By Alex K
  • The Seed Drill is Invented by Jethro Tull

    Jethro Tull was one of the first scientific farmers. A scientific farmer is someone who uses the process of inquiry, experimentation, and assessment of results to make changes in farming and farming equipment. He realized that the current method of planting seeds was wasteful, so he created the seed drill for planting seeds in specific rows and depths. This increased crop productivity.
  • John Kay Invents the Flying Shuttle

    John Kay was a machinist in Britain who came up with the flying shuttle. It is a boat-shaped piece of wood that carried threads of yard back and forth when the weaver pulled a handle on the loom. This allowed for much faster weaving and increased productivity.
  • James Watt Builds the First Steam Engine

    A mathematical instrument maker named James Watt thought about the problem that the early sewing machines had for requiring great quantities of fuel. He created the steam engine to make work faster and more efficient, while burning less fuel.
  • Marx and Engels Publish The Communist Manifesto

    This 23-page pamphlet outlined Marx and Engels' ideas on socialism. They viewed society in terms of classes in conflict: the bourgeoisie (weathy employers) and proletariat (workers), and they believed the Industrial Revolution further enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor. They prepared the pamphlet to prompt the workers to band together and try to gain some power for themselves.
  • The Civil War Ends and Technological Advancements Continue

    The Union won the American Civil War in 1865. Slavery was officially ended in America. (It persisted in Puerto Rico, Cuba, adn Brazil until the 1880s.) Industrialization in America proceeded full force.
  • Germany Becomes a Powerful European Force

    Germany was politically divided in the early 1800s, but with the development of manufacturing cities and railroads, Germany was able to connect the sources for its manudfacturing raw materials with the factories and manufacturing centers. This helped unify Germany politically, and by the late 1800s, it was a growing industrial and military power.
  • British Unions Win the Right to Strike

    Factory workers had long hours and dangerous jobs. By the late 1800s, some workers were more involved in politics, seeking reforms in working conditions and pay. Unions developed to speak for all workers in a particular trade. Employers generally opposed unions and wanted workers to remain disconnected from each other. In Britain the Combination Acts of 1799 & 1800 outlawed unions and strikes. This was repealed in 1824, and by 1875 workers could strike.