AP Art History Mini Timeline

  • Period: 1000 BCE to Jan 1, 1500

    Oceanic Art

    Oceanic art or Oceanian art comprises the creative works made by the native peoples of the Pacific Islands and Australia, including areas as far apart as Hawaii and Easter Island.
  • Period: 400 BCE to Jan 1, 800

    Buddhism in art

    Religion began with the death of the Buddha in 527 BC (AKA Gautama Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha)
    Near Himalayan foothills
    Many other religions were inspired by Buddhism, such as Daoism and Confucianism, even Islam and Christianity. These religions stress harmony with nature, living ethically, and the cyclical nature of life
    The silk road was key in spreading the beliefs of Buddhism
  • 300 BCE

    Great stupa

    Great stupa
    Shrine, mound shaped, dressed stone (originally white)
    Chattra spire- 3 umbrellas represent Buddha’s law
    Harmika- symbolizing the sacred tree
    Double staircase/walkway for circumambulation
    Circle imagery, dome, representation of heaven
    Toronas-mark entrance at cardinal points. Richly carved scenes of architraves. Buddha is symbolized by the empty throne or a tree. Scenes may depicted placed the Buddha taught (horror vacui, high relief)
    600 donors of all types
  • 221 BCE

    Terracotta Army (Army of emperor Shi Huangdi)

    Terracotta Army (Army of emperor Shi Huangdi)
    Ascended to throne at 13 and immediately started his burial
    1974- Revealed a great deal about ancient life
    gardens and stables, bronze ritual vessels, jade jewelry, and a wealth of gold and silver ornaments
    Great military leader known for his massacres and destruction
    Assembly-line style production- huge kilns
    obsession with immortality
  • Period: 221 BCE to

    Chinese and Korean

    China is the only continuing civilization from the Neolithic times
    Neolithic artwork is highly advanced and impressive in comparison to other civilizations
    Mastery of pottery (Evidence from the mid third millennial - 2500 BCE)
    China has a diverse population with varies cultural practices and languages
    The country is currently the size of Europe and has similar cultural diversity
  • 180 BCE

    Funeral Banner of Lady Dai

    Funeral Banner of Lady Dai
    Excavated in 1972- tomb found with over 100 objects
    Utensils, textiles and a sarcophagus
    Draped over the coffin of Maquise of Dai
    Probably carried in a funeral procession and then later laid over the top
    Yin symbols to the left, yang to the right, center mixes the two symbols
    Her figure is in the center awaiting to ascend to immortality in the realm of the red sun and silvery moon
    First Chinese portrait
  • 400

    Buddha from Bamiyam

    Buddha from Bamiyam
    Trading/religious center on the silk road
    Two huge standing Buddhas (175ft, 115 ft)
    Smaller Buddha is Sakyamuni, larger is vairocana, the universal Buddha
    First colossal Buddha, carved
    Niche around body- mandorla
    circumambulation ritual
    Originally ornamented, robe and hair- hellenisitic greek influence
    Cave paintings with images of the Buddha, lead up to the Buddha's shoulders
    Model for later statues in china
  • 439

    Longmen Caves

    Longmen Caves
    Carved in situ, and relief
    Worship, power struggles, enlightenment and suicide—the 2300 caves and niches filled with Buddhist art has witnessed it all
    Carved along the bank of the Yi River
    800, 000 people worked at this site
    110,000 Buddhist statues
    2,800 inscriptions on steles
    60 stupas
    Buddha appears as an alter
  • Jan 1, 600

    Gold and Jade Crown

    Gold and Jade Crown
    At the time, Korea was divided into three regions, the most powerful being the Silla dynasty
    Region was rich with gold, wealth and power,“city of gold”
    Antler/tree shape symbolizes the life and the supernatural, maybe from shamanistic practices borrowed from Siberia
    Interaction with Eurasia
    Perhaps for burial chamber for ceremonial purposes- important in shamanism religion
    Very light way, made of sheet gold, probably not actually worn- too fragile
  • Jan 1, 641

    Jowo Rinpoche

    Jowo Rinpoche
    Earliest Buddhist temple in Tibet
    Tibet temple found in 647, first unified Tibet
    Jowo- lord, Khang-house
    Lotus position, mudra, meditation
    Statue thought to be blessed by the Buddha himself
    Sakyumani as a young man, 12
    Disappeared in 1960 during the “Chinese cultural revolution
    Upper part restored in 2003- Beijing
  • Jan 1, 734

    Todai-Ji & Great Buddha

    Todai-Ji & Great Buddha
    Known for its colossal seated Buddha Vairocana Buddha
    Rebuilt several times
    Seven external bays on façade (walking areas outside structure)
    Influenced by Longmen (Chinese sculpture)
    Largest wooden building in the world
    Buddha is monumental casting. Largest in the world
    Emperor Shomu embraced Buddhism and used it as a way to stabilize/unite the population at of time of economic crisis
    mudra- right hand- do not fear
    Left hand- welcome
  • Period: Jan 1, 734 to

    Japanese Art

    Japanese Art left a very prominent impression upon art as we know it today.
  • Jan 1, 750

