glamour, exuberance and faith in social and technological progress, influenced by cubism, celebration of the future, how mass production can produce a streamlined and futuristic world, lots of art deco in America
  • "Dia de los Muertos"

    "Dia de los Muertos"
    Diego Rivera painted Dia de los Muertos in 1924. It depicts a day of the dead parade, honors the dead with festivities, blend of Aztec rituals and Catholicism, celebrate the lives of the dead and the continuum of birth, child and growing up with the eventuality of death
  • "Battleship Potemkin"

    "Battleship Potemkin"
    Battleship Potemkin by Sergei Einstein in 1925 ((USSR) Odessa Steps), uses montage in filmmaking, trying to create a great emotional response and sympathy to sailors and then hatred toward their leaders, propaganda, Nazi party called on this film for its great emotional response
  • "The Futurist Cookbook"

    "The Futurist Cookbook"
    The Futurist Cookbook was by FT Marinetti and Fillia who were Italian, most futurists become fascists, people think dream and act according to what they eat and drink, food should reflect their ideas about visual presentation, questioned current dining patterns, perfect meals require aesthetic taste and table setting, propose how meals should be served and eaten as well, political discussions and prohibited at dinner as well as music and poetry except at certain intervals
  • Wee Gee

    Wee Gee
    Wee Gee- crime scene photography, 1930-1950, photojournalist in New York, given permit to have a portable police radio, often arrived at scene of crime before it happened, very rough area, gives us a look into the underbelly of New York at the time, quickness of images create stark exaggerated images, fetishization of crime (tv shows now everyone loves to watch)
  • Albert Speer

    Albert Speer
    Albert Speer was an architect who joined Nazi party in 1931,Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany and Chief Architect to Hitler, Hitler wanted to revive Greek architecture, interested in concept ruin value, buildings should be constructed so that they leave aesthetically pleasing ruins when destroyed, Speer and Hitler collaborated to create site for Olympics- Zeppenfield, Haus der Kunst 1937 was the only building by Speer that wasn’t destroyed, the museum of German art
  • "The Luncheon in Fur"

    "The Luncheon in Fur"
    Meret Oppenheim created The Luncheon in Fur, she was a female surrealist artist, makes sculpture of fur teacup and saucer
  • "Migrant Mother with Three Children"

    "Migrant Mother with Three Children"
    Dorothea Lange was a photographer during the great depression, shot Migrant Mother w Three Children in 1936, commissioned by government to show what depression was like, after WW1 while WW2 was about to start, photo shows mother and children, father is not present
  • Kathe Kollwitz

    Kathe Kollwitz
    Kathe Kollwitz- From Series Death in 1937, working in Germany, she made drawings, paintings, and wood cuts that showed terrors of WW1 and later WW2, shows difficult images of reality of existence, professor of drawing and painting, her work was removed from all museums, considered degenerate artist by Hitler, whole series of drawings depicting death, Nazi’s used a version of her woodcut Women with dead child for propaganda poster, still were going to send her to death camp
  • Leni Riefenstahl

    Leni Riefenstahl
    Leni Riefenstahl was a filmmaker who made films for cinema to address the values of Nazi Germany, young strong bodied Arian people, she reinforced these ideals, worked closely w Hitler and understood his ideas and what point he wanted to get across, created “Olympia” in 1938, first documentary of Olympic games, inventive use of camera work, dreamy idealistic landscape leading into documentary, trying to manipulate your mind
  • Robert Smithson

    Robert Smithson
    Robert Smithson- A Nonsite, Franklin, New Jersey 1968, what space (Site) means, if you take something and place it in gallery, is it still considered the original site?
    Partially Buried Woodshed 1970, places soil directly on roof, how long it will take for this to destroy building, focus on entropy- lack of order
    Spiral Jetty 1970, out of studio and interact w earth directly, in Utah’s Salt Lake, protest against commodification of the art market, doesn’t generate an income and you cant buy it.
  • "The Two Fridas"

    "The Two Fridas"
    Frida Kahlo painted The Two Fridas in 1939- one is wearing a white Victorian style dress and the other a traditional Mexican style dress, image showing the 2 halves of her family life, deeply emotional image, the one in the Victorian style dress was the Frida rejected by her husband Diego Rivera, the Mexican Frida holds a piece of Diego, both of their visible hearts are connected with the Victorian one holding a pair of forceps
  • "Freedom from Want"

