Paint brush

Influential Art and Design Movements

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    French Industrial Revolution

    The dates are unknown but the French Industrial Revolution took place between 1760 to sometime between 1820-1840. The industrialization in France happened at a much slower rate than suggested, France experienced a slow change to commercialized agriculture, power driven machinery and mass production. Increasing industrialization damaged the family economy, or the cottage industries as trades found their could increase their profits by buying from factories.
  • Invention of the Car

    Invention of the Car
    Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot invented the first steam-powered vehicle in 1768 which was capable of transporting humans. But it wasn't til 1807 when François Isaac de Rivaz created the first car which was powered by an internal combustion engine fueled by hydrogen, and finally in 1886 Karl Benz the first petrol/gasoline powered automobile was invented. Exact dates are not known however the years are accurate.
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    An Artistic, Literary, Musical and intellectual movement which originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century. Characterized by the emphasis on emotion and individualism, this movement was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature. Artists such as J.M.W Turner, Caspar David Friedrich and Thomas Jones were apart of it, showing the movement in paintings, etc.
  • Salvator Rosa-Influence on Romanticist landscapers styles.

    Salvator Rosa-Influence on Romanticist landscapers styles.
    Born June 20 or July 21 1615 Rosa was a late Baroque artist whose landscapes held elements that Romanticist painters turned to. As a painter Rosa was best known as "unorthodox and extravagant" and being a "perpetual rebel" as well as a proto-Romantic. (Work featured is from 1670). The image shown is one of his works from the 1800s.
  • Caspar David Friedrich-Romanticist Painter

    Caspar David Friedrich-Romanticist Painter
    A 19th Century German Romanticist landscape painter born on the 5th September 1774, he was well known for his mid-period allegorical landscapes featuring contemplative figures silhouetted against night skies, morning mists, barren trees or Gothic ruins. Though much like Turner he did not take up the style of Romanticism till the movement became strong within the art realm. The image shown is one of his works from 1818.
  • J.M.W Turner-Romanticist Painter

    J.M.W Turner-Romanticist Painter
    An English Romanticist landscape painter born on the 14th of May 1775, he elevated landscape painting into a eminence rivaling history painting. Although his artistic sensibilities were formed when forms of Romanticism was already strongly present in art. The image shown is one of his works from 1839.
  • Gustave Courbet-Realist Movement Founder.

    Gustave Courbet-Realist Movement Founder.
    A French painter born on the 10th June 1819, whom led the 19th century French Realist movement, committed to painting only what he saw, rejecting academic convention as well as visuals from the Romanticism movement. He set an example that was important to late artists and movements such as Impressionism and Cubism.His paintings from the 1840s are what gained the audiences attention, challenging convention by depicting unidealized peasants and workers. Image shown is one of his works from 1849.
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    After the Industrial and Commercial Revolutions Realism began during the start of the 1850s which rejected the once dominant Romanticism. It is an attempt to depict subjects as they are considered to exist in a third person reality, with truth and accuracy and not avoiding unpleasant aspects of life. Originating in France the movement soon spread across Europe. Artists such as Gustave Courbet, Jean-François Millet and Honoré Daumier were apart of this movement with their influenced works.
  • Battle of Solferino

    Or referred to in Italy as Battle of Solferino and San Martino was a war between Italy and the allied French Army, led by Napoleon III and Sardinian Army under Victor Emmanuel II together they were known as the Franco-Sardinian Alliance. Roughly 300,000 fought in the battle, there were about 130,000 Austrian troops and a combined 140,000 of French and allied Piedmontese troops.
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    During the mid-19th century it was a time of change, Emperor Napoleon III rebuilt Paris and waged war. The movement itself was derived from Claude Monets work entitled "Impression" with characteristics being relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, and an emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities. Others such as Frédéric Bazille and Alfred Sisley (Monets friends) were also part of the movement with their influential work.
  • Alfred Sisley-Impressionist Landscaper

    Alfred Sisley-Impressionist Landscaper
    Born on October 30th 1839, Sisley too was an Impressionist landscape artist overshadowed by Monet, whose work resembles his style and subject matter whilst Sisleys is more subdued. The majority of his works are focused around the Thames though he deviated into figure painting rarely. But he found that Impressionism fulfilled his artistic needs. The image shown is a piece from 1870.
  • Claude Monet-The man who Influenced and Founded the Movement

