Art History Test II

  • Period: Nov 5, 1050 to Nov 5, 1150

    Romanesque Period

    The Romanesque was a style of art and architecture which used thick walls, small windows and either barrel or round groin vaults.
  • Nov 5, 1070

    Bayeux Tapestry

    Bayeux Tapestry
    The Bayeux Tapestry is actually an embroidery, depicting the Battle of Hastings and invasion of England by William of Normandy. In the registers it still shows the remnants of a migratory vocabulary.
  • Nov 5, 1140

    St Denis Chevet

    St Denis Chevet
    The Chevet of St Denis was redesigned by Abbot Suger, and was the first idea of Gothic architecture. there was an ambulatory passage and semi-united chapels, with pointed arches and large windows. It represented a sharp break from tradition, and set the idea of further Gothic Architecture.
  • Nov 5, 1145

    Royal Portal at Chartres

    Royal Portal at Chartres
    The Royal Portal is all that's left over from the original Chartres Cathedral and the beginning of Gothic Architecture. It's called the ryal portal because the statues on the columns flanking the doorways were once believed to be statues of the French Kings and Queens (this has since been proved false). The faces are individualized. The left tympanum shows Christ's ascension into Heaven, the left shows Christ in the lap of Virgin Mary, and the center shows the second coming of Christ.
  • Nov 5, 1150

    Vision of Hildegard of Bingen

    Vision of Hildegard of Bingen
    HIldegard of Bingen was a nun who achieved fame through her visions, which she wrote about and had a scribe depict. She was one of several women who had a spirituality centered largely around emotions and the figure of Mary. This illumination shows Hildegard writing down her vision as it comes to her, and telling a scribe who is drawing it. The face is not entirely accurate--the image was copied over by German nuns in the 1920's, and some ideas about form snuck in from that time period.
  • Period: Nov 5, 1150 to Nov 5, 1400

    Gothic Period

    Gothic Architecture is characterized by 'higher, lighter, unified' most architects strove for higher ceilings and more windows, using pointed arches and flying buttresses to do so.
  • Nov 5, 1194

    Chartes Cathedral (Nave)

    Chartes Cathedral (Nave)
    Chartes Nave was rebuilt after a fire, deliberately in the High Gothic Style. It featured flying buttresses and pointed arches, allowing the ceiling to be over 100 feet tall. The ceiling had quadripartite vaulting, which eliminated bays and increased the unity of the space, and was the first cathedral to use flying buttresses. This allowed for skeletal construction, and thus larger windows.
  • Nov 5, 1225

    Visitation and Annunciation, Rheims Cathedral

    Visitation and Annunciation, Rheims Cathedral
    These four statues show both the Annunciation of Mary and her Visitation to Elizabeth. They are almost completely detached from the background and seem to move freely. The Visitation group is more naturalistic, with semi-realistic weight shift and drapery, but the Annunciation group shows the style that came to characterize the High Gothic period.
  • Nov 5, 1243

    Sainte-Chapelle, Paris

    Sainte-Chapelle, Paris
    Sainte-Chapelle, built by Lous IX, was made to house two exremely important relics to the French Royal Family. It has architecture typical of private chapels, but was taken to another level. By using skeletal construction, enormous stained-glass windows were able to be put in, nearly 50 feet tall, and using 6450 sq. feet of stained glass overall. Any remaining stonework was decorated with gold leaf.
  • Period: Nov 5, 1250 to Nov 5, 1350

    Trecento, or Proto-Renaissance

    Although this was not a time of true architectural enlightenment, but many new art ideas were developed during this time period. Italo-Byzantine style was common originally, but became less so.
  • Nov 5, 1270

    Psalter of St Louis

    Psalter of St Louis
    The bible from which the image came was ordered by Louis' mother. The Psalter shows the visitation of three angels to Abraham, telling him that Sarah will concieve. In the background is Sainte-Chapelle. The figures are elongated, which is typical of Gothic art. In addition, the style and decoration of the page is very metallic and deliberately sumptous. All in all, it shows the courtly vocabulary of the Gothic Era.
  • Nov 5, 1280

    Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned

    Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned
    Cimabue was a master of the Italo-Byzantine Style of art, shown in the careful structure and symmetry of the work. The careful structure and use of golden background is very common in Byzantine art, but Cimabue also presents an idea of a third dimension that comes from more recent art innovations than those of the Byzantines.
  • Nov 5, 1300

    Virgin with the Dead Christ (Rottgen Pieta)

    Virgin with the Dead Christ (Rottgen Pieta)
    Pieta means pity, and is normally the name for a picture or scuplture of the Virgin holding the dead Christ. Suffering is readily apparent in the sculpture, and expressed deep emotion through exaggeration. Christ looks distorted, almost, and with streams of blood from his wounds. Mary's face is oversized and twisted with grief. The image may have been associated with the upsurge of female spirituality centered around Mary and her suffering, especially emotional connections to her.
  • Nov 5, 1300

    Madonna and Child, Duccio

    Madonna and Child, Duccio
    This is part of the Maesta that the city of Sienna commissioned. Madonna is looking down at Christ, and he is lifting a hand to her veil. It is less naturalistic than that of Giotto's, but somewhat grander--the beginnings of the International Gothic Style.
  • Nov 5, 1308

    Giotto, Frescoes from the Arena Chapel (Padua)

    Giotto, Frescoes from the Arena Chapel (Padua)
    Giotto was commissioned to fresco a private chapel in Padua. In these frescoes, Giotto, set the ideas for artists depicting human emotion and formed a unified composition, not just isolated figures. He made each face individualistic and emotional, and used more naturalistic figures. Light and shade are used as well. The Explusion of Joachim, Kiss of Judas (depicted) and Lamentation are all considered important.
  • Nov 5, 1309

    Duccio, Images from the Maesta

    Duccio, Images from the Maesta
    Duccio is known for using a lot of color and texture, as opposed to Giotto, and it is seen here. There is no central theme to many of the images, all set on a golden background and with rich pattern and color. Overall the style of the pieces are more frenetic than that of Giotto, with more action and movement. Imporant are the Entrance into Jerusalem and the Kiss of Judas (pictured).
  • Nov 5, 1310

    Giotto, Madonna Enthroned

    Giotto, Madonna Enthroned
    Giotto is the first naturalistic painter, and thus seen as one of the harbringers of the Renaissance. Mary is very naturalistic, with a less idealized face and figure and more realistic drapery. The throne has clear depth, as do the figures around her. Thus, Giotto gave the figures dimensionality and substance.
  • Nov 5, 1333

    Simone Martini, the Annunciation

    Simone Martini, the Annunciation
    The Annunciation was the first painting to truly be of the International Gothic Style. Martini trained under Duccio and exaggerated many of his qualities, such as the brilliant colors, intricate ornamentation and processions. He gives us elegant shapes and weightless, ornate figures in a two-dimensional setting, against a golden background. This style later became very well-known outside of Italy.
  • Nov 5, 1395

    Claude Sluter, Well of Moses

    Claude Sluter, Well of Moses
    The only thing left is the base of the fountain, but was once a part of a royal monastery. Sluter's lack of knowledge about the classical style is evident. The drapery is not at all naturalistic, but the face captures the essence of Moses' power and spirituality despite pursed lips and an enormous beard. Moses looks forceful.
  • Period: Nov 5, 1400 to

    Renaissance

    Renaissance, or rebirth, was a time of ressurection of the classical ways, as well as new artistic innovation.
  • Nov 5, 1401

    Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac

    Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac
    Ghiberti's Sacrifice of Isaac, made for a sculptural competition, shows the angel halting Abraham's sacrifice. It is somewhat gothic in the poses, but Ghiberti gives a new sense of spatial illusion with the rocky landscape and the emergence of the figures towards the viewer. It is classified as Early Renaissance because of the naturalism and spatial unity that Ghiberti uses.
  • Nov 5, 1411

    Donatello, St George and the Dragon, Orsanmichele

    Donatello, St George and the Dragon, Orsanmichele
    The image of St George and the Dragon, also interpreted as the slaying of heresy by the church, is notable chiefly for the use of Brunelleschi's new idea of linear perspective. The palace behind the princess recedes into the background on an orthagonal, giving an idea of three-dimensionality.
  • Nov 5, 1411