    Borobudur

    Borobudur
    Massive monument 504 life size Buddhas, 1460 narrative reliefs, 1,300 panels spanning 8,200 ft, 1,500 stupas (great stupa on top/enclosed)
    Many images, with various meanings-cosmology
    “the path”- circumambulation on each of the 6 terraces until devotee gradually ascends
    Pyramidal form, aligned with 4 cardinals, geometry
  • Jan 1, 750

    Queen Maya Riding a Horse Carriage Retreating to Lumbini to Give Birth to Prince Siddhartha Guatama

    Queen Maya Riding a Horse Carriage Retreating to Lumbini to Give Birth to Prince Siddhartha Guatama
    Horror vacui
    Resting/majestic face before giving birth
    She is brought to the city for a great ceremony
    Her son will some day become Buddha
  • Jan 1, 800

    Angkor Wat

    Angkor Wat
    Capital of the medieval Cambodia built by Suryavarman II- dedicated to vishnu and most sculpture focus on his incarnation
    Each of the Khmer king built a temple mount at the location and installed their own personal Gods (Shiva, Vishnu, Buddha)
    The kings were thought to be physical embodiments of the gods they dedicated their temples too.
    What ancient culture does this best align with?
    Deification
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Travelers among Mountains and Streams

    Travelers among Mountains and Streams
    Little in known about the artist because he isolated himself from the population- Daoism evolves into neo-Confucianism and incorporates aspects of buddhism
    Unconventional person
    This is the only known surviving work
    Produced complex landscapes
    Treated landscape painting as an elevated art form
    Landscapes were even sacred or mythical- especially mountains
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Great Zimbabwe

    Great Zimbabwe
    Zimbabwe “house of stones”
    Shona empire declined mysteriously in the 15th century
    Differs from traditional mud brick structures which help with cooling
    Region was a prosperous trading point stone complex was a
    residence for the king
    Walls 800 feet long 32 feet tall 17 feet thick at base
  • Period: Jan 1, 1000 to

    Hindu Art

    Indian and Southeast Asian Art
  • Jan 1, 1181

    Todai-Ji Great South Gate

    Todai-Ji Great South Gate
    Main gate of Todai-Ji
    Five bays for passing and two outer are closed
    Two stories the same size, unusual is Japanese architecture
    Deep eaves supported by 6 stepped bracket, rising in tiers
    Roof supported by huge pillars
  • Jan 1, 1200

    The Moai of Rapa Nui

    The Moai of Rapa Nui
    Easter Island is famous for its stone statues of human figures, known as moai (meaning “statue”). The island is known to its inhabitants as Rapa Nui. The moai were probably carved to commemorate important ancestors and were made from around 1000 C.E. until the second half of the seventeenth century.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1200 to

    African Art

    Composed of many different pieces from many different tribes over the course of multiple centuries.
  • Jan 1, 1250

    Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace

    Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace
    Painted 100 years after the civil war depicted in the scene
    otoko‐e – “men’s paintings,”
    Elevated viewpoint
    Designed to be unrolled in sections for close‐up viewing (read right to left)
    As the scroll unrolls it seems as if time passes
    Main character appears several times (the warrior)
  • Jan 1, 1351

    The David Vases

    The David Vases
    Yuan Dynasty
    Blue and white porcelain most likely inspired by Iranian techniques- cross cultural
    Made for the alter of a Daoist temples, along with an incense burner that was not found
    Typical alter piece set
    Dedication of the side of the neck
    Believed to be the earliest known blue and white porcelain
    Vases modeled after bronzes
    Elephant head shaped handles, neck and foot leaves and flowers
    Central section: Chinese dragons with traditional long bodies and beards, dragons
  • Jan 1, 1400

    Forbidden City

    Forbidden City
    Largest architectural complex in Chinese existence
    9,000 rooms
    Like a “golden cage”, very high wall that would keep people out but also keep people in
    -only the royal court could enter, hence the name
    Center is the Hall of Supreme Harmony -------→
    Contains the throne room
    Structures made of wood, easily burned
    Had protective dragons and other creatures in the corners of the roof
  • Jan 1, 1417

    Portrait of Sin Sukju

    Portrait of Sin Sukju
    Korean prime minister and soldier, great scholar
    Portrait made with he was a second grade civil officer
    Insignia cloud and wild goose/peacock- official robe and black silk hat- the badge will often indicate the rank of a public official
    Korean portraits emphasizes the contribution of the individual to his country- loyalty (these are values of Confucianism)
    Portraits often portray court in full length, often with head slightly turned
  • Jan 1, 1450

    Machu Picchu

    Machu Picchu
    Known as an estate for incan Emperors, much is known about Macchu Picchu's construction.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1450 to Jan 1, 1550

    Art in the Americas

    Art within the Americans before the arrival of Europeans.
  • Jan 1, 1480

    Ryoan-ji

    Ryoan-ji
    Zen dry garden:
    -gravel mimics water, raked like waves
    -rocks like mountain range, fifteen rocks arranges in three groups
    -like islands in a sea, or mountain peaks above clouds, or constellations in the sky
    -enclosed in a yellow wall
    -from no viewpoint is the entire garden visible
    -asymmetrical
  • Period: to

