1700 -- 1750

  • Japan: Literature

    Japan: Literature
    Ueshima Onitsura (1660-1738) was one of two prominent hokku/haiku writers during the late 17th & early 18th centuries during Japan's Edo era. He was best known for his ability to write a captivating "hokku," which is the first and most important line in a haiku. The key to writing a haiku is that it should reflect simplicity but echo emotively. He wrote the following poem called "Wind of Autumn," date unknown: "Wind of autumn / has blown around- / Faces of people."
  • Period: to

    Late Baroque and Rococo Styles

    1700-1750 spans the art of the Baroque and Rococo styles. The signature artistic design of the Baroque period stresses majesty, power, and movement. Rococo emphasizes grace, softness, and gentle action.
  • France: Painting

    France: Painting
    The king commissioned the painting of "King Louis XIV," which Hyacinthe Rigaud painted early in the 18th century. The job straddled the fine line of accurate representation & indulgent imagery, which was a challenge. The painter focused on making the legs & the hair of the aging king reflect youthfulness while creating a recognizable portrait. Regaud balanced the poised look of the king with the added air of an austere leader. The oil-on-canvas work successfully pleased the king.
  • England: Architecture

    England: Architecture
    Blenheim Palace is located in Oxfordshire, England and was designed by John Vanbrugh. John Churchill, the first Duke of Marlborough, received the English Baroque style castle for victory in battle. The construction of the work began in 1705 and was finished in 1722. The architect intended the structure to be most pleasing when regarded from a distance. The work influenced the English Romantic movement. This building was Winston Churchill's ancestral home and birthplace.
  • Russia: Architecture

    Russia: Architecture
    Designed by Domenico Trezzini, Peter and Paul Cathedral has two distinctions: The building is the oldest church in St. Petersburg and the second tallest in the city. The spire stretches to a height of 404 feet. A symbol of the city, an angel clings to the cross at the top. The Russian Orthodox Church, finished in 1733, reflects the early Baroque style of the Western church. With the burial of Peter the Great & other family members, the church has a historical connection to the Romanov family.
  • England: Literature

    England: Literature
    A mock-epic poem, written by Alexander Pope (1688-1744), "The Rape of the Lock" was published anonymously in 1712. In 1714 Pope printed the poem under his real name. A final version, released in 1717, reflects the epic poetry style. The poem satirizes a real event in which a young woman's lock of hair was cut off, causing quite a kerfuffle. Five cantos relate the story of a young noblewoman's endeavor to get ready for a social event, her travel there, and her arrival at Hampton Court Palace.
  • Italy: Architecture

    Italy: Architecture
    Architect Filippo Juvarra built Basilica di Superga between 1717 & 1731 in Turin. In 1706 Vittorio Amedeo had pledged to honor the Virgin Mary with the construction of the edifice if the city was saved from the French & Spanish armies. They were. The late Baroque-Classicism building hints at earlier architectual styles. The front temple proportions are larger due to its hill location. In 1949 a plane carrying the Turin football team crashed into the building. Their tomb is located there.
  • Austria: Architecture

    Austria: Architecture
    https://www.belvedere.at/en/schloss-und-museum/oberes-belvedere'
    The Upper Belvedere is one of two palaces constructed for Prince Eugene of Savoy as his summer residences in Vienna. Architect Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt designed the lovely baroque palace that was built between 1717 and 1723. The prince hired several Italian painters to create frescos inside the palace. The building is renowned for possessing a grand collection of Austrian art spanning from the Middle Ages to Modernity.
  • Portugal: Architecture

    Portugal: Architecture
    The beautiful Baroque & Italianized neoclassical structure constructed between 1717 and 1755 is the most important Baroque building in Portugal. King Joao V (1689-1750) commissioned Mafra National Palace, now a museum, after he pledged a vow. Limestone and marble from the area provided the material. Joao's son founded a school of sculpture, and the Italian master Alessandro Giusti directed its students. The complex houses a collection of 36,000 volumes in one of Europe's important libraries.
  • England: Music

    England: Music
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dwGQnN06_8' Popular Christmas song "Joy to the World," written in 1719 by hymn writer Isaac Watts (1674-1748), alludes to parts of Psalm 98. The words Watts penned show none of the typical Noel features of biblical Christmas songs: wise men, heavenly beings, or shepherds. He did not intend for the song to be a Christmas tune, but one that points to Christ's return. In 1848 Lowell Mason adapted a melody credited to Handel & a Christmas hymn was born.
  • England: Literature