    "Freedom from Want"
    Norman Rockwell created Freedom from Want, it was the opposite of surrealist, wanted to show as realisticly as he could how he saw American life, series of 4 paintings called American Freedoms, comes from FDRs four freedoms speech, Freedom of Want shows classic image of family having Thanksgiving, people in Europe weren’t too happy about this painting, it was close to end of WW2 and things were bad, this image of how smoothly things in a America were going angered some
  • Maren Hassinger

    Maren Hassinger
    Maren Hassinger- black female sculptor and performance artist. She was one of the few women who have held her own in the art world of sculptors. A Place for Nature 2011, thinks about themes of nature, relationships, love, sustainability. Love 2005, plastic pink shopping bags with love notes inside, inflated by human breath.
  • Orlan

    Orlan
    Orlan- performance artist, The Artists Kiss, life size photo of her torso was turned into slot machine, when coin was inserted you could see it go into her groin and received a kiss from the artist who was standing behind the photo
    The Reincarnation of Saint Orlan- 1990 a series of plastic surgeries in which she transforms herself into elements of famous works, acquire the ideal of female body, picks the characters from these specific famous works on the account of the stories associated w them
  • Montien Boonma

    Montien Boonma
    Montien Boonma, 1953-2000, Thai Buddhist artist who created structures that were a concentration of his spiritual world, trying to express Thai space, bring spiritual and religious and a Thai person in the 20th century, viewers are invited to come into work and participate, sees constructions as a site of mental activity and a place to practice the calming of the mind, they are closed and open, private and public, opaque and transparent
  • Carrie Mae Weems

    Carrie Mae Weems
    Carrie Mae Weems- The Kitchen Table Series 1990, photographer, worked in the 70,80,and 90s, work spans every media you can imagine but most well known for photos documenting the staged intimate times in African American families. Intimate moments between families that reflect on home, family, beauty, community are shown in her photos. Her concern was w the status and place of African Americans in American communities.
  • "Crucifixion" (Corpus Hypercubus)

    "Crucifixion" (Corpus Hypercubus)
    Salvador Dali- Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) 1954- going back to his Christian roots while thinking a lot about the fourth dimension, we experience the world in 3D and /work and text in 2D, 4th dimension is what we can’t see and don’t understand, Dali’s surreal landscape that addresses all these ideas together
  • Guy DeBord

    Guy DeBord
    Guy DeBord 1931-1994- comes up w idea of psycogeography, thinking about urban existence “the study of the precise laws and specific effects of the geographical environ., consciously organized or not on the emotions and behavior of individuals, derive “a mode of experimental behavior linked to the conditions of urban society, a technique of rapid passage through varied ambitions
  • "Memoires"

    "Memoires"
    Memoires- collaboration w Guy Debord and Jorn- a book w one layer that contained black graphics and text that had questions and pictures, and the second layer uses colored ink splashed across the page, how can you surprise yourself in todays world, the cover is made out of sandpaper, wanted an unconventional cover, wanted to be able to tell is people ha held the book in their hands or if it had been laid on a table, the cover could ruin your table or eat away at the other books it is next too
  • Marcel Broodthaers

    Marcel Broodthaers
    Marcel Broodthaers started out life in Belgium as a poet, when he was 40 he decided to become and artist, always a pun in his work, The Triumph of Mussels 1 (Mussels Casserole 1) (1965), iron pot, mussel shells and paint were used to make sculpture, the pot of mussels is shaped like a mold
  • Daniel Spoerri and his Snare Pictures

    Daniel Spoerri and his Snare Pictures
    Daniel Spoerri wrote some cookbooks and opened restaurant that he considered art, His snare pictures were of objects found in chance positions in drawers, tables etc, that he captured in this fixed position, looks at scene fixes it to board and mounts it on wall to give s vertical view of arrangement, Kichka’s Breakfast (1964) based on something his girlfriend ate
  • Yves Klein Performance Art

    Yves Klein Performance Art
    Yves Klein's Anthropometry of the Blue Period from 1960 was a performance art piece, painted women’s bodies and had them roll around, naked female models were called living brushes, women felt like collaborators and equals
  • The Situationist International

    The Situationist International
    The Situationist International 1960s- influenced by lettrists, a politically left group of artists and activists active in the 1940s who were inspired by dada and surrealists but advocated for greater critical discourse
  • Dieter Roth's "Literaturwurst"

    Dieter Roth's "Literaturwurst"
    Dieter Roth was a radical artist interested in education and politics, what is art? Can anything be art? His work has sense of humor, Literaturwurst (1961-1974), ongoing project he did, play on sausage, shows sausages where he substituted a “fresh ground book” instead of meat into his sausage recipe
  • "Campbell's Soup Cans"