    Baroque

    Irregularly shaped or odd. It describes the departure from the Italian renaissance
  • Versailles Palace

    Versailles Palace
    21 years to complete, 700 rooms
    Was a small hunting lodge remodeled
    Center of the building Louis’ bedroom
    All aspects radiate around the center similar to rays of the sun
    “the sun king”- compared to Apollo
    Political and economic ambitions- change in political climate
    Interior- baroque influence, detailed
  • Period: to

    Rococo/Neoclassicism

    The name derives from the word rocaille, meaning pebble or stone, and the Italian word barocco, meaning baroque. Motifs in rococo were thought to resemble small ornate shell. Rococo is often called
    “late baroque”
  • White and Red Plum Blossoms

    White and Red Plum Blossoms
    Japanese Rinpa or Rimpa style named after artists is characterized through fans or folding screens. The style depicts basic forms/colors, and dramatic scenes in nature
    Influenced by yamato-e style
    Stream cuts rhythmically through the scene, swirls in paint surface indicated by water currents
    White blossoms on the left, read-right
    Tarashikomi techinique- dripping technique used to create streams and flowers
  • The Tete a tete from Marriage a la mode

    The Tete a tete from Marriage a la mode
    English satire- exposing corruption “head to head” or “face to face”
    One of 6 paintings (later made into prints for mass production) that comment of the follies of arranged marriages and the impure actions that our occurring in the marriages of the aristocracy.
    Don’t marry for money or to have a higher rank in society
  • Period: to

    Romanticism

    “The French Revolution of 1789 and the European revolts of 1848 create a framework for romanticism, though these boundaries are not always entirely accurate when categorizing artwork”
  • Liberty Leading the People

    Liberty Leading the People
    Revolution of 1830 against the new monarchy- king Charles X (restored after napoleon)
    Liberty with French flag (tricolor) marches over the barricades to overthrow the government

    Red white and blue repeat through composition (flag brought back in revolution)
    Child- role of students in revolution
    Middle class man with top hat
    Lower class man next to him- they all stand united against monarchy
  • Under the Wave off Kanagawa “The wave””

    Under the Wave off Kanagawa “The wave””
    First time landscape is a major theme in Japanese prints
    Last of a series of prints call “Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji”
    Personification of nature, it seems the intent is to drowned figures in the boat
    Mount Fuji= wave
    Sacred mountain
    Large areas of negative space in the sky
  • Period: to

    Late 19th Century

    Works of Freud, Einstein, Marx, Darwin affect art and are spread throughout the world
    Modern art includes realism, Impressionism, and Post-Impressionism
    Artists work in groups and display in galleries
    New mediums such as photography and lithograph change art
    Architects used advancements in building to create new types of structures
  • The Coiffure

    The Coiffure
    Dry point and aquatint
    Part of a series of ten prints
    Women are her main subject matter at the time when women need men less- women asserting independence
    Natural, un-staged pose, natural charm
    Influence by Japanese art
    Tenderness/softness in her work that is not seen in other impressionism work
    Furniture mimics the curves of the body
    Contrast between straight lines and curves in the composition
    Pastel color scheme
    Influence of the contour line to create 3D illusion
  • Period: to

    Early/Mid 20th Century

    The rise of numerous movements in art, and the addition of multiple art techniques.
  • Self-Portrait as a Soldier

    Self-Portrait as a Soldier
    Inspired by Fauvism
    German artists in Dresden
    Had a following, formed a group called “the bridge” aimed to create a bridge between modern art and traditional
    Emphasized fauvism color juxtaposition
    Unwilling volunteer driving artillery in WWI, rather than be drafted
    Declared unfit for service Both this portrait and that of Edvard Munch's "The Scream" portray the limits of human anxiety in grand fashion, but are made because of different events, this one being war, and Edvard more personally.
  • Chairman Mao En route to Anyuan

    Chairman Mao En route to Anyuan
    Based on oil paintings by Liu Chunhua
    Painted during the cultural revolution of 1966-76 (high art was dismissed, art was destroyed, anti-bourgeois)
    Social Realism style created during the 1950 for portraying leaders as everyday citizens. Propoganda shows the leaders with emotionally driven themes
    Modeled after soviet art, moving away from traditional Chinese art such as hanging scrolls
  • Period: to

    Contemporary Art

    Contemporary art is being made on a global scale and strive to move away from euro-American sources
  • Pink Panther

    Pink Panther
    Life size
    Pennsylvania born artist living in NY
    smiling, bare-breasted, sexy blond in a mint-green dress, looking to please the crowd
    Part of a series titled banality (terms means cliché, unoriginal)
    Kitsch- the opposite of progressive/post modern
    Draws on pop culture of the 1960’s
    (characters, b list celebs, and color choice)
    Artificial idealization of the female form at a time when feminism was on the rise
    Panther looks tender, sad, worried
    Work may be a parody of male authority