300px rafael   el parnaso (estancia del sello  roma  1511)

European Art Timeline

  • Period: Jan 1, 1000 to Jan 1, 1400

    Medieval Art

    Medieval art focused in on every aspect of church life. The art that dominated this time period revolved around artistic portrayals of church figures, biblical events, or church practice. The color Gold was used a great deal to signify the importance, or biblical relevance of certain figures depicted in the piece. This is by far the longest period in the history of European Art that has ever dominated a single period of time. The values of this time include: Church, Religion, and Spirituality.
  • Mar 10, 1005

    The Bamberg Apocalypse (Created by the Reichenau Scriptorium)

    The Bamberg Apocalypse (Created by the Reichenau Scriptorium)
    The Bamberg Apocalypse is a one hundred and six-part series of drawings and paintings commissioned by Otto III and Henry II from the Reichenau Scriptorium. It depicts a collection of biblical scenes, biblical figures, biblical events, and saints in an angelic manner. It is representative of the values in place from its time period as it shows to what extent society and the time valued Christianity and the Bible, and just how intertwined religion was with secular life.
  • Period: Mar 10, 1089 to Mar 10, 1179

    The Life of Hildegard of Bingen

    Hildegard of Bingen is a female German artist, who is well-known for her famous paintings of various biblical events which she claimed to have had appear before her in prophetic visions as a girl. Her works revolved around saints, and scenes from the Bible. Her works represent the ideologies that prevailed during this time period as it shows the heightened importance of the spiritual, religion, and Christianity that characterized this time period.
  • Jan 1, 1136

    The Klosterneuburg Monastery (Group of Various Architects)

    The  Klosterneuburg Monastery (Group of Various Architects)
    The Klosterneuburg Monastery is widely considered to be one of the most beautiful monasteries in the entire world, even today! The structure is home to countless engravings and etchingwork that pay homage to biblical figures and depict scenes from the Bible. This is emblematic of the time period, as it shows the heightened value society held of the church, the bible, and of their religion, which characterize the time period.
  • Period: Mar 2, 1266 to Jan 8, 1337

    The Life of Giotto di Bondone

    Giotto di Bondone is a famous Medieval artist whose works typically revolved around depictions of biblical scenes, and his works were typically commissioned for Italian churches in Florence. His works are emblematic of the ideals of the medieval art era, as he places a great deal of value in Christianity and the spiritual, both of which are predominant thoughts that prevailed during this time period.
  • Mar 10, 1338

    The Effects of Good Government (Ambrogio Lorenzetti)

    The Effects of Good Government (Ambrogio Lorenzetti)
    The Effects of Good Government is a massive painting that aimed to depict what the artist Ambrogio Lorenzetti believed to be the true effects of good government. It depicts an almost utopian society, where civillians are freelly exchanging goods and services, and are prosperous. This work of art is representative of the values upheld during this time period, as it shows just how valued the government was during this era. Plus, the idealistic depiction of a church shows religious values.
  • Period: Jan 19, 1386 to Dec 13, 1466

    The Life of Donatello

    Donatello is extremely significant as an artist, as his works marked the earliest recorded attempts at using a three-dimensional perspective in his artwork. He was an Italian artist. He believed that humanity in its raw form was intrinsically beautiful, and is the first recorded artist to sculpt a nude.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1400 to

    Renaissance Art

    Renaissaance art marked the European art world's movement away from the religious and spiritual themes of the Medieval era in lieu of more secular subject matter, such as historical figures, mythological scenes, and commissioned portraits. An important development during this time period was the introduction of perspective, which allowed artists to achieve a three-dimensional effect. Values of this era include: secularism, individualism, virtu, materialism, balance, order, and calm.
  • Jan 1, 1413

    The Statue of Saint Mark (Donatello)

    The Statue of Saint Mark (Donatello)
    The Statue of Saint Mark was the young Donatello's claim to fame. He was commissioned by the Orsanmichelle church in Florence to sculpt this work of art. What was significant about this piece was the focus on realism, and realistically portraying the legendary saint. This piece is representative of the time period, as it demonstrates the heightened value held by society of the church, church authority, the Christian faith, and in the Bible.
  • Jan 1, 1440

