Jan 2, 650
Caedmon (Author) Anglo SaxonCaedmon (s.vii) Instructed Caedmon in doctrine, and he turned the doctrine into poetry. (650?-680?) https://www.uni-due.de/SHE/HE_OE_Gallery.htm
Jan 1, 673
Bede (author) Anglo SaxonBede (673–735) Translated the Bible into English and wrote poems in Old English. http://people.umass.edu/eng2/per/oe_majauth.html
Jan 1, 1000
Beowulf (Historical event)Beowulf originates in the late Old English period. Old English epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative long lines. The oldest surviving Old Enlgish poem in literature. 1000AD
Feb 1, 1066
Medival (MIddle English)1066-1450 CE, from the end of Late Antiquity in the fourth century to the English Renaissance. The Old English period came to an end with the Norman Invasion of 1066. Normans spoke a dialect of French later called Anglo-Norman.
Feb 1, 1096
The exposure of English, Medival, historical eventThe Crusades exposed the English and the Europeans to a more refined society, influenced Medieval architecture.
(1096 to 1270)
Jan 2, 1265
Dante (author) MedivalDante (1265 – 1321) famous as a Medieval Poet and Politician.
Dante was a Medieval Italian poet and philosopher whose poetic trilogy, The Divine Comedy, made an indelible impression on both literature and theology.
Feb 2, 1300
Medival Trade, Historical eventThe elegance of the Far East, with its beautiful stones, perfumes, spices, pearls, and ivory evoked a change in society; the elegant treasures during this time period were used for trade. By 1300, cargo ships from Genoa and Venice in Italy were taking precious metals, silks and other luxuries from the eastern Mediterranean out to England and Belgium.
Jan 3, 1364
Christine de Pizan, MedivalChristine de Pizan (1364 -1430) famous as a Medieval author and feminist. Daughter of Thomas Pezano, a man well-known as a scholar and astrologer; she was well-read in the contemporary disputations of clerics and scholars of her own time, wanted the equality of sexes. https://www.cpp.edu/~plin/ls201/christine1.html
Jan 2, 1373
Margery Kempe, MedivalMargery Kempe (1373 - c1438) Famous as the author of the first autobiography in English.
English Christian mystic, known for dictating The Book of Margery Kempe.
Margery was in her twenties she began to have visions in which she talked to Jesus, Mary, and the Saints. In one vision, Jesus told her to go deeper in her religious practices. When her pilgrimage comes to an end she dictates her spiritual autobiography to scribes.
Feb 5, 1452
Leonardo Da Vinci, Renaissance(1452 – 1519) Leonardo Da Vinci was the supreme Renaissance painter, scientist, inventor, and polymath; regarded as one of the greatest minds the world ever produced. He was interested in music, art, and science. One of his greatest works was the Mona Lisa.
Feb 25, 1453
Ottoman ConquestOttoman conquest of Constantinople: many Greek thinkers and works travel westward; end of Hundred Years War: stability returns to north-west Europe. With this conquest the Ottomans became an Empire and one of the most powerful empires.
Feb 8, 1475
Michelangelo, Renaissance(1475 – 1564) Michelangelo was a Renaissance sculptor, painter and architect. He was thought of as the embodier of the renaissance spirit. Some of his greatest works were: the statue of David and his painting of the Sistine Chapel.
Feb 4, 1485
Renaissance Period(1485-1660 CE) Renaissance was a period in European history that marked the start of embracingmthe values of the modern world for the first time.
Feb 23, 1499
The French Conquer, Historical eventFrench conquered Milan, which facilitated greater passage of Renaissance ideas into France. Also known as the Italian War or Charles VIII's Italian War, the opening phase of the Italian Wars.
Feb 20, 1564
Galileo, Renaissance(1564 – 1642) Galileo Created one of the first modern telescopes. His work "Two New Sciences" set ground work for the science of Kinetics and the strength of materials.
