Poster advertising nestles swiss milk  late 19th century

History of Graphic Design

  • Jan 1, 1440

    Gutenberg's Printing Press

    Gutenberg's Printing Press
    Johannes Gutenberg
    *Gutenberg completed his wooden press which used movable metal type. *This invention was based on the wine press. *The spread of the written word was key to the developement of science, arts, and religion.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1440 to Jan 1, 1501

    The Incubula Period

    The word Incubula is formed of two Latin words meaning literally "in the cradle" or "in swaddling clothes". It refers to the period of the the first printed books
  • Sep 30, 1452

    42 Line Bible

    42 Line Bible
    • The first mass produced book in history.
    *Printed by Johannes Gutenberg *there is today some debate among scholars over whether this may be correctly considered the first printed book, as items had been printed in Europe from solid block type, rather than moveable type, since the fourteenth century.
  • Jun 12, 1493

    Nuremberg Chronicle

    Nuremberg Chronicle
    The Nuremberg Chronicle
    * written in Latin by Hartmann Schedel, a doctor from Nuremberg. It was commonly referred to as the Nuremberg Chronicles, although it never had a title page. *Depicts the history of the world with over 1800 beautiful woodcut illustrations, some hand coloured *an estimated 1100 copies of this book survive today
  • Jan 1, 1499


    * Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (from Greek hypnos, ‘sleep’, eros, ‘love’, and mache, ‘fight’), called in English Poliphilo's Strife of Love in a Dream, *said to be by Francesco Colonna but that isn't certain. *The text is written in several different languages including Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic and Chaldean
  • Caslon

    • typeface designed by William Caslon
    • Caslon is cited as the first original typeface of English origin
  • Period: to


    developed as Baroque artists gave up their symmetry and became increasingly more ornate, florid, and playful. Rococo rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings.
  • Baskerville

    • The Baskerville typeface is the result of John Baskerville's intent to improve upon the types of William Caslon.
    *Increased the contrast between thick and thin strokes, making the serifs sharper and more tapered
    • severely criticised due to the thinness of the strokes. Critics maintained that his type "hurt the eye" and would be "responsible for blinding the nation".
  • William Blake

    William Blake
    • William Blake (1757-1827), English artist, mystic and poet
    • Considered mad by contemporaries for his idiosyncratic views,
    • Reverent of the Bible but hostile to the Church of England,
  • Fournier

    • Pierre Simon Fournier was type founder, punch cutter, type designer
    • also known as Fournier le Jeune.
  • Hokusai

    • Katsushika Hokusai was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period.
    • Japan's leading expert on Chinese painting
    *best-known for his woodblock print series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji which includes the iconic and internationally recognized print, The Great Wave off Kanagawa, created during the 1820s.
  • Bodoni

    *Giambattista Bodoni was the fourth son of a master printer. *No printer was more acclaimed in his own lifetime him
    • He did away with old-style letters and introduced a new clear simple type - the Modern typeface- was characterised by a severe simplicity.
  • Period: to

    Neo Classicism

    an emphasis on austere linear design in the depiction of classical themes and subject matter, using archaeologically
    correct settings and costumes. It arose partly as a reaction against the sensuous and frivolously decorative Rococo but also got it's spark from archeaological and historical discoveries of the time
  • Brothers Grimm

    Brothers Grimm
    • Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm best known for publishing collections of folk tales and fairy tales
    *In 1812 the Grimm brothers published their first volume of fairy tales, Tales of Children and the Home. *They collected the stories from peasants and villagers, and, controversially, from other sources such as published works from other cultures and languages
  • John Ruskin

    John Ruskin
    John Ruskin was an English art critic and social thinker *His essays on art and architecture were extremely influential in the Victorian and Edwardian eras.
    • came to widespread attention for his support for the work of J. M. W. Turner and thePre-Raphaelite movement.
  • Muybridge

    The FIrst Motion Picture *Eadweard J. Muybridge was an English photographer *known for his work on animal locomotion, with use of multiple cameras to capture motion, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures
    • At the Chicago 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, Muybridge used his zoopraxiscope to show his moving pictures to a paying public in the very first commercial movie theater.
  • William Morris

    William Morris
    • William Morris was an English textile designer, artist, writer, and socialist
    • Associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the English Arts and Crafts Movement.
    • In 1861, Morris founded a design firm which profoundly influenced the decoration of churches and houses into the early 20th century.
  • Jules Cheret