    The Statue of David (Donatello)

    The Statue of David (Donatello)
    The statue of David was an envisioning of the biblical hero David by Donatello in 1440. He was commissioned by a church to sculpt this particular work of art, and worked on it for seven years. This is representative of the ideas of the time period, as it shows the heightened value of the church, the bible, and of the Christian faith that prevailed during this time period.
  • Period: Mar 6, 1475 to Feb 18, 1564

    Life of Michelangelo

    Michelangelo is one of the most famous artists of all time, and is widely-known for his famous Renaissance works, most notably of which being the iconic Florence Statue of David. Michelangelo is emblematic of the time period due to his focus on the human form, and realism, both of which are significant when discussing the renaissance as during this time people began to drift into more secular beliefs. Though, religion was still very present in society.
  • Period: Mar 28, 1483 to Apr 6, 1520

    The Life of Raphael

    Raphael was an Italian painter, whose famous works such as 'The School of Athens' and 'The Coronation of the Virgin' are extremely important in the historical development of art in Europe. Raphael's most famous works depict highly secular subjects, which is significant, as earlier painters focused on much more spiritual and religious subjects. This is emblematic of Renaissance thought as it demonstrates the gradual shift made by society away from a life dominated by religion and spirituality.
  • Mar 11, 1504

    The Statue of David (Michelangelo)

    The Statue of David (Michelangelo)
    Michelangelo's Statue of the biblical hero David is one of the most iconic works of Renaissance art. It is famous due to extremely-high level of detail, and accurate representation of the human physique. This statue clearly represents the ideas and values held by the people of this time period, as it shows both a value in the Christian faith, as well as an emphasis on the beauty of humanity and the human condition.
  • Mar 13, 1511

    The School of Athens (Raphael)

    The School of Athens (Raphael)
    The School of Athens is an extremely-significant painting in any discussion of the Renaissance. One of the most groundbreaking achievements of this piece is its seemingly three-dimensional depiction of the source material. This piece is representative of the time period's thoughts and ideals as it shows a value in knowledge, communication and the lives of everyday secular people. This is extremely important as it shows the beginning of societys move away from religion into a more secular mindset
  • Aug 14, 1511

    The Parnassus (Raphael)

    The Parnassus (Raphael)
    The Parnassus is a massive painting created by Raphael in 1511 for Pope Julius II. The painting depicts the four areas of human knowledge: philosophy, religion, poetry, and law through the usage of symbolic figures and objects. This work is a celebration of human accomplishment and knowledge, and the subject matter clearly shows how society at the time valued knowledge and celebrated human achievement as opposed to nonsecular or religious ideals / events.
  • Period: to

    Baroque Art (Counter Reformation)

    The Baroque artwork was radically different from both of its predecessors, Baroque artwork was bright, florid, colorful, light, and much more rich in texture, decoration, and ornamentation. The subject matter was usually dramatic scenes of mystery, drama, violence and spectacle. The Catholic church often commissioned artists to compose pieces to bring church defectors back into the fold. The values of this era included: sensualism, dynamicism, emotion, and the richness of color.
  • Period: to

    Northern Realism

    This artistic movement was far more scientifically inclined, and aimed to accurately represent scenes of everyday life. They used mathematical and geometric values in order to display their desired scenes. Most artwork from this time period revolved around portraits, self-portraits, still-lifes, landscapes, and generic paintings. The values of this time period revolved a quiet, opulence, comfortable domesticity, and realism.
  • Judith Slaying Holofernes

    Judith Slaying Holofernes
    'Judith Slaying Holofernes' is an extremely well-composed piece of Baroque artwork, depicting the beheading of the Assyrian general Holofernes at the hands of the Israelite hero Judith. This work of art champions the female hero, the heroine, and demonstrates a sort of ambivalence towards men. This piece is representative of the time period it was composed in because if focuses in on emotion and action, as opposed to the previously existing rational Renaissance works, demonstrating the social...
  • Judith Slaying Holofernes Continued (Gentileschi)

