Feb 24, 1480
Ivan III Overthrows MongolsIvan III overthrew the Mongols and established Moscow as the center of the Russian Nation State.
^Cause: He wanted Russia to become a trding power and parallel Western European Nations.
Effect: A period of expansion (territorial and economic) begins,
Jan 1, 1500
Expansion to SiberiaThe Russians retook Siberia from the Mongols in the late 16th to early 17th century.
They were led by the Cossaks who were bands that were paid for military service.
This expanded Russian territory.
Jan 1, 1556
Expansion to PersiaIvan the Terrible expanded Russian territory to Persia, which gave them access to Silk Roads trade.
This led to a greater and more stable economy.
Taking Land to the Bering SeaIn the late 17th century Russia captured land to the Bering Sea.
Effects of ExpansionDue to Russian Expansion:
-Locals got diseases from the invaders that they had no immunity to. This led to a decrease in the native population of Siberia.
-Surviving locals adopted the customs of the Russians and began trading with them. Siberia's economy grew.
-Locals converted to Christianity.
Fur TradeBy taking Siberia Russia gained many resources. These include:
-Food (animal meat)
^These became important exports, especially fur.
Focus on the BalticPeter the Great shifted focus to a Baltic Port for maritime trade.
Grand Embassy of Western EuropePeter the Great toured Western Europe to gain ideas on how to make Russia a great Western European Nation.
Gained cultural, economic, and government information.
TechnologyAfter the Grand Embassy the Russians adopted Western European technology and ideas.
They developed a school system.
They adjusted economic policies.
They created ministers of the government that were divided into the army, the navy, and foreign affairs.
Change in SiberiaThe fur trade in Siberia declined in the 18th century. During this time the Russian government started sending prisoners there and using it as a prison.
Russians Gain Baltic PortThe Swedes attacked the Russians in 1709, but the Russians won. This gave them access to a port on the Baltic Sea.
The Russians had accomplished a major goal by doing this.
It allowed them greater access to Wetern European trade.
Southern ExpansionThe Russians under Peter the Great moved south to gain access to a warm weather port on the Baltic.
To do this they fought the Ottomans.
^They were defeated.
St. Petersburg BuiltSt. Petersburg is built as the new capitol on land captured from Sweden. It was built with new influence from Western Europe in architectural styles.
OverallOverall, the Russians wanted to compete with the western nations of Europe and be compared to them. They mostly succeeded in doing this.
They became more closely aligned with Europe, where before this time they were more closely aligned with Asia.