    "Campbell's Soup Cans"
    Andy Warhol created Campbell’s Soup Cans, it was post war, capitalist commodities market was in full force, mass producing food, Warhol’s fine art prints of things you can find in the grocery store
  • Floor Buger

    Floor Buger
    Claes Oldenburg was an American born in Sweden, makes oversized paintings/sculptures, Floor Burger (1962) painting made into a sculpture, uses food, an oversimplified subject to talk about nature of painting and sculpture and how humans can identify to objects based on scale, reference to Baroque still-life painting
  • Make a Salad

    Make a Salad
    Allison Knowles- performance piece w bunch of friends called happening, invited public to opening where a performance or lecture was performed/given, Make a Salad (1962), piece has been performed 12-15 times most recently in New York at the Highline, makes salad out of what was available, about the action of eating together
  • Interaction with Color

    Interaction with Color
    Josef Albers wrote Interaction with Color, he studied at the Baugh House, one of the most important art schools in history and became a professor there and then went to teach at Black Mountain in the US, ran the paint program there, he wrote Interaction with Color which streamlined the study of the interaction of colors, how color in the background affects the color in the foreground
  • Andy Warhol's "Twelve Electric Chairs"

    Andy Warhol's "Twelve Electric Chairs"
    Andy Warhol created Twelve Electric Chairs in 1964, shows an empty room with electric chair, impending death in the room, minimal space between life and death, “everything I'm doing must have been about death” temporary nature of existence
  • Asger Jorn

    Asger Jorn
    Asger Jorn 1914-1973- the only thing that really spoke to people was kitche, abstract was too hard to relate to, realism was to heavy handed and political, Jorn’s response to the Guggenheim Award in 1964- “go to hell w your money bastard, refuse price, stop, never asked for it, stop against all decency mix artist against his will” he is his own artist and doesn’t want to be beholden to Guggenheim
  • "Today Series"

    "Today Series"
    On Kawara- Today Series 1966-2012- each painting was just that days date, white lettering against usually black background, changed colors and sizes or text slightly, commitment to political engagement, on the backside there are clippings of important headlines, when hanging in museums you never see the back, had lots of strict rules for himself, if he couldn’t complete painting in that day he would destroy it, marked each painting on a 100 year calendar and journal, nearly 3000 paintings
  • "Seated Women and Child"

    "Seated Women and Child"
    Juan Miro created Seated Women and Child, between surrealism and abstract, sculpture from 1967
  • "A Line Made by Walking"

    "A Line Made by Walking"
    Richard Long- A Line Made by Walking 1967, made a sculpture by walking, he made this piece while a student, walked back and forth across the same path, doing a physical activity that is also a form of art making, body was tool, medium was grass and the documentation was the artwork, shifted our perceptions of sculpture
  • Helio Oiticica

    Helio Oiticica
    Helio Oiticica- Eden 1969, thinks about space and gathering places for ritual in a less religious way, brought in sand and boxes with water and beds to rest in, very sensual experience, audio you can listen to in tent, changes this spot in museum into an interactive playground, another of his work was Parangoles, wearable sculptures that allowed wearers to feel free to move and express themselves, he made films and public performances w these Parangoles, tries to get you to dance and be silly
  • "The Door" (Admissions Office)

    "The Door" (Admissions Office)
    David Hammons- The Door (Admissions Office) 1969, famous for works called body prints, exploring black identity through sculpture. Piece is a theater door with body print on it, shows how black people were not allowed to access these everyday places. He put grease on body part he wanted to show and then pressed it on paper, puts pigment on paper to create color in work, tries to express specific identity but also imposed stereotype. Stereotyping is a way of forcing a flattened identity.
  • "Double Negative"

    "Double Negative"
    Michael Heizer- Double Negative 1969-70, massive earthwork, cut 240000 tons of stone from cliffs to create trenches, enacting a heroic gesture by removing earth from its sight, entirely made out of negative space not about the removal of earth but the cavity of space left after it is gone, documented it w photographs
  • Bas Jan Ader

    Bas Jan Ader
    Bas Jan Ader- conceptual artist from Netherlands, Fall I, Los Angeles 1970 Fall 2, Amsterdam 1970, gets photo right before he’s about to fall, put himself in danger w feats, In Search of the Miraculous 1975, takes trip alone in sail boat trying to go across Atlantic Ocean, 9 months after he set sail his boat “Ocean wave” it was found flipped upside down, boat was taken to dock and then was later stolen, no one knows how he died, supposed sightings off the American east coast of him andboat
  • Francesca Woodman