    Claude Monet-The man who Influenced and Founded the Movement
    Born November 14th 1840, Monet created this movement as a way to free artists from the constraints of Salon de Paris. He came about the idea of creating the movement when he started to create his own style and a critic commented on it in a critic saying "L'Exposition des Impressionnistes" so Monet coined the term Impressionism. The image shown is one of his pieces from 1872.
  • Camille Pissarro-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist Painter

    Camille Pissarro-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist Painter
    10/07/1830. Pissarro was a French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter whom also preferred to paint landscapes. To Pissarro Monet was a "guiding force" which led him to adjust his artistic style into that of Impressionism, he wanted an alternative to the Salon so the group could display their own artistic styles. In 1873 Pissarro helped to establish "Société Anonyme des Artistes, Peintres, Sculpteurs et Graveurs" which was a separate collective to the Salon which included fifteen artists.
  • The Invention of the Telephone

    The Invention of the Telephone
    Alexander Graham Bell was the inventor of the first practical telephone.
  • Jules Bastien-Lepage-Realism/Naturalism Painter

    Jules Bastien-Lepage-Realism/Naturalism Painter
    Born November 1st 1840, he was a French painter whom was closely associated to the beginning of Naturalism, a style of which emerged from the late stage of the Realist movement. After the success of his piece 'Haymaking' Bastien-Lepage was recognized in France as the leader of the emerging Naturalist school. And by 1883 it was acclaimed that "The whole world paints so much today like M. Bastien-Lepage that M. Bastien-Lepage seems to paint like the whole world." by a critic. Image is from 1877,
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    The Arts and Crafts Movement

    A movement born of ideals soon becoming one of the most influential, profound and far-reaching design movements in modern times. Beginning in Britain it grew out of concern for the effects of industrialization, on design, on traditional skills and on the lives of ordinary people. Soon spreading across Europe before emerging in Japan as Mingei (Folks Crafts movement). Characteristics include simple forms, truth to materials and use of British countryside in works. Exact dates are unknown.
  • Jules Breton-Realist Painter

    Jules Breton-Realist Painter
    A 19th Century French Realist painter born in May 1827, Breton influenced by the French countryside. During the 1870s into the 1880's Bretons publicity and reputation begun to grow. His poetic renderings of single peasant female figures in a landscape, posed against the setting sun, remained very popular, especially in the United States. Due to many of his pieces becoming so popular he soon began to produce copies of some of his own works. The piece is dated to 1884 original date is unknown.
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    Art Nouveau

    Unlike most movements the Art Nouveau movement was one that swept through the decorative arts and architecture during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Art Nouveau was aimed at modernizing design and seeking to escape the eclectic historical styles which had been previously popular. Inspiration is drawn from both organic and geometric forms. At the time Industrial was widespread and the practitioners of Art Nouveau sought to raise the status of craft and produce genuinely modern design.
  • Invention of Motion Picture

    Invention of Motion Picture
    Motion Picture cameras were invented and used back in 1890 and film production companies gradually started to form. However due to the lack of technology a lot of films during that age were often only a minute long and until 1927 motion pictures were produced with no sound. Exact dates of creation are unknown however the year is accurate.
  • Invention of the Radio

    Invention of the Radio
    Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi, in 1895 he sent and received his first radio signal in Italy. Then by 1899 he flashed his first wireless signal across the English Channel, two years later he received the letter "S" which was telegraphed from England to Newfoundland. The exact date of the Radios invention is unknown but the year is accurate.
  • François-Raoul Larche-Art Nouveau Sculpture

    François-Raoul Larche-Art Nouveau Sculpture
    Born in 1860 he was a french sculptor whom was part of the Art Nouveau movement, his sculptures featuring figures of Christ or his most well known pieces being of women. His main inspiration being from the dancer Loie Fuller. Sculpture is from 1900 exact dates are unknown.
  • Louis Comfort Tiffany-Art Nouveau Artist

