Russian Foreign Policy

By elburke
  • Jan 1, 988

    Creation of Russian Orthodoxy

    Came from East Roman emperor Vladmir the Great.
  • Jan 1, 1200

    Removed Mongols from Russia

    The Mongol hoard was finally removed from Russia
  • Jan 1, 1462

    Ivan the Great (1462-1505)

    Threw off the Mongol yoke, and began to consolidate Russian land
  • Jan 1, 1533

    Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584)

    Gained acess to the Caspian Sea, and strengthened the autocracy
  • Peter the Great (1689-1725)

    Transformed Russia into one of the great countries of the world. Modernizer, but had to push them through with autocratic means
  • Period: to

    Great Northern War

    Great Northern War Russian troops were led by Peter the Great, the first real Russian modernizer. War was to gain access to sea ports for Russia
  • St. Petersburg--Capital of Russia

    Peter the Great formed the city and made it the capital--further west to become more integrated in the rest of the world.
  • Catherine the Great (1762-1796)

    Tried to expand Russia (200,000 mi) got access to the Black Sea through conflicts with Sweden, Poland, and Turkey
  • Alexander I (1801-1825)

    Involved in the conference of Vienna, added Finland to Russia
  • Nicholas I (1825-1855)

    Tried to expand Russia southward. Fought nationalist efforts
  • The Decembrist Revolution

    An attempt to force Westernist theory on Russia. Led by a group of students, officers, professionals, and nobles. said that the tsarist way was stilting economic growth
  • Decemberist Revolution

  • Alexander II (1855-1881)

    "The Liberator" Pushed through a lot of reforms, but died before he could secure a Constitution
  • Populist Movement begins

    was a reaction to the tsarist empire
  • Emancipation of the Serfs

    Alexander II reforms
  • Liberation of the Serfs

    Alexander II (the Reformer) liberated the serfs to speed up economic growth
  • Assassination of Alexander II

    Revioluntionary party, organized by Tkachev, assassinated the tsar
  • Reinsurance Treaty 1887-1890

    Russia and Germany promised neutrality to each other if they were to become involved in another conflict. When Germany allowed it to lapse in 1890 then it drove Russia to the French
  • Franco-Russian Convention

    Began as a vague agreement between the two countries that they would talk to eachother if they were threatened, but it shifted to a convention that said that if Germany or Italy/Austria attacked then the other would intervene to help
  • Russia Gets Liaotung Peninsula

    Convinced China to give them a 25 year lease on the peninsula--gave them access to the sea. Resulted in increased tensions with Japan, who saw that as an incroachment in their sphere
  • Mensheviks and Bolsheviks Split

    Disagree over whether or not they could skip capitalism in their quest for Marxism. Bolsheviks won
  • Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)

    Japan launched a suprise attack on Port Arthur. Russia was utterly unprepared for war and got their asses kicked. Caused internal rioting and led to the first revolution. Peace was reached through negotiations led through the US. Russia got influence in Manchuria and didn't have to pay indemnity, but Japan got Korean influence and Liaotung Peninsula/Port Arthur
  • Period: to

    Russo-Japanese War

    wiki Over Manchuria and Korea--Russia and Japan were fighting over resources
  • 1905 Revolution

    First Russian Revolution. Failed. Began because of the discontent of the Russo-Japanese War. Forced many of the leaders of the reform movement (Lenin, Trotsky) into exile
  • Period: to

    First Russian Revolution

  • October Manifesto

    Limited the powers of the tsar and created the Duma as a legislative body. Kept the idea that violence could invoke change in the government
  • Anglo-Russian Entente

    Between Russia and Britain. Recognized that Russia had a sphere of influence in Persia/Iran, and Britain had one in Afghanistan. Both recognized China's control of Tibet
  • World War I (1914-1919)

    In 1915 Nicholas II became commander in chief, but he was awful so it delegitimized his rule
  • Period: to

    World War I

    Fought the eastern front against germany. most backward country in the conflict. promoted discontent in population
  • February Revolution

    Major revolution in Russia that caused the eventual abdication of the monarchy. paved the way for the october revolution
  • October Revolution

    Put the Duma in power
  • Brest-Litovsk Treaty

    Established a peace treaty between Russia and Germany to end Russian involvement in WWI. Russia ceded massive amounts of land in the West: Poland, Estonia, Latvia,and Ukraine. Seen as treason by many
  • Civil War of 1918

    After the revolution, there was still a conflict between the Whites (Mensheviks) and the Reds (Bolsheviks). Allied intervention occurred on the side of the Whites. Reds won.
  • Soviet-Polish War (1919-1921)