    Francesca Woodman
    Francesca Woodman - House #3, American photographer, known for images showing women, naked or barely clothed usually intentionally blurry to give rich vivid ghost like images of women laying down, committed suicide at age of 22, images are premonitions of eventually mortality for her
  • FOOD

    FOOD
    A restaurant called Food was founded by Carol Goodden and Tina Girouard and Gordon Matta-Clark from 1971-1974, these artists cooked food for artists in Soho NY, roasted a pig under the Brooklyn Bridge, the restaurant operated for 3-4 years, pioneered some of the culinary art scene, vegetarian meals and raw food
  • The Rothko Chapel

    The Rothko Chapel
    The Rothko Chapel 1971, Rothko was an abstract painter, located in Houston Texas, Chapel serves as temple and work of modern art, believed in emotional and spiritual power of color so he creates rich purity of color at large scale like this chapel, lighting needed to be perfect, he was particular in how he evoked this spiritual and emotional response, doesn’t live long enough to experience the finish of the Chapel bc he committed suicide in his studio, dedicated to political and social justice
  • "The Holy Mountain"

    "The Holy Mountain"
    The Holy Mountain by Alejandro Jodorowsky in 1973, surrealist film, the main character looks like Jesus, he is a thief who goes to market place and passes out, people realize he looks like Jesus use his body to produce things with that icon, shows man destroying icons while screaming
  • Roden Crater

    Roden Crater
    Roden Crater 1973 by James Turrell- “My desire is to set up a situation to which I take you and let you see, it becomes your experience” it was a natural formed volcanic crater in the middle of an Arizona desert, bought space in 1973 but he is still working on it, sees the space as an artwork
  • Theaster Gates

    Theaster Gates
    Theaster Gates- based in Chicago, installation view of Double Cross 2013, his work is hard to define and forms, considered a social practice artist- his work is focused on the idea of relational aesthetics, art has become elitist and stale and in order to be effective it has to engage community in the work, he works in between urban planning, archival collecting and fine arts, Monochrome Black History 2015, collection of Jet magazines archived in books and turned into a monochrome “painting”
  • "Interior Scroll"

    "Interior Scroll"
    Carolee Schneeman performed Interior Scroll in 1975, performance art, stands on table painted in mud while she pulls a scroll out of her vagina and reads it to the audience, beginning she holds a book and is reading from it while posing and removes apron showing the paint and mud, then pulls out scroll and reads from it
  • "(Untitled) Fallen Angel"

    "(Untitled) Fallen Angel"
    Jean Michel Basquiat- (Untitled) Fallen Angel 1981. Basquiat died at 28, first became famous for SAMO, graffiti group that made murals around cities, punk/hip hop, contemporary approach to expressionist painting
  • Vietnam War Memorial

    Vietnam War Memorial
    Vietnam War Memorial by Maya Lin 1982, 21 year old college student when she submitted proposal for memorial, built in Washington DC, black v shaped wall with the names of all the people who died, they made her add a flag and soldiers bc the public thought it was too negative and not heroic enough, she did not like this
  • "Fertility Series B"

    "Fertility Series B"
    Keith Haring created Fertility Series B in 1983, silkscreen on rives paper, aesthetic of resistance, artist and activist, big part of the AIDS crisis movement
  • "Immediate Family"

    "Immediate Family"
    Sally Mann was an American photographer, controversial, photo series of her family and children and herself, shows something more sensual about childhood, girls playing grownup- some photos show her daughters dressed up in older clothes smoking, a lot of people viewed these portraits of her family as disturbing, children are posed nude in some, black and white portraits of children as adult subjects
  • Ana Mendieta

    Ana Mendieta
    Ana Mendieta was a Cuban born artist, died by falling out of her 3 some floor apartment, death spawned a revival of her work, blends silhouette of her body into nature and photographs it, when Earthwork was becoming a type of art, working w and using the land as material, a return to the material source
  • The Guerrilla Girls

    The Guerrilla Girls
    Guerrilla Girls founded in 1985, group of anonymous women artist, underground activist group, wore gorilla masks when in public, women started to notice how exclusive the art world was, decided to form a group that calls out the galleries and museums, image that says “Do women have to be naked to get into the met. Museum?’ Guerrilla girls report cards, included white women and women of color as well as lgbtq and straight women
  • Mona Hatoum

    Mona Hatoum
    Mona Hatoum- Performance still from 1985 Roadworks Exhibition- she walks barefoot through the streets of London w Doc Martin’s tied to her ankles which were worn by police and skinheads at this time, circumambulation- the act of walking around something sacred in a ritualistic manner
  • "A Fire in my Belly"

