Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia

  • 1885

    2 groups formed to rid India foreing rule: Primarly Hindu Indian National Congress (Congress Party) and Muslim League.
  • Muslim League

    Muslim League
    Though deep divisions existed between Hindus and Muslims, they found common ground. They shared the heritage of British rule and an understanding of democratic ideals. These two groups both worked toward the goal of independence from the British.
  • Hindu and WW1

    Hindu and WW1
    Indians listed up in the British army. In return for their sacrafice and service, the British government promised reforms, which lead to a self-government.
  • Indian troop

    Indian troop
    Indian troops return to India. They expected Britain to accomplish their promise, but they were still treated once again as second-class citizens.
  • Rowlatt Act

    Rowlatt Act
    British passed this Act. These laws allowed the government to jail protesters without trial for as long as two years. To Western-educated Indians, denial of a trial by jury violated their individual rights.
  • Amritsar Massacre

    Amritsar Massacre
    To protest the Rowlatt Acts, around 10,000 Hindus and Muslims flocked to Amritsar, a major city in the Punjab, in the spring of 1919. At a huge festival in an enclosed square, they intended to fast and pray and to listen to political speeches. A small group of nationalists were also on the scene. The demonstration, especially the alliance of Hindus and Muslims, alarmed the British. Right after that night, millions of loyal hindus turned into extreme nationalistst.
  • Turkey

    Turkey becames a Republic. At the end of World War I, the Ottoman Empire was forced to give up all its territories except Turkey. Turkish lands included the old Turkish home- land of Anatolia and a small strip of land around Istanbul.In 1919, Greek soldiers invaded Turkey and threatened to conquer it. The Turkish sultan was powerless to stop the Greeks. However, in 1922, Mustafa Kemal, successfully led Turkish nationalists in fighting back the Greeks and their British backers.
  • Salt March

    Salt March
    Act of civil disobedience led by Mohandas Gandhi to protest British rule in India. During the march, thousands of Indians followed Gandhi from his religious retreat near Ahmedabad to the Arabian Sea coast. The march resulted in the arrest of nearly 60,000 people, including Gandhi himself. India finally was granted its independence in 1947.
  • Percia/IRAN

    In 1921, a Persian army officer seized power. In 1925 he deposed the ruling shah.Persia’s new leader, Reza Shah Pahlavi, set out to modernize his country. He established public schools, built roads and rail- roads, promoted industrial growth, and extended women’s rights.
  • Britain Limited Self-Rule

    Britain Limited Self-Rule
    Gandhi and his followers gradually reaped the rewards of their civil disobedience campaigns and gained greater political power for the Indian people. In 1935, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act. It provided local self-government and limited democratic elections, but not total independence.