    Poland tried to take control of large parts of Ukraine and Belarus. Russia became involved and pushed back the Polish army. Soviets thought that this was the first conflict of the war for socialism
  • Treaty of Riga

    Treaty that ended the Soviet-Polish war
  • Treaty of Rapallo

    Normalized relations between the USSR and Germany after the Brest-Litovsk Treaty. Cooperation treaty
  • Great Famine (1932-1933)

    Farmers resisted collectivization, so Stalin starved them. 3 to 6 million died
  • Spanish Civil War 1936

  • Munich Conference

    Germany wanted (and got) Czechoslovakia. Appeasement became common
  • Molotov-Riffentrop Pact

    Gave a free hand to each Russia and Germany. Established spheres of influence for each. Soviets got: Finland, Romania, Estonia, and Latvia
  • World War II (1939-1945)

    1941-Hitler attacked the Soviet Union. By December he was almost at Moscow. USSR was saved because of the winter and its size.
  • Katyn Massacre

    Killing of Polish POW officers by the USSR
  • Tehran Conference 1943

    Meeting of the Allied forces. Agreed they needed a second front. Opened in 1944, and none of the Allies would sign a seperate peace treaty with Hitler
  • Moscow Conference 1944

    Failed conference. Stalin and Churchill divied up Eastern Europe. the US did not attend
  • Yalta Conference (1945)

    Allies agreeing their terms for settlement with Germany. FDR wanted the UN, and USSR help in Japan. they agreed in order to get their spheres of influence confirmed
  • Potsdam Conference 1945

    First disagreements on the new world order
  • Tito-Stalin Split

    Tito created a communist country without the help of Stalin, which paved the way for other non-Soviet states. Posed a threat to the authority of the USSR. Stalin expelled Yugoslavia from Cominform
  • Berlin War 1948

    Two halves of Berlin. USSR shut down the land routes in, so Allies airlifted supplies
  • NATO Created 1949

    Created to contain communinsm in Europe
  • Sino-Soviet Treaty 1950

    Soviets recognized Mao's communist revolution
  • Federal Republic of Germany admitted to NATO

    Western Germany
  • Warsaw Pact 1955

  • Geneva Summit of 1955

    First big power meeting since Potsdam. No agreement, but marked reduction in tensions
  • Budapest 1956

    USSR invaded Hungary to eliminate the new democracy
  • Khrushchev (1956-1964)

    General Secretary
  • XX Party Congress 1956

    Marked a deStalinizaton move. Secret speech. Abolished Cominform
  • U2 Incident 1960

  • Bay of Pigs 1961

  • Leonid Brezhnev (1964-1982)

    General Secretary
  • Prague Spring 1968

    Violently shut down the uprising in Czechoslovakia
  • SALT I 1969

    Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty. Reduced arms by 30%. Nuclear and conventional weapons
  • Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan (1979-1989)

    Intervened on the side of the communists, and put a great strain on the Soviet economy
  • SALT II 1979

    Addition to the first SALT. US withdrew from the treaty because of Afghanistan
  • Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991)

    General Secretary. Major reformer
  • Fall of the Berlin Wall 1989

    Became a symbol for the end of the Cold War. Like other Velvet Revolutions and the Solidarity movement
  • Russia Declared Independance (1990)

    Russia and the Soviet Union existed side by side for 2 years
  • New Union Treaty

    Draft. Never passed. Tried to save USSR. Replaced by the CIS
  • CIS Created 1991

    Commonwealth of Independant States
  • Atlanticisim (1991-1995)

    Theory of Westernization
  • Chechnya (1991)

    Chechan conflict
  • 1991 March Referendum

    76% of all polled supported the retention of the Soviet Union
  • 1991 Coup (Attempted)

    The old guard tried to overthrow the push of westernization and liberalism, but the army refused to go along with it, so it failed
  • Dissolution of the USSR 1991

    By Yeltsin
  • Alma Ata Agreement 1991

  • March 1993 Referendum

  • 1993 Constitutional Crisis

  • 1993 Constitution

  • Statism (1995-1999)

    nationalist interests of Russia
  • 1996 Presidential Election

  • Primakov Memorandum

    Peace treaty between Moldova and Transdnistria
  • Boris Yeltsin (1991-1999)

    President of Russia
  • Kosovo invasion (1999)

    Russia got involved because of the NATO threat
  • Impeachment Efforts 1999

  • Invasion of Dagestan, 1999

  • Bezlam Tragedy 2004

  • Orange Revolution 2006