    "A Fire in my Belly"
    Controversial Still from “A Fire in my Belly” David Wojnarowicz video and sound 4 minutes, 1986-87, dealing with the AIDs crisis, he was diagnosed with AIDs and died shortly after this piece was made, shows ants eating a depiction of a crucified Jesus, deals with the idea of love and loss for a gay man w AIDs, shows loss, death, and love
  • "Piss Christ"

    "Piss Christ"
    Andres Serrano created Piss Christ in 1987 photograph, very controversial piece, took a small plastic crucifixion of Christ and submerged it in his own urine, he believed the icon has lost its power and he was also thinking very serious about what a crucifixion was like, you had to hang on the cross for 3 days, you have no privacy while dying, the image creates a glowing depiction of Christ
  • "Portrait" (Futago)

    "Portrait" (Futago)
    Yasumasa Morimura painted Portrait (Futago) in 1988, female figures are replaced w male and the main figure in front is now of Asian descent, reversal of Manet’s Olympia
  • "Stereo Styles"

    "Stereo Styles"
    Lorna Simpson created Stereo Styles in 1988, she was a photographer documenting life of African American, post-modernist period, Taking notes from advertising, image shows hairstyles that were popular in the 80s, we are finally seeing images of the black female body but its only the back of their head, denying us their face, straightened hair was popular to get a closer image to “whiteness”, mixed text, image, pop culture, and history
  • "Bismullah" (in the name of Allah)

    "Bismullah" (in the name of Allah)
    Rasheed Araeen- Bismullah (in the name of Allah) 1988, spilled blood in center of work, photo graphs of candles and geometric designs w Mosque references to them, takes cues from Islamic history, references dissociative experience being alienated from his culture and the one he has chosen, Islamic, didn’t receive much attention bc of the Islamophobia in Europe, started to make work more directly about his identity, work becomes more political about the invisibility of black and artists of color
  • Just Seeds

    Just Seeds
    Just Seeds- 1988- an artist’s cooperative that is a decentralized network of 30 artists committed to social, environmental, and political engagement, produced posters for campaigns such as a GI Coffeehouse, you can buy all the posters that this group has worked on online
  • "Cornered"

    "Cornered"
    Adrian Piper- Cornered 1988, video performance work, extremely academic artist. Her work is a part of institutional critique, she talks to us directly about her black experience in this piece. She states I am black and asks questions as to why it may upset people, she looks white but knows she is black, what does this allow her to see? She hears the things white people say about blacks behind their backs.
  • "Guarded Conditions"

    "Guarded Conditions"
    Lorna Simpsons shot Guarded Conditions in 1989. It is 18 color polaroid prints and 21 plaques w letters, discusses the attack on female sexuality specifically the violence against women of color, you don’t see the front of the people modeling, only the back, she is trying to take a portrait of the condition of a being in the world not a specific person
  • Felix Gonzalez Torres work for the AIDs Epidemic

    Felix Gonzalez Torres work for the AIDs Epidemic
    Felix Gonzalez Torres was a Cuban born artist, involved in political issue involving AIDs epidemic, Untitled (Portrait of Ross in LA) (1991)- Ross was his lover, weighed out hard candy to the weight of his lover , 175 pounds, visitors in museum can take a piece of the candy and as the pile diminishes to represents the death of his lover, when the piece finally gets empty the candy is replenished, experience can be renewed and shared over again
  • Monywa Buddhas

    Monywa Buddhas
    Monywa Buddhas- Burma, Burmese Monastery, 1991 for reclining Buddha and 2008 for standing Buddha, reclining is one of the largest in the world, the body itself is a building, on the walls inside of reclining Buddha are images of Buddhist hell, what it may look like and how punishments are received
  • Rirkrit Tiravanija's Performance Art with Food

    Rirkrit Tiravanija's Performance Art with Food
    Rirkrit Tiravanija was a Thai artist, did performance piece and was offered an exhibition of his work in LA (1992), he wanted to turn the gallery into a place he could feed people, art opening was a buffet style dinner party, cooked Thai food
  • The Temple of All Religions

    The Temple of All Religions
    The Temple of All Religions- Ildar Khanov 1992, in Kazan Russia, the temple is open to tourist not of any certain religion, stylistic structures from certain religions, under construction, will have 16 towers representing the 16 prominent world religions some which are not in practice
  • "Four Untitled Etchings"