    Judith Slaying Holofernes Continued (Gentileschi)
    ... and as such her work was emblematic of the steadily-mounting discontent that was emerging in society at the time. (NOTE! THIS IS A CONTINUATION OF THE OTHER JUDITH SLAYING HOLOFERNES, NOT ITS OWN EVENT!
  • The Artist's Studio (Vermeer)

    The Artist's Studio (Vermeer)
    The Artist's Studio is a painting done by Vermeer in June of 1668. It depicts a painter painting an image of a model, who represents the Muse of History, Clio, who embodies all historical events and records heroic deeds. This painting is meant to represent the fame that can be achieved by an artist. This work is emblematic of the time period it was created in, because it shows a focus on the middle class, as well as emphasizing hard work being repaid with success and fame.
  • Period: to

    The Life of Watteau

    Jean-Antoine Watteau stands among the most famous of all the Rococo artists, and dominated this artistic movement with groundbreaking works such as: 'The Embarkation for Cythera' and 'L'Enseigne de Gersaint'. The Rococo artistic movement and Watteau's works embody the French aristocracy's social disconnect from the harsh reality of the state of their country, and their isolation from the truth.
  • Period: to

    Rococo Art

    Rococo Art was an artistic movement that prevailed primarily among the French aristocracy. Its subject manner was typically nobility or high-ranking societal figures in extraordinarily-ornate settings and garb. They were extremely frivolous in their style, and display scenes of grandeur that border on being entirely ridiculous. Adding to the sweet flair that is present in this artwork is the frequent prescence of Cupids, Venuses, and Cherubs. The values of this time: ornamentation and elegance.
  • Pilgrimage to Cythera / L'Embaquement pour Cythere (Watteau)

    Pilgrimage to Cythera / L'Embaquement pour Cythere (Watteau)
    The Pilgrimage to Cythera (L'Embarquement pour Cythere) is a Rococo painting created by Jean-Antoine Watteau depicting a 'fete galante', a large party held by the French aristocracy post-King Louis XIV. The subject matter and the artistic style are representative of the time period, as at this time the French aristocracy formed a sort of subculture among the richest of all the citizenry of France. This is a relic of that particular subculture.
  • Period: to

    Life of David

    Jacques-Louis David is considered by many to be the father of the Neoclassical art movement in the mid-eighteenth century. The traditional Roman values championed by his artwork is emblematic of the time period's emphasis on the virtues of military glory, nationalism, and allegiance to the state over family ties.
  • Period: to

    Neoclassical Art

    Neoclassicism marks the art world's return to the art styles and values of the classical antiquity. The scenes depicted were based in history and mythology, with the people envisioned in this artwork looking more like sculptures than living beings. This artistic movement stepped away from the emotional values of prior artistic movements in favor of championing intellect. The values of this time include: balance, intellect, order, and reverence for antiquity.
  • Oath of the Horatii (David)

    Oath of the Horatii (David)
    The Oath of the Horatii is a Neoclassical work of art painted by Jacques-Louis David, depicting the three Horatii brothers pledging their allegiance to the state before going to settle a dispute with the Curatii brothers in combat. The brothers are choosing allegiance to their state over family ties, which is a powerful message. The piece emphasizes this era of time's revival of traditional Roman values and virtues, and aimed to inspire the ideal soldier of the time period.
  • Period: to

    Romantic Art

    Romantic Art was an artistic movement against the constant call for order, knowledge, and reasoning that was characteristic of the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution. Light, color, vibrance, energy, and self-expression are all emphasized in this artistic style. The artists of this movement valued: emotions, feeling, exoticism, light, and mystery.
  • The Third of May 1808 (Goya)

    The Third of May 1808 (Goya)
    Francisco Goya's romantic painting 'The Third of May' depicts the spanish resistance to Napoleon's armies during the Peninsular War. The painting strives to explain to the viewer the horrors of war, and why war is not something to be desired. This painting is representative of the time period it was composed-in due to it being a rally-call against oppression, tyranny, barbarity, and the ongoing wars of the time period.
  • The Second of May 1808 (Goya)