    Louis Comfort Tiffany-Art Nouveau Artist
    Born February 18th 1848, Louis Comfort Tiffany created a lot of glass work, many of which were featured as a part of the Art Nouveau Movement. The image is a piece from 1902 the exact date is unknown.
  • Gustav Klimt

    Gustav Klimt
    Born July 14th 1862 he is Vienna's most renowned advocator of Art Nouveau, or, as the style was known in Germany, Jugendstil ("youth style"). He is remembered as one of the greatest decorative painters of the twentieth century, he also produced one of the century's most significant bodies of erotic art. The piece shown is from 1907 though exact date is unknown.
  • Georges Braques involvement within Cubism

    Georges Braques involvement within Cubism
    Born May 13th 1882, Georges Braque also founded the Cubism movement, he had gained an interest in geometry and simultaneous perspective. In the beginning Picasso and Braque had worked very closely together, thus the creation of the Cubism movement was a joint effort with both being influenced by different subjects and artists. They worked together on ways to develop and push Cubism forward. Piece is dated back to 1908 though exact date is unknown.
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    A far-reaching and wide-ranging movement pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. The artists emphasize the two-dimensionality of the canvas taking objects/subjects breaking them down and reassembling them to create geometric forms, and then realigned these within a shallow, relief like space. During the late 19th and early 20th century Europe was discovering African, Polynesian, Micronesian and Native American art which heavily influenced the style of Cubism.
  • Robert Delaunay-Cubist Artist

    Robert Delaunay-Cubist Artist
    Born April 12th 1885, Delaunay joined the Cubism movement along with many other artists, his experience with the movement lead to the creation of his own artist movement known as Orphism art movement which was noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes, it was a movement heavily influenced by it's successor Cubism. The piece below is from 1912 although the exact date is unknown.
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    First World War

    The First World War is one the largest wars in history, with over 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians killed as a result of the war. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria whom was heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 caused the diplomatic crisis between Austria-Hungary and Seriba, which ultimately lead to the war.
  • Hugo Ball-Founder of the Dada Movement

    Hugo Ball-Founder of the Dada Movement
    A German author, poet, the pioneer in the development of sound poetry and founder of the Dada Movement born February 22nd 1886. In 1919 Ball created the Dada Manifestio making a political statement about his views on the terrible state of society and acknowledging his dislike for philosophies in the past claiming to possess the ultimate truth. Due to also being a co founder of the Carbaret Voltair in Zürich he decided to lead the Dada movement in the same place, his involvement lasted two years.
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    An artistic and literary movement which first came about in Zürich, Switzerland as a reaction to the First World War and the nationalism that many thought had led to the war. Influenced by other movements such as Cubism, Futurism, Constructivism, and Expressionism - its output was wildly diverse, ranging from performance art to poetry, photography, sculpture, painting, and collage. It was a conceptual art movement where the focus of the artists was not on crafting aesthetically pleasing objects.
  • Hannah Höch-One of the leading Dada Artists.

    Hannah Höch-One of the leading Dada Artists.
    Born November 1st 1889, Höch was a German Dada artist best known for her work of the Weimar period with her photomontage work (a type of collage n which the pasted items are actual photographs, or photographic reproductions pulled from the press and other widely produced media sources). In the movement there was a reluctance to include women in their ranks though Höch's contribution was described as he "sandwiches, beer and coffee she managed somehow to conjure up despite the shortage of money."
  • Raoul Hausmann-One of the key figures in Berlin Dada

    Raoul Hausmann-One of the key figures in Berlin Dada
    Born July 12th 1886, he was an Austrian artist and writer, being one of the key figures in Berlin Dada with his experimental photographic collages, sound poetry and institutional critiques would have a profound influence on the European Avant-Garde in the aftermath of World War I. In 1917 Hausmann was one of a group of young disaffected artists that began to form the nucleus of Berlin Dada around Richard Huelsenbeck, a close friend to the founder of the Dada movement, Hugo Ball. Dates inaccurate
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    Accurate dates of when this movement begun and ended is unknown but Surrealism took place in early 1920's and disbanded roughly after World War Two in 1966. It is best known for it's visual artworks and writings, the movement was designed to "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality". Artists took this movement and molded it into their own style, creating unnerving scenes or creatures from everyday objects. It was a movement allowing the artists imagination to roam.
  • André Breton

    Born February 19 1896 he was a French poet, writer, anarchist and anti-fascist. He was also the founder of the Surrealist movement, defining Surrealism as "pure psychic automatism".
  • Max Ernst-Pioneer of the Dada and Surrealism Movements.