    England: Literature
    Daniel Defoe's first novel was _Robinson Crusoe_. This novel is merited as being the first one written in the English language. The story is about a merchant's sea travels. In spite of his father's direction to stay on land and some earlier misfortunes, Crusoe continues to look for adventures. Eventually, the protagonist Crusoe is shipwrecked on an island where he is stranded for nearly 29 years. The themes of redemption, divine providence, and individuality ring clearly.
  • Italy: Music

    Italy: Music
    'https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GRxofEmo3HA'
    Baroque master Antonio Vivaldi composed his most famous work, the "Four Seasons," in 1720; the four violin concertos were published in 1725. The work is based on the typical concerto pattern of fast-slow-fast movements. Each movement reflects the corresponding season, with spring first & winter last. King Louis XV delighted in "Spring" & requested it to be played at unpredictable times. Vivaldi wrote over 500 concertos, many more than other masters.
  • Spain: Architecture

    Spain: Architecture
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estipite
    The Cathedral of Santiago has a unique style of architecture worth noting. The Churrigueresque baroque style of Spain and Spanish America features elaborate ornamentation. The distinct estipite column made an architectural appearance between 1720-1760. The link shows the pillar, which is an upturned conical shape.
  • China: Pottery

    China: Pottery
    Painted enamelware began to expand during the Yung-cheng reign (1732-1735) in China. The vases themselves may be made from a variety of materials: bronze, glass, or porcelain. The painted enamel reflects bright colors and detailed features. The brilliant hues are called yangcai colors, meaning "foreign colors," due to the European inspiration, which became popular during the reign. These particular containers are enameled porcelain vases.
  • Ireland: Literature

    Ireland: Literature
    Author Jonathan Swift was born in November 1667 in Dublin, Ireland. Swift graduated from Trinity College in Dublin. After Daniel Defoe's book, Swift composed the satire _Gulliver's Travels_ about the journeys of the main character. The protagonist, Lemuel Gulliver, starts the adventures in Lilliput. The scene of Gulliver being bound by many threads by the diminutive Lilliputians is a famous one. The story's themes focus on power and morality. This novel has never been out of print.
  • Germany: Music

    Germany: Music
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P21qlB0K-Bs
    German composer Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) wrote the sacred oratorio _St Matthew Passion_ in 1727. This opus, which debuted on Good Friday of that year, reflects the narrative of the sacrificial and redemptive life of Christ from the Gospel of Matthew, chapters 26 and 27. The oratorio features solo voices, a double choir, and a double orchestra. Musical scholars mark the end of the baroque musical period with the year of J. S. Bach's death.
  • Italy: Painting

    Italy: Painting
    Jacopo Amigoni (1682-1752) creates "The Crowning of Homer" between 1730-1739 during the late Baroque period. Since the Italian painter did not date his art or vary his style, the time is hard to assign. The oil-on-canvas painting shows the Greek poet Homer receiving a laurel wreath signifying his contributions to the arts. Apollo gives the award; the muse of poetry, Euterpe, is reclining to the left of the great writer. The soft colors reflect the iridescent style of the Venetian Rococo period.
  • France: Literature

    France: Literature
    _The Game of Love and Chance_ is a romantic comedy by French playwright Pierre de Marivaux (1688-1763). The commedia dell-arte play, which reflects Italian buffoonery and stock characters, displays the typical features of the genre: overblown romantics, visual comedy, witty badinage. The main characters are engaged but have never met. To determine the other mate's marital worthiness, the servant of each person assumes the respective identity. _Le Jeu de L'amour et du Hasard_ debuted in 1730.
  • China: Pottery

    China: Pottery
    Painted enamelware began to expand during the Yung-cheng reign (1732-1735) in China. The vases themselves may be made from a variety of materials: bronze, glass, or porcelain. The painted enamel reflects bright colors and detailed features. The brilliant hues are called yangcai colors, meaning "foreign colors," due to the European inspiration, which became popular during the reign. With the addition of the dragon, this particular vase incorporates both Western and Eastern influences.
  • India: Painting

    India: Painting
    This painting called "A Lady Playing the Tanpura" reveals a style of Indian artwork called Kishangarh named from the city it hails. The main features of this design are longish faces, use of the color green, & wide views of landscape. The picture shows a bejeweled Indian heroine in royal dress playing an instrument from the lute family. The work suggests a date around 1735, before a more stylized, embellished Kishangarh style became popular.
  • Spain: Architecture

