Indian Colonization and Independence

Timeline created by qlokimj
In History
  • May 20, 1498

    Vasco de Gama arrives in Calicut

    Vasco de Gama arrives in Calicut
    On May 20, 1498, Vasco da Gama, with a fleet of 4 ships and 170 men, landed in the port city of Calicut, on the west coast of India. Da Gama was the first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa and reach India.
  • Trading Post in Surat

    Trading Post in Surat
    After defeating the Portuguese in the Battle of Swally, the East India Company sought and was granted permission by King James I to negotiate the establishment of a permanent trading post within India, with the Mughal Emperor, Jahangir.
  • Expansion of Powers

    Expansion of Powers
    In a series of 5 royal charter around 1670, English King