    Jules Cheret
    • Jules Chéret was a French painter and lithographer
    • He has been called the father of the modern poster.
    • The women of Chéret's posters were joyous, elegant and lively free-spirited females—'Cherettes', as they were popularly called—and so he was also called the father of women's liberation.
  • Daguerrotype

    • A daguerreotype (original French: daguerréotype) was the first large scale commercial photographic process.
    *It was developed by Louis Daguerre and Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. Niepce had produced the first photographic image in the camera obscura
    • August 19, 1839, the French government announced the invention as a gift “Free to the World.”
  • Caldecott

    • Randolph Caldecott transformed the world of children's books in the Victorian era.
    • Two books illustrated by him, priced at a shilling each, which came out each Christmas for eight years.
  • Pre-Raphealites

    • a group of English painters, poets, and critics
    • They believed that the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art.
    • have genuine ideas to express; study Nature attentively;
      to sympathise with what is direct and serious and heartfelt in previous art; and produce thoroughly good pictures and statues
  • Period: to


    a complex artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that arose in reaction to the Industrial Revolution. In part, it was a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature and was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature,
  • Elbert Hubbard

    Elbert Hubbard
    • Elbert Green Hubbard was an American writer, publisher, artist, and philosopher.
    *He was an influence on the Arts and Crafts movement *most famous for his essay A Message to Garcia.
    • founder of the Roycroft Arts and Crafts community which attracted earnest hard working young men and women, pilgrims and admirers from all over the world who made hand-illuminated books, Mission furniture, stained glass, leather goods, and copper utensils
  • Alphonse Mucha

    Alphonse Mucha
    • A Czech Art Nouveau painter and decorative artist best known for his distinct style and his images of women.
    • featured beautiful, robust young women in flowing vaguely Neoclassical looking robes, often surrounded by lush flowers which sometimes formed haloes behind the women's heads.
    • In contrast with contemporary poster makers he used pale pastel colors
  • Victor Horta

    Victor Horta
    • Belgian art nouveau architect, decorator and designer
    • His building "House Tassel" is considered as the first Art Nouveau building
    • introduced vegetal curve dynamic in his building designs and asymetry. His plans are always very clever and rational.
  • Gustav Klimt

    Gustav Klimt
    • Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement.
    • Gustav Klimt is a precursor to Nouveau, and German Expressionism. His work clearly influenced artists like Modigliani and Brancusi. His style is eloquent, his color incredible
  • Toulouse Lautrec

    Toulouse Lautrec
    • Toulouse-Lautrec captured in his art the Parisian nightlife
    • the son and heir of Comte Alphonse-Charles de Toulouse and last in line of a family that dated back a thousand years
    • At 12 young Toulouse-Lautrec broke his left leg and at 14 his right leg. The bones failed to heal properly, and his legs stopped growing. He reached young adulthood with a body trunk of normal size but with abnormally short legs. He was only 1.5 meters tall.
  • Kolman Moser

    Kolman Moser
    • Austrian artist who exerted considerable influence on twentieth-century graphic art
    *one of the foremost artists of the Vienna Secession movement
    • designed books and graphic works from postage stamps to magazine vignettes; fashion; stained glass windows, porcelains and ceramics, blown glass, tableware, silver, jewelry, and furniture
  • Peter Behrens

    Peter Behrens
    • German architect and designer.
    • In 1899 he accepted the invitation to the Darmstadt Artists' Colony, where Behrens built his own house and everything inside the house
    • He was one of the leaders of architectural reform at the turn of the century and was a major designer of factories and office buildings in brick, steel and glass.
  • Aubrey Beardsley

    Aubrey Beardsley
    • English illustrator and author.
    • His drawings, executed in black ink and influenced by the style of Japanese woodcuts, emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic.
    • the most controversial artist of the Art Nouveau era, renowned for his dark and perverse images and the grotesque erotica,
  • TradeMark Registration Act

    TradeMark Registration Act
    • A trademark is a type of intellectual property, and typically a name, word, phrase, logo, symbol, design, image, or a combination of these elements.
    • The Bass Red Triangle was the first trademark to be registered under the Trade Mark Registration Act 1875.
    • ™ (for an unregistered trade mark, that is, a mark used to promote or brand goods)
      ℠ (for an unregistered service mark, that is, a mark used to promote or brand services)
      ® (for a registered trademark)
  • Period: to

    Art and Crafts Movement

    It was instigated by the artist and writer William Morris and was inspired by the writings of John Ruskin. It influenced architecture, domestic design and the decorative arts, using simple forms and a medieval style of decoration. It advocated truth to materials, traditional craftsmanship and economic reform.
  • Century Guild