    "Four Untitled Etchings"
    Glenn Ligon- Four Untitled Etchings 1992- black gay male, his paintings are heavily dominated by text, avid reader, finds solace in words of other writers, writes in repetitive manner and the text starts to break apart towards the bottom of the frame, what text means as an image
  • "Mining the Museum"

    "Mining the Museum"
    Fred Wilson- Mining the Museum 1992, project revolutionized the modern museum, part of movement called institutional critique- asks the question why is history always presented the same way, why do we give so much power to one voice, why is there always a dominant narrative, how can we force or flip societal norms, he rearranged items, added shackles used to confine slaves in the middle of fine silver dishes, now you look at the silver and are reminded of the hard social cost of these items
  • "The Couple in a Cage: Two Amerindians Visit the West"

    "The Couple in a Cage: Two Amerindians Visit the West"
    The Couple in a Cage: Two Amerindians Visit the West 1992-1993 performance piece by Guillermo Gomez Pena and Coco Fusco, put themselves on display in a cage to show how cultures have been put on display. They let people pay them to take a photo w them or to see them dance, presenting themselves as members of a made up, undiscovered tribe.You could also pay for them to recite a story in a fictitious language, the majority of the public did not know that this was a performance artwork.
  • Louis Bourgeouis

    Louis Bourgeouis
    Louis Bourgeois was a French born American sculptor, Spider 1994, most work deals w abusive relationship w father, spiders deal w redemption relationship w mother, her mother was her best friend
  • "New Mothers Series"

    "New Mothers Series"
    Rineke Dijkstra created New Mothers Series, goal is to get a formal image of someone in a moment when their guard is down, shows mothers holding new born child, the mother after birth, shows idealizes relationship between mother and child
  • "Untitled" by Rudolf Stingel

    "Untitled" by Rudolf Stingel
    Untitled by Rudolf Stingel in 1994, cast urethane rubber, created Buddha’s holding everyday objects, rubber references the cheap icons of Buddha’s made, talks about falseness behind when a culture appropriates something and makes it their aesthetic without actually understanding it, like meditation and how it became hip
  • "Faceless Women of Allah Series"

    "Faceless Women of Allah Series"
    Shirin Neshat- Faceless Women of Allah Series 1994- Iranian women, grew up in period of great strife, confronting what the role of a women was in Muslim society, a split in all the images where a weapon divides it in half, shows 2 sides a internal conflict, cultural history/ tradition and how you can be a part of modern society, beauty and violence, a gun was present in most of the images, represented control and also how the subjects were religious martyrs
  • "Wigs"

    "Wigs"
    Lorna Simpson- Wigs 1994, portfolio of 21 lithographs on felt with 17 text panels on felt. Iyt had similar texture to hair, used specimen pins which made it seem similar to a scientific display. It showed different styles of African American hair, afros, braids.
  • Nam June Paik

    Nam June Paik
    tv buddha
    contemporary artist that focused on pop culture and color
  • Ai Wei Wei

    Ai Wei Wei
    Ai Wei Wei- Dropping a Han Dynasty Urn 1995, has been in and out of prison for 10 years due to forceful criticism of Chinese govt, Documentary- Never Sorry 2012, controversial figure, put himself in danger to stick up for what he believes in and what others are too scared to do
  • "The Wave Field"

    "The Wave Field"
    Maya Lin- The Wave Field 1995, studied wave formations to produce this work on a college campus, references burial mounds and also what if grass became water, a frozen moment in the middle of the ocean
  • "The Chromatic Diet"

    "The Chromatic Diet"
    Sophie Calle was a French artist, The Chromatic Diet (1998) author named Paul Auster who wrote book w character Maria, her persona is an artist who brings art into everyday experience, referring to Calle, takes the fiction of his story and makes it real, in book he described Maria eating monochromatic meal, she creates these meals in real life and photographs them, the author didn’t mention drinks so she completed the meal with drinks of that color of the meals
  • "Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial"

    "Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial"
    Rachel Whiteread, Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial 2000, known for large scale sculpture, process relates to casting, concrete cast of inside of a library, negative spaces become solid, side of sculpture shows the books on the shelves of the library, talks about all the knowledge lost with the slaughter of a mass amount of people, knowledge that is unavailable now
  • "Installation at 8th international Istanbul Biennial"

    "Installation at 8th international Istanbul Biennial"
    Doris Salcedo- 1958 Columbia- Installation at 8th international Istanbul Biennial 2003, thinking about topography of war, interested in making art that addressed pain suffering and trauma of loss associated with war, made specific narratives and dialogues about it, filled space in Istanbul with empty chairs, each chair represents a body that is absent
  • "S-21 The Khmer Rouge Killing Machine"