    Max Ernst-Pioneer of the Dada and Surrealism Movements.
    Born April 2nd 1891 Ernst was a German painter, sculptor, poet and graphics artist whom was a primary pioneer of the Dada and Surrealism movements. In 1925 Ernst created a graphics technique known as Frottage which uses pencil rubbings of objects as a source of images. He also created the technique 'Grattage' which involves paint being scraped across a canvas to reveal the imprints of the objects placed beneath. Image was created in 1937 although exact date is unknown.
  • Pablo Picasso's involvement within Cubism

    Pablo Picasso's involvement within Cubism
    Born October 25th 1881, Pablo Picasso was one of the founders of the Cubism movement, creating pieces that helped influence and inspire others in many years to come. His geometrical works are created from various shapes and bold outlines, keeping the colour palette very minimal. His piece The Weeping Woman is one of his most popular pieces created using Oil paint on a canvas, it was his silent protest to the bombing of Guernica. Piece is from 1937 though exact date is unknown.
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    Second World War

    A global war which lasted over six years involving the vast majority of the world's nations, including all of the great powers; divided into two opposing alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It is said to be the deadliest conflict in human history, the levels of civilian deaths were high, including the Holocaust, the strategic bombings across the country including Pearl Harbour, along with the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.With a fatality score of 50-85 million.
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    Pop Art

    An art movement which emerged in Britian during mid-1950s in Britain and late-1950s in America. It was a movement that presented a challenge to the tradition of fine art, influenced by the popular mass culture drawn from television, comic books, advertisement and the boom in consumerism. It took aspects from this to create stunning bold visuals using different mediums. Some of the most well-known artists of that period are Andy Warhol, Richard Hamilton, Roy Lichtenstein etc. Exact dates unknown.
  • Invention of the VCR

    Invention of the VCR
    Back in 1951 Ampex Corporation researcher Ginsberg invented the very first Videotape Recorder. It worked by taking live images from cameras and converting them into electrical impulses which were then stored on magnetic tapes. The very first VCR for $50,000 in 1956. Exact dates are unknown.
  • Richard Hamilton

    Richard Hamilton
    Born February 24th 1922 Hamilton was an English painter and collage artist. Hamilton was part of the Independence Group and has been a huge influence on the ever popular Pop Art movement, especially with his piece "Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing?". Influenced by D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson text on 'Growth and Form' along with collage artist Eduardo Paolozzi, Hamilton begun to create his own works based around the ever growing media and consumerism world.
  • Andy Warhol-Leading Pop Artist Figure

    Andy Warhol-Leading Pop Artist Figure
    Born August 6th 1928 he was an American artist well known for his influence during the Pop Art movement. Using a wide variety of media for his work, such as hand drawings, paintings, photography, printmaking etc. creating unique pieces exploring the connection between celebrity culture and artistic expression. One classic example being his famous silk print for Marilyn Monroe in 1962 which he entitled 'Marilyn Diptych', being multiple prints of Marilyns face using different coloured paints/inks.
  • Roy Lichtenstein

    Roy Lichtenstein
    Born 27th October 1923 he was an American pop artist, along with artists such as Andy Warhol and Jasper Johns he became a leading figure in the new art movement. Working using oil and Magna (early form of acrylic) paints to create his works, his most famous piece being 'Drowning Girl' (view image) created in 1963. A lot of his works are almost cartoon-like adapted by comic books he read inspired by the DC universe. Lichtenstein tends to use bold, thick outlines, vibrant colours and dots.
  • Yves Tanguy

    Yves Tanguy
    Born January 5th 1900, he was a French Surrealist painter. In 1924 Tanguy was introduced to a circle of Surrealist artists around André Breton (the founder of the movement) and soon Tanguy was quick to develop his own unique painting style. His paintings have a unique, immediately recognizable style of nonrepresentational surrealism. Vast abstract landscapes mostly with a limited colour palette. The painting was created in 1942 but the exact date is unknown.