    Donatello, St. Mark, Orsanmichele

    Donatello, St. Mark, Orsanmichele
    In this statue of St Mark, Donatello reintroduced the idea of contrapposto, or weight shift. The shift of Mark's hip is shown throughout the body, and the drapery falls in a very natural manner. It could be seen as a draped nude, not a figure with arbitrary drapery. The way the statue is made suggests impending movement as well.
  • Nov 5, 1413

    Limbourg Brothers, Tres Ruches Heures de Duc de Barry

    Limbourg Brothers, Tres Ruches Heures de Duc de Barry
    The Limbourg Brothers embellished a Book of Hours, alternating pictures of the peasantas and the Duc. It is one of the last examples of Inernational Gothic Style. January (depicted) The Duc displays his wealth in the illumination, with an emphasis on pattern. February is a simplified, idealized showing of peasants.
  • Nov 5, 1423

    Gentile da Fabriano, Adoration of the Magi

    Gentile da Fabriano, Adoration of the Magi
    This was an alterpiece for the Strozzi family of Florence, and a testimony to their incredible wealth. In the International Gothic Style, every single figure is lavishly costumed in a variety of colors and patterns. It is fundamentally gothic, but has some naturalistic detail--figures are shown from a variety of angles. Although the nativity is supposed to be at night, a light source is shown.
  • Nov 5, 1425

    Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece

    Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece
    Because there were no royal commissions in Belgium, artists relied on private patrons and church creations. The altarpiece shows a typical Flemish household, where the Annunciation is taking place. Disguised Symbolism is evident in many of the ordinary objects scattered about, such as the mouse traps Jospeh makes in the next room (theory of the church). There is debate on what, exactly, is a disguised symbol.
  • Nov 5, 1427

    Masaccio, Tribute Money, Brancaccio Chapel, Sta. Maria del Carmine

    Masaccio, Tribute Money, Brancaccio Chapel, Sta. Maria del Carmine
    This is a scene where tax collectors stop Jesus at the gate of a city asking for tribute money, and Jesus sends Peter to catch a fish with the payment in its belly. There are 3 parts to the fresco. In the center Christ waits with his disciples, to the left Peter fishes and to the right Peter gives the man the coin. Depth and a vanishing point are used, and the figures are all very naturalistic and individualistic, with varying expressions.
  • Nov 5, 1427

    Masaccio, Expulsion, Brancaccio Chapel, Sta. Maria del Carmine

    This shows Adam and Eve being expelled from Eden. Both of them have faces twisted with loss and agony, with a foreshortened angel banishing them. Both figures are very naturalistic, and are an inspiration for a similiar work by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel.
  • Nov 5, 1428

    Masaccio, The Trinity, Sta. Maria Novella

    Masaccio, The Trinity, Sta. Maria Novella
    The bottom of the cross is at eye height here, with corresponding orthagonals. below is a skeleton and a latin inscription, above are the donors for the fresco. Flanking the cross are the Virgin and John the Baptist. Above Christ's head is God, with the Holy Spirit in between. It inspires people, going from the gloom of death up to the hope of ressurection (pyramidal format).
  • Nov 5, 1432

    Jan and Hubert Van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece

    Jan and Hubert Van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece
    The Ghent Altarpiece when closed shows various saints and the annunciation, and when open shows God with Mary and John the Baptist at the top, and a celebration on the bottom (in much smaller scale). because of the use of oil paints, glazes were painted on in an infinite variety of color and this allowed incredible detail (for instance, the jewels reflect light differently)
  • Nov 5, 1434

    Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini Portrait

    Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini Portrait
    This is supposedly a marraige portait, of Arnolfini and his wife. This classification, and the role of disguised symbolism, have been hotly disputed especially as of late. The author depicted himself in the convex mirror in the background, painting the image with an unknown man beside him. Various details in the room may or may not be disguised symbolism, such as the dog.
  • Nov 5, 1435