    Spain: Architecture
    The Palacio Real, or the Royal Palace of Madrid, was built between 1738-1755. The Baroque building was initially designed for monarch Felipe V by architect Filippo Juvarra, who based it on the Palace of Versailles. Juan Bautista Sacchetti started construction; Francisco Sabatini & Ventura Rodriguez finished the work. The palace has the distinction of being not only the largest structure in Madrid but also the largest royal palace in Western Europe. Important works of art are housed there.
  • France: Sculpture

    France: Sculpture
    Guillaume I Coustou created the "Horses Restrained by Grooms" marble sculptures between 1739-1745 at the request of King Louis XV. They were installed at the Chateau de Marly. The sculptures were moved in 1795 to Paris to renew the area sullied by the French Revolution. Their popularity resulted in the creation of smaller bronze versions that made their way into Victorian homes. Eventually the marble works were moved to the Louvre in 1984. The sculptures are also known as the Horses of Marly.
  • Netherlands: Painting

    Netherlands: Painting
    In the Rococo style of painting, Dutch painter Rachel Ruysch (1664-1750) created "Rose Branch with Beetle and Bee" in 1741. She began her career at the age of 15, specializing in painting flowers. Ruysch's works of floriated art captures the fine & realistic details of plant and insect life. The minutiae reveal the artist's clear understanding of botany and biology. This particular work draws the viewer's attention to the erect beetle and the soft lines of the jumbled bouquet on the gray sill.
  • England: Painting

    England: Painting
    English painter William Hogarth (1697-1764) created this portraiture of Miss Mary Edwards of Kensington in 1742. His expertise lay in portraits, caricature, & satirical paintings. One of his favorite models was patron Miss Edwards. This oil-on-canvas work captures the her face in a soft light that contrasts with the richness of the red dress. The scroll to the left reads in part, "Remember, Englishmen, the Laws & the Rights!" The inscription suggests Miss Edwards's independence & bold spirit.
  • Germany: Music

    Germany: Music
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=usfiAsWR4qU
    One of Christendom's most famous oratorios, _The Messiah_, comes from the mind of George Frideric Handel. Composed in 1741, the performance was timed for Passion Week and debuted on April 13, 1742 in Dublin, Ireland. Inspired by a libretto by scholar Charles Jennens, Handel created the score in just 24 days. The work was originally meant for Easter. However, today, choirs and orchestras perform _The Messiah_ during the Christmas season.
  • France: Sculpture

    France: Sculpture
    French artist Edme Bouchardon (1698-1762) created the "Fontaine des Quatre Saisons" from stone. King Louis XV commissioned the public fountain, also known as the Fountain of the Four Seasons, which opened in 1745. Its purpose was to provide water and to reflect the kindness of the king. However, the grandness and ornateness belied its functionality with having only two water spouts. The construction took Bouchardon seven years to complete. The fountain is located on Rue de Grenelle in Paris.
  • France: Sculpture

    France: Sculpture
    This sculpture is the second one of the "Horses Restrained by Grooms" by Guillaume I Coustou created between 1739 and 1745. See 1 Jan 1739 for the details.
  • England: Painting

    England: Painting
    Englishman Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) painted "Holywells Park" in 1748. He studied 17th century Dutch landscapes. This influence shows in his only known work of this bucolic scene in Ipswich, England. Many of his other paintings focus on the Suffolk countryside of his birth. At the time, portraiture was more respectable than landscape painting, so the artist painted pastoral backgrounds into some portraits. Gainsborough is considered a pre-Romantic and shaped the work of John Constable.
  • France: Painting

    France: Painting
    Francois Boucher (1703-1770) painted the Rococo style work called "La Fontaine d'amour" in 1748. The oil-on-canvas painting reflects beauty & affection at the Fountain of Love. The brightly clothed people offer a pleasing contrast to the muted blues and grays in the background. The original intent of the work was to serve as a cartoon for a tapestry and was one of a series. Ultimately, the cartoons were removed & sold singly. The tapestry still exists with holes indicating the missing artwork.
  • Hispano-Philippine: Sculpture

    Hispano-Philippine: Sculpture
    The ivory figurine, "Virgin of the Immaculate Conception," with glass eyes and silver halo reveals the influence not only of the Catholic church but also of Chinese carvers in the Philippines.