John Milton(1608 - 1674) He was an English writer. Took six years of private study in the ancient and modern disciplines of theology, philosophy, history, politics, literature and science to prepare for his poetical career. By 1663, spent his time tutoring students and finishing “Paradise Lost”, his most important work.
Some major works: Paradise Lost, 1667
Accedence Commenced Grammar, 1669
History of Britain, 1670
Paradise Regained, 1671
John Dryden, Author Neoclassicism(1631 - 1700) He was an English poet, literary critic, and playwright; dominated the literary age of the Restoration in England so much that the period was known as "the age of Dryden." After the Restoration, Dryden was established as a leading poet and critic.
Some of his major works: An Evenings Love, 1669
Tyranick Love, 1669
The Conquest of Granada, 1670
The Restoration Age, Neo Classicism(1660-1700) Introduced the comedy of manner (a play about the manners and conventions of a highly sophisticated aristocratic society.)
Voltaire, NeoClassicism(1694 - 1778) One of the leaders of the Enlightenment, a French writer and philosopher whose intelligence, wit, ironic style, and simple vocabulary made him one of France's greatest writers and philosophers. He believed that literature should treat daily problems and be socially involved.
Some of his major works: Essay on Epic Poetry, 1727 &
Essay upon the Civil Wars in France, 1727
The Augustan Age, Neo classicism(1700-1750) Introduced poetry of personal exploration, and serious development of the novel, melodrama, and satire.
Romanicism(1770 - 1865) Stands for a literary renaissance. Romanticists' spirit and interests were very broad and included both classical and modern ideas. In the first phase of Romanticism, Germans dealt with the mystical, the subconscious, and the supernatural. Writing was inspired by folk ballads, dance and music, and by medieval and Renaissance works. By 1820s Romanticism, spread to Europeand started to spread in North America, where it was marked by strengthening of an American.
Treason trials, RomanticismTreason trials begin in London with the trial of Thomas Hardy. Formed part of a government campaign to destroy the movement for radical reform in Britain. In early 1790s, the government first responded with the sedition trials of Thomas Paine and then with the treason trials of 1794. http://www.romanticismanthology.com/timeline/default.asp
Victor Hugo, Romanticism(1802- 1885) A French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, and a political worker. In the 1840s, became involved in politics, supporting Republicanism and Free thought, after the 1848 revolution was elected to the Constitutional Assembly and to the Legislative Assembly. Most of his books, dealt with political and social issues and artistic trends of social injustice.
Some major works:
Claude Gueux, 1834
Les Chants du crepuscule, 1835
Nathaniel Hawthorne, Romanticism(1804- 1864) A 19th century American novelist and short story writer, key figure in the development of American literature. One of the first authors who experimented with alternate history as literary form. In his works, he explored: hypocrisy, witchcraft, the Puritan guilt, obsession with morality, sexual repression, confession, and spiritual salvation. He was credited as the author who opened feminist topics to readers.
Major Works: Mosses From an Old Manse, 1846 &
The Scarlet Letter, 1850
Charles Darwin, Victorian(1809-1882) He was known for his work as a naturalist, developing a theory of evolution to explain biological change. Brought together convincing evidence and arguments to show that living things underwent change over time and were related to eachother genealogically.
Major work: The Origin of Species http://darwin-online.org.uk/majorworks.html
Charles Dickens, Victorian Times(1812-1850) Author of 15 novels, five novellas, and numerous stories and essays, also promoted the careers of other novelists. He excelled in writing about London settings and grotesque and comic characters.
Hard Times ,1854
Little Dorrit ,1855
Great Expectations ,1860
Emily Dickinson, Romanicism(1830- 1886) An American poet who wasn't published during her life, but in the 20th century was recognized as the most original poet of the 19th century; wrote about 1800 poems, all of which were an unconventional style. Her poems dealt with a variety of topics rsuch as: death, faith and immortality, nature, domesticity and the power and limits of language.