    "S-21 The Khmer Rouge Killing Machine"
    S-21 The Khmer Rouge Killing Machine 2003 by Rithy Panh- this film focuses on the Cambodian genocide, a lot of the educated classes were in prison called S-21 due to their opposing viewpoints, this film was made in the prison that is now a museum, thinks about what it meant to be a human in this situation, doesn’t just explain the story
  • Catherine Opie

    Catherine Opie
    Catherine Opie, Self Portrait Nursing, 2004, shows women who identifies as queer, she has tattoos on her chest, one saying pervert, made her body represent sexual identity that is not usually accepted, influence of classical painting w ornate red fabric behind her, Madonna feeding child portrait style
  • "Stern"

    "Stern"
    Marlene Dumas painted Stern in 2004, the painting shows massive profile with deathly white skin and eyes closed, based on a death portrait from German periodical, comes from larger series of work, all of which talk about themes of sleep death and ecstasy
  • "The Green Line"

    "The Green Line"
    Francis Alys- “The Green Line” 2004, walked through the city w a can of paint w a hole in the bottom, born in Belgium but lived in Mexico, trained as an architect but when he moved to Mexico he started creating art, walk was 15 mile stretch through Jerusalem- an armistice border
  • Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe

    Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe
    Peter Eisenman built the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in 2005, in Berlin, some criticize it for being to abstract, there are no names on the memorial, abstract approach, large severe like stone tombs, all are unique in shape and size, all of these people were wiped out without care given to their identity, the variation in the blocks creates the individual identities, to accommodate criticisms they built an underground info center
  • "Cotton Hoards in Southern Swamp"

    "Cotton Hoards in Southern Swamp"
    Kara Walker created Cotton Hoards in Southern Swamp in 2005. She explores race gender, sexuality, and violence in her work, looks at images produced in 16th century of silhouette portraits of rich white families and cartoons of slaves that were brought to America, in her work we see silhouettes of familiar historical imagery and how she has taken these crude and violent images of African Americans as savages and puts them out in our face to confront us with this imagery
  • David Altmejd's Installations

    David Altmejd's Installations
    David Altmejd- thinking about life and death in more positive way, The Giant 2 2007, known for large scale installations, scenes that show pseudo-scientific slice of life, he trusts the work and material, doesn’t create drawings beforehand, used alginate to create mold of a part of his body for sculptures
  • "Shibboleth"

    "Shibboleth"
    Doris Salcedo also created “Shibboleth” in 2007 Salcedo focuses on large socially excluded races/classes in western culture, simple act of creating a literal divide, actually broke open the floor of a museum to show this divide
  • "Third Ear Project"

    "Third Ear Project"
    Stelarc- an artist and scientist who was well known for his Third Ear Project 2007, he grew his own ear on his arm, its permanent, not functional but is sensitive to touch and a permanent part of his body, also made a ¼ scale version of his ear using cell tissue
  • "Momme Portrait Series (Shadow)"

    "Momme Portrait Series (Shadow)"
    LaToya Ruby Frazier was another American photographer- Momme Portrait Series (Shadow) 2008, gelatin silver print, she’s from Pittsburg where many people get cancer and sickness due to toxic waste In city, these photos document these illnesses, her and her mom are photographed together with their bodies overlapping, mother is overshadowing daughter, cycle of life to death experienced by women
  • "Animal Estates"

    "Animal Estates"
    Fritz Haeg- how ecology comes into thinking about art, Animal Estates 2008, produce events that consider animals that humans are sharing cities w, create dwellings that have been unwelcomed by humans, thinking about what does nature mean in the city and built environ, reintroduction of animals back into our city, provides a more intimate visible and thoughtful relationship between animals and humans living today
  • Nicole Eisenman

    Nicole Eisenman
    Nicole Eisenman was a contemporary painter and sculptor, surrealist elements, lots of paintings of dinner parties, Winter Solstice 2012 Dinner Party (2009)- gruesome scenes of strange dinner party interactions
  • Maurizio Cattelan's "Untitled" 2009

    Maurizio Cattelan's "Untitled" 2009
    Maurizio Cattelan- Untitled 2009 Taxidermied horse, steel and felt tip pen on wood, says INRI, a Latin abbreviation, on sign sticking out of horse, means King of the Jews, Jesus of Nazareth, it was the noticed nailed over Jesus while he was hanging on cross
  • "Les Tres Femmes Noires"

    "Les Tres Femmes Noires"
    Mickalene Thomas reproduced Manet’s Le Dejeuner sur l’herbe- replaced images with 3 black females- Les Tres Femmes Noires 2010, rhinestone acrylic and enamel on panel
  • "No Seconds" Series