    Century Guild
    • The founder and guiding spirit was the designer and architect A. H. Mackmurdo, together with his friend Selwyn Image, and a former pupil, H. P. Horne.
    • Century Guild workshops included furniture and metalwork and wallpaper
    • The Century Guild lasted only a few years, but had an importance far beyond its own production
  • Linotype

    • Ivented by a German clockmaker, Ottmar Mergenthaler
      • revolutionized printing and especially newspaper publishing,
    • The name of the machine comes from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once, hence a line-o-type. This allows much faster typesetting and composition than original hand composition in which operators place down one pre-cast metal letter, punctuation mark or space at a time.
  • Symbolists

    • Symbolists believed that art should aim to capture absolute truths which could only be accessed by indirect methods.
    • systematic use of symbols or pictorial conventions to express an allegorical meaning
    • Symbolist painters used symbols from mythology and dream imagery for a visual language of the soul.
  • James Montgomery Flagg

    James Montgomery Flagg
    • American artist and illustrator.
    *He worked in media ranging from fine art painting to cartooning,
    • best known for his propaganda posters.
  • Period: to

    Art Nouveau

    Also known as Jugendstil or "youth style" it is characterized by organic, especially floral and other plant-inspired motifs, as well as highly stylized, flowing curvilinear forms. Art Nouveau is an approach to design according to which artists should work on everything from architecture to furniture, making art part of everyday life.
  • The Nabis

    The Nabis
    • a group of Post-Impressionist avant-garde artists who set the pace for fine arts and graphic arts in France in the 1890s which included Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard, Edouard Vuillard and Paul Sérusier
    • Nabi means prophet in Hebrew and in Arabic.
    • The term was coined by the poet Henri Cazalis who drew a parallel between the way these painters aimed to revitalize painting and the way the ancient prophets had rejuvenated Israel.
  • Kelmscott Press

    Kelmscott Press
    • Established by William Morris
    *the press produced 53 books, totalling some 18,000 copies
    • modelled on the incunabula of the fifteenth century.
  • Viennese Succession

    Viennese Succession
    • a group of Austrian painters, sculptors, and architects who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists,
    • members included Gustav Klimt, Koloman Moser, Josef Hoffmann, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Max Kurzweil,
    • objected to the prevailing conservatism of the Vienna Künstlerhaus with its traditional orientation toward Historicism
  • Ver Sacrum

    Ver Sacrum
    • Austrian magazine of the Jugendstil period
    • mouthpiece of the Vienna Secession
    • The name means "sacred spring’ in ancient Italy. During a time of great emergency, there was dedication to a god of all that was born in the spring. The animals were sacrificed, and the children born then (sacrani), when aged 20, were to leave their home and found a new community.
  • The Futurists

    The Futurists
    • artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century.
      • practiced in every medium of art, including painting, sculpture, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, theatre, film, fashion, textiles, literature, music, architecture
      • a focus on modern techonology, movement, and speed
  • Association of American Advertising Agencies

    Association of American Advertising Agencies
    • their website states that AAAA membership "produces approximately 80 percent of the total advertising volume placed by agencies nationwide."
  • The Bauhaus

    The Bauhaus
    • Walter Gropius founded the Bauhaus in Weimar, Germany
    • existed for only 14 years, but it became the most important school of modernity
    • Included Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, Lyonel Feininger, Johannes Itten, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Gerhard Marcks, Adolf Meyer, Georg Muche, László Moholy-Nagy, Hinnerk Scheper, Oskar Schlemmer, Joost Schmidt, Lothar Schreyer and Gunta Stölzl,
  • Time Magazine

    Time Magazine
    • Created by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce
    • the first weekly news magazine in the United States.
  • The Television Age

    The Television Age
    In the U.S., the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allowed stations to broadcast advertisements beginning 1941, but required public service programming commitments as a requirement for a license. By contrast, the United Kingdom chose a different route, imposing a television licence fee on owners of television reception equipment to fund the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), which had public service as part of its Royal Charter.
  • Rosie the Riveter

    Rosie the Riveter
    designed by J. Howard Miller, it was a call for American women to roll up their sleeves and help out with the war effort on the homefront
  • Wes Wilson

    Wes Wilson
  • First Volkswagon Ad

    First Volkswagon Ad
  • Milton Glaser

    Milton Glaser
  • Punk Rock

    Punk Rock
  • MTV