    The Second of May 1808 (Goya)
    Franciso Goya's Romantic painting: 'The Second of May 1808' depicts one of the many Spanish rebellions / resistance movements against the French forces during Napoleon's occupation of Spain during the Peninsular War. This painting is representative of the time period it was composed-in due to it being a rally-call against oppression, tyranny, barbarity, and the ongoing wars of the time period.
  • Period: to

    Impressionist Art

    Impressionist art was by far the most radical movement in the European art world. Instead of detailed imagery, it focused on vague, blurry, and undetailed images as though the artist only caught a glimpse of the subject. Light is emphasized a great deal, typically with short / messy brush strokes. The values of this artistic movement included: the immediate, passage of time, simplicity, life, and light.
  • A Sunday Afternoon on la Grande Jatte (Seurat)

    A Sunday Afternoon on la Grande Jatte (Seurat)
    Georges Seurat's Impressionist painting: 'A Sunday Afternoon on la Grande Jatte' depicts an afternoon after church in Paris. This particular piece is representative of the time period it was painted in due to it accurately representing the attire of the Industrial age, as well as the ideology of Imperialism; both of which dominated this time period.
  • Period: to

    Expressionist Art

    At its core, expressionism is based on expressing the internal emotions of the artist, that they typically bottle up inside of themselves and hide away. It also aims to express the artists' as well as society's dissatisfaction with the bourgeoisie. The members of this movement valued: emotions, anxiety, discord, dissonance, and latent.
  • The Scream (Munch)

    The Scream (Munch)
    Edward Munch's Expressionist work of art: 'The Scream' was truly radical for its time. It represents the raw, unadultered fear that is caused by a nightmare. It is representative of the time period it was created in, due to its expression of anxiety and frustration, both of which were experienced by Europeans during this era due to how their societies and governments were being run.
  • Period: to

    Abstract Expressionist Art

    Abstract Expressionist art is extremely bizarre, in that it does not aim to accurately represent the subject matter at all. It uses vague shapes, abstract colors, and lines in order to vaguely represent the subject matter. This was done in order to promote the viewer staring at the artwork and trying to find a meaning in the painting that resonates with them in particular. These individuals valued: both personal and subjective interpretation.
  • Period: to

    Cubist Art

    Cubism fundamentally revolves around the concept of a fixed view of the world, and is completely devoid of continuity or simultanaeity of any sort. The subject matter is illustrated using a collection of different interlocking objects with hard / straight edges and angles. Members of this artistic movement valued: their art as a new way of seeing the world, the world as mosaic, life being built around interaction between people and things.
  • The Persistence of Memory (Dali)

    The Persistence of Memory (Dali)
    Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marqués de Dalí de Pubol's Surrealist work of art: 'The Persistence of Memory' depicts the irrational, illogical world of a person's dreams. This is emblematic of the time period it was composed in, as it serves as a representation of what philosophers at the time were trying to make sense of: the world of people's dreams and imaginations.
  • Guernica (Picasso)

    Guernica (Picasso)
    Pablo Picasso's revolutionary Cubist work of art: 'Guernica' made waves throughout the art world when it was first released to the public. It marked a radical change from the typical subject matter of prior paintings and sculptures of this time period, and left many people scratching their heads. This piece is representative of the time period it was composed in because it provides a commentary on the Nazi bombings of Guernica in broad daylight.
  • Period: to

    Surrealist Art

    Surrealist art fundamentally is built upon the ideas and writings of Sigmund Freud, and his philosophies regarding the dream world. This type of artwork depicts a world without logic, laws, or any sort of reasoning, with bizarre scenes that border on incomprehensibility. The artists of this movement valued: dreams, the illogical, and wild fantasy.
  • Man Pointing (Giacometti)

    Man Pointing (Giacometti)
    Alberto Giacometti's work of abstract expressionism: 'Man Pointing' is an extremely fascinating work of art. Giacometti aimed to portray the position of mankind in and the state of the human race during the 20th century. It is emblematic of the time period it was created in because it aimed to show the dehumanization of mankind that was occurring throughout Europe due to Industrial advancements.