PlatoPlato was a Greek philosopher who trained under Socrates and mentored Aristotle.
- believed that the mind is seperable from the body and continues after the body dies and that knowledge is innate
- believed that character and intelligence are largely inherited and that certain ideas are also inborn
SocratesSocrates was a Greek philosopher that mentored the Greek philosopher, Plato.
- believed that the mind is seperable from the body and continues after the body dies, and that knowledge is innate
AristotleAristotle was a Greek philosoher who investigated politics as well as science which includes psychology.
- believed knowledge was not preexisting unlike his mentor Plato
- believed that there is nothing in the mind that does not first come in from the external world through the senses
Francis BaconFrancis was a British philosopher and empiricist, or one who believed that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.
- was fascinated by the human mind and its failings
- once wrote that "the human understanding, from its peculiar nature, easily supposes a greater degree of order and equality in things than it really finds"
Rene DecartesRene was a French philosopher and mathematician introduced the idea of dualism, which asserted that the mind and body were two seperate entities that interact to form the human experience.
- Descartes's interest in the mind and body and his study of physiology led to different views such as mechanism, the idea that the body with no soul was mechanical in nature and incapable of feeling
- Descartes was also interested in the brain and its function as well as its physical make up
John LockeJohn Locke was a British political philosopher and empiricist who believed that the mind at birth is a tabula rasa, or "blank slate."
- often called the "Father of English Philosophy"
- well known for his many hundred page essay, "An Essay Concerning Human Undertsanding"
Charles DarwinCharles Darwin was a British naturalist who proposed his ideas of evolution and natural selection in his book, "The Origin of Species"
- believed his theory of natural selection not only explained animal structures, but animal behaviors
Dorothea DixDorothea was an American born teacher, nurse, humanitarian and social reformer for the menatlly ill.
- traveled throughout the United States and Europe inspecting jails, institutions, etc. for mistreatment
G. Stanley HallG. Stanley Hall was an American born psychologist who is well known for being the founder of organized psychology as a science and profession, as well as the father of the child study movement and as a national leader of educational reform.
- is known for his theory of recapitulation which states that each person goes through changes in both the psychic and somatic senses which follow the evolution scale of the mind and body
William JamesWilliam James was an American philosopher and psycologist who mentored other important contributors to psychology including Mary Calkins and G. Stanley Hall.
- he wrote a textbook named "Principles of Psychology" over the course of twelve years for publisher Henry Holt
- he was a functionalist meaning that he encouraged down-to-earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits and moment-to-moment streams of consciousness
Wilhelm WundtWilhelm was a German psychologist known as the "father of experimental psychology" and the founder of the first psychology laboratory.
- Wilhelm along with two young men created an experimental apparatus which measure the time lag between people's hearing a ball hit a platform and their pressing of a telegraph key
-Wilhelm was trying to measure "atoms of the mind" - the fastest and simplest mental processes
Mary Whiton CalkinsMary Calkins was an American philosopher and psychologist who attended Harvard University in 1890 where she was mentored by the welll known philosopher and psychologist William James.
- was denied her Harvard Ph.D. because of her sex, and was therefore offered a degree from Radcliff College which she
declined (she was awarded her Ph.D. posthumously)
- became a distinguished memory researcher later in life
- became the American Psychological Association's first female president in 1921
E.B. TitchnerE.B. Titchner was a British psychologist who intoduced structuralism, an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind
- founded the organization of experimental psychologists
- proponent of the study of consciousness
Rosalie RaynerRosalie was an American psycholgist who along with John B. Watson performed a famous psychology experiment known as the "Little Albert" experiment.
- Watson and Rayner exposed a nine month year old child to a series of stimuli including a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey, masks and a burning newspaper and observed the boy's reactions
-later they would hit a metal pipe with a hammer while introducing a rat to the boy causing him to cry; the next time the boy saw the rat he began to cry
Margaret Floy WashburnMargaret was an Americsn psychologist who was the first woman to be granted a psychology Ph.D.
- wrote an influential book called "The Animal Mind"
- second female APA president in 1921