Some major works:
Poems of the Lifetime, 1914
Selected Poems, 1924
The Poems by Emily Dickinson, 1955
Victorian Times(1837- 1901) Period of Queen Victoria's reign. Perception of the period was “prudish, hypocritical, stuffy, and narrow-minded”. The description applied to some of the Victorian English society, amongst the middle-class, who were increasing both in number and power at the time. There was also a large-scale expansion of the British imperial power, which had many long-term effects, including the increased use of the English language. https://faculty.unlv.edu/kirschen/handouts/victorian.html
Thomas Hardy, Victorian(1840-1928) A poet and novelist, most famous for his powerfully visual novels, concerned with the inexorability of human destiny. His works also provide comic relief. His youth was influenced by the musicality of his father, a stonemason and fiddler, and his mother, often described as the real guiding star of Hardy’s early life.
Major works: The Return of the Native, 1878
The Mayor of Casterbridge, 1886 & Tess of the d'Urbervilles, 1891
Beginning of Gold Rush, RomanticismGold discovered in California; beginning of the gold rush. It began on 24 January 1848 at Sutter’s Mill near Coloma when gold was discovered by Samuel Rogers, a man working for the American pioneer John Sutter. By the end of the year thousands of people had arrived in California.
Hilda Doolittle, Modernism(1886-1961) An American poet, novelist and memoirist known for her association with the early 20th century avant-garde Imagist group of poets. Her work was characterized by the intense strength of her images, economy of language, and use of classical mythology. She did not recieve recognition for her works during her lifetime, because her name was associated with the Imagist movement.
Some major works: The Walls Do Not Fall, 1944,
Tribute to the Angels, 1945, and
Neo-Classicism(1890-95) Movement prevailing in the architecture of Europe, America, and various European colonies during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Saw humans rather as imperfect beings with limited potential than as a creative and innovative force. The style in architecture, decorative art, and fine art, was based on the imitation of surviving classical models and types.
Education, VictorianEducation made free for every child. Up until then children had to pay to go to school. Victorians came up with the idea that all children should go to school. They were also the first people to ask whether it was right to allow children to work. They introduced laws stating what one could and could not expect children to do. Most children never went to school at all and grew up unable to read or write, instead they worked (poor).
Speed Limit, Victorian1896 the speed limit for horseless carriages was raised from 4 mph to 14 mph. Locomotives on Highways Act 1896 introduced a 12 mph speed limit (8 to 16 mph at the local authorities discretion), speed limits were later increased by the Motor Car Act 1903.
Modernism(1900- 65) Period marked by sudden and unexpected breaks with traditional ways of viewing and interacting with the world. Experimentation and individualism became virtues, where in the past they were discouraged. It encompassed a variety of specific artistic and philosophical movements such as: symbolism, futurism, surrealism, expressionism, imagism, vorticism, dada, and others.
Langston Hughes, Modernism(1902-1967) An American poet, social activist, novelist, playwright, and columnist. African-American themes made him a primary contributor to the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s; known as the leader of the Harlem Renaissance.
Some major works: Dreams, As I Grew Older, Cross, Mother to Son
Elizabeth Bishop, Modernism(1911-1979)
American poet and short-story writer, was the U.S. Poet Laureate from 1949 to 1950. Referred to her as "one of the most important American poets" of the twentieth century. She was a perfectionist who did not write prolifically, but preferred spending massive periods of time polishing her work, only published 101 works throughout her life span. Some major works: One Art, Sestina, Exchanging Hats, Conversation
Harlem Renaissance, Modernism(1920- 1930)
A cultural, social, and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem between the end of World War I. Also allowed black writers to be recognized and granted woman freedoms. Black Americans were able to begin writing about their heritage, culture, and zeal for life and women were allowed to express their feelings.
Kurt Vonnegut, Post Modern(1922- 2007)
An American author best known for the novels Cat's Cradle, Slaughterhouse-Five and Breakfast of Champions which blend satire, gallows humor, and science fiction.