    Rogier van der Weyden, Descent from the Cross

    Rogier van der Weyden, Descent from the Cross
    Rogier Van Der Weyden was exceedingly good at depicting emotions. Each character in his depiction of the deposition of Christ has a different reaction and sign of grief. The painting was copied many times, because the church believed it gave an appropriate model for reactions to the death of Christ. Most notable is the Virgin fainting, in a similiar pose to Christ himself.
  • Nov 5, 1436

    Brunelleschi, San Lorenzo, Florence

    Brunelleschi, San Lorenzo, Florence
    The church was establishes with the dimensions of a basilica, height of the arcade equaling the length of the nave. The typical look of Gothic architecture is absent, but mimics classic design and proportions. It doesn't have the drama of Gothic, but instead a tranquil atmosphere--almost claiming reason is superior to emotion.
  • Nov 5, 1440

    Donatello, David

    Donatello, David
    The posture of David is relaxed, with contrapposto, weight shift. He has ideal proportions, although youthful ones, and he has the sensous beauty of a god. The statue is immediately after the slaying of Goliath. In addition, the style is very different from the typical medieval statues of before.
  • Nov 5, 1445

    Donatello, Gattamelata, Piazza del Santo, Padua

    Donatello, Gattamelata, Piazza del Santo, Padua
    a monument to a military general, Donatello emphasized his strength while maintaining typical proportions. the idea is that the man can manage his huge horse through sheer will. It is similiar to the statue of Marcus Aurelias, which Donatello would have studied. There is a different feel depending which angle you see. There is a sense of forceful energy and morality.
  • Nov 5, 1455

    Donatello, Magdalene

    Donatello, Magdalene
    This statue shows the Magdalene after she left for the south of France and lived in the wilderness for 40 years. the impression is of a beautiful woman, her beauty now lost on the exterior, but a spiritual inner beauty shines thorugh still. Her face has sunken cheeks and broken teeth, but once every strand of hair was colored with gold.
  • Nov 5, 1510

    Giorgione, The Tempest

    Giorgione, The Tempest
    The image is of a storm, mostly in the background. There is a nursing woman and a guard in the foreground, although the figures are only loosely tied into the piece. The main emphasis is on the storm and the whitewashed buildings in the background.
  • Nov 5, 1516

    Titian, Assumption of the Virgin

    Titian, Assumption of the Virgin
    This is an altarpiece fully 20 feet high and only partially visible from the back of the church--it depicts the rising of Mary's body into heaven. It is a 2-level composition, with the apostles at the bottom and Mary aboe them, separated by cloud. Upraised arms help unite the painting, although primarily the painting is united by a triangle of orange color--primarily a Venetian innovation. Light is used in a very natural way, and shadows are as well.
  • Nov 5, 1538

    Titian, Venus of Urbino

    Titian, Venus of Urbino
    Despite the name, this is just a figure of a nude woman. This woman looks out at us, almost seeming to fondle herself, with a small dog symbolizing licentiousness beside her. Two maids look behind her. Color, light and brush stroke all make this painting unique (indeed, it became the primary way for nudes to be painted)
  • Nov 5, 1550

    Palladio, Villa Rotunda, Vicenza (Venice)

    Palladio, Villa Rotunda, Vicenza (Venice)
    This Villa was used as a vacation home and for entertainment, with a beautiful view. There is a dome in the center and four entrance ways with porches, with harmonic proportions meant to make one feel at home with the universe. Each archway has a temple front and archways to capture the breeze. Guests would sit on the porches and talk until dinner.
  • Nov 5, 1559

    Titian, Rape of Europa

    Titian, Rape of Europa
    Titian's Rape of Europa is very vivid. It depicts the abduction and rape of Europa by Zeus, disguised as a bull. The painting shows ideal forms and warm colors, as well as an enormous diagonal. Drapery creates movement as well. The painting is very emotional, still High Renaissance, but rendered differently.
  • Tintoretto, Last Supper

    Tintoretto, Last Supper
    Tintoretto was a student of Titian, and mimicked his use of diagonals to create an emotinal composition. There is a sense of energy that slides the eye either up or down. Christ is in the center of the table, along with various semi-transparent angels. Light from the lamp, the disciples and angels lights the entire space. There are servants everywhere, and a sense of action in all of the figures.