    "No Seconds" Series
    Henry Hargreaves Series called No Seconds from 2012, photography series where he found death row inmates last meals were and recreated and photographed them on prints with their name and what they ate as their last meal and what their criminal offences were
  • "Standing Man"

    "Standing Man"
    Erdem Gunduz- Standing Man 2013, became the face of the protest in Turkey by standing still, drew lots of attention towards him, allowed his actions to speak
  • "The Incidental Insurgents"

    "The Incidental Insurgents"
    The Incidental Insurgents 2013 by Basel Abbas and Ruanne Abou-Rahme- Palestinian, 3 part series w videos, installation space w photos and stories some true some not about radical lives of ancestors, use the word imaginary a lot, think of the future as an imaginary space to put our ideas into play, possibilities of the future
  • William Pope L

    William Pope L
    William Pope L was a complex artist who has done performance, sculpture, and installation art, always something mysterious going on, Claim (2014), wall installation, grid w 2 different colors, peach and tangerine, in each square there is a piece of baloney, smear of white paint and a picture of a face, also an open letter, nothing in the letter is true and faces are mostly young people of all races and genders, some say it reference Philadelphia and the different ethnic areas and neighborhoods
  • Audrey Wollen's Sad Girl Aesthetic

    Audrey Wollen's Sad Girl Aesthetic
    Audrey Wollen created internet work, sad girl aesthetic, superimposing herself over sexual images like paintings by Botticelli, coined the term sad girl theory, the internalized suffering of women should be categorized as an act of protest, women who have resisted being attached to men
  • "Asphalt and Chalk, Micheal Brown, Sean Bell, Amadou Diallo, Trayvon Martin"

    "Asphalt and Chalk, Micheal Brown, Sean Bell, Amadou Diallo, Trayvon Martin"
    Asphalt and Chalk, Micheal Brown, Sean Bell, Amadou Diallo, Trayvon Martin by Titus Kaphar 2014, shows images of those who have been killed by cops or in custody, desire to memorialized individual while also not creating much detail on their face, hiding their identity
  • "Bling Memories"

    "Bling Memories"
    Ebony G Patterson- Invisible Presence- Bling Memories 2014, Jamaican born artist, recontexualizes gender norms and explores Jamaican gender culture, pushes us to question pop culture more, piece talks about memorial practice in Kingston, highly detailed coffin sculpture, discrepancies in different class funeral traditions, coffins were carried behind parade hovering above crowd
  • The Propeller Group

    The Propeller Group
    The Propeller Group- THE LIVING NEED LIGHT, THE DEAD NEED MUSIC 2014, visual and music journey of funerary rituals in southern Vietnam, created agency, make money off ad campaigns but also have personal projects, art collective, cultural producers making work out of Vietnam but also all over the world, tradition of celebrating death instead of mourning departed, rare opportunities for transgender to come out and express themselves during the ceremonies, not a documentary but not all fiction
  • Kara Walker's "A Subtlety or the Marvelous Sugar Baby"

    Kara Walker's "A Subtlety or the Marvelous Sugar Baby"
    Kara Walker created "A Subtlety or the Marvelous Sugar Baby" (2015) , sculpted to portray royalty, made of sugar and sugar products, represents power in and of itself, made in the Domino Sugar Factory
  • "You are my Sunshine"

    "You are my Sunshine"
    Wangechi Mutu created You are my Sunshine 2015, sci-fi element to work, skilled painter, collager, and visual maker, female form is almost always central to her work, shows female empowerment as well as African empowerment, she believes females carry the mark of their cultures more than males
  • "Art Hoe"

    "Art Hoe"
    "Art Hoe” started by Amanda Stenberg and Willow Smith, movement started by teenagers where women, mainly of color, are putting themselves in front of images in art museum, has a casual quality but that doesn’t change the impact, allows these women to see themselves in a setting they were before excluded from
  • Ernesto Neto's "CanoeKeneJaguarPataLamp"

    Ernesto Neto's "CanoeKeneJaguarPataLamp"
    Ernesto Neto- CanoeKeneJaguarPataLampLight 2015 installation in Vienna Austria, group of people from the Amazons who isolated themselves as a self-preserved tactic, influenced piece and 37 of them worked with Neto, created pod like hanging sculptures, fabric stalactites, works has a playfulness that invites the viewers in to get physical with it inside of this exhibition is the spiritual center, interesting way of thinking about the preservation of culture without letting others in to muddle it