Breakfast of Champions
Joseph Heller, Post Modern(1923- 1999)
An American satirical novelist, short story writer, and playwright. Wrote the satirical novel ¨Catch-22¨, one of the most significant works of postwar protest literature.
Some major works: Catch 22, Casino Royale, God Knows
The Great Depression, Modernism(1929- 1939)
The Marx Brothers became huge stars, often appearing in farcical productions pormoting get-rich-quick schemes. The radio also become very popular during this period, often called the Golden Age of Radio. Literary works in the 1930s focused on the rejection of the notion of progress and a longing to return to an earlier age of purity and simplicity.
Thomas Pynchon, Post Modern(1937- still alive)
Known for his dense and complex novels. His complex novels with deep meanings experimented different themes and styles of novel writing. Pynchon is an award-winning novelist known for works like The Crying of Lot 49 and Gravity's Rainbow.
Major works: Gravity's Rainbow, The Crying of Lot 49
Post Modernism(1945- ?) The late-20th-century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from modernism. Encompasses a wide-range of developments in philosophy, film, architecture, art, literature, and culture. It includes skeptical interpretations of culture, architecture, literature, art, philosophy, history, economics, fiction, and literary criticism.
Contemporary(1945 - now)
Timeframe that closely connects to the present day; it is a certain perspective of modern history. Began at the end of World War II. Twentieth century music reflected the influences of art and literature in a mechanistic, atomic age.
School segregation, ContemporaryThe Supreme Court rules school segregation as unconstitutional. Declared that racially segregated public schools were unequal. The unanimous Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka overruled the Court’s 1896 decision in Plessy v. Ferguson. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended all state and local laws requiring segregation.
New States Added, ContemporaryAlaska and Hawaii were added as new states and the Berlin Wall was built. USA bought both in 1867 for $7,200,000, it was made a state in 1959. The Berlin Wall was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989, constructed by the German Democratic Republic.
Nicholas Sparks, ContemporaryAn American novelist, screenwriter and producer; published seventeen novels and a non-fiction book.
Major Works: The Best of Me, The Longest Ride, Safe Heaven, The Choice, Dear John
Liane Moriarty, ContemporaryAn Australian author of various international bestsellers, became a full time author. Her novel "The Husband’s Secret" reached the number one on the New York Times bestseller list. She sold her first book as a child.
Some major works: 2014 Big Little Lies
2013 The Husband's Secret
2011 The Hypnotist's Love Story
Birth of late capitalism, Post ModernismThe first major synthesis produced by the contemporary revival of Marxist economics. Represents the only systematic attempt, ever made, to combine the general theory of the “laws of motion” of the capitalist mode developed by Marx. Mendel's book "Late Capitalism". Seeks to show why the classical approaches of Luxemburg, Bukharin, Bauer and Grossman failed to accomplish the further development of Marxist theory whose urgency became evident after Marx’s death.
Ellen Marie Wiseman, ContemporaryA first generation American and author of "The Plum Tree". An epic story of human resilience and enduring hope that followed a young German woman through WWII. Shows how she struggles to survive poverty and Allied bombs; risks everything trying to save the love of her life, a Jewish man.
Major works: What She Let Behind, The Plum Tree
Post Modernism Philosophy//http://study.com/academy/lesson/postmodernism-in-literature-definition-lesson-quiz.(2000 - ?)
A large reaction against the philosophical assumptions and values of the modern period of Western (European) history. The period of the scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries to the mid-20th century. For many postmodern writers, the various disasters that occurred in the last half of the 20th century left them with a profound sense of paranoia. Post modern literary writers were also greatly influenced by ideas taken from the post modern philosophy.
Anglo Saxon (Old English) PeriodRome falls and the barbarian tribes move into Europe. Also called the "Dark Ages".
Work in Anglo SaxonWest Saxon dialect became literary standard of Old English literature (449-1066 AD) https://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/documents/Periods_Lit_History.pd
King Alfred (Author) Anglo SaxonKing Alfred (848–899) brought scholars and writers to his court, become center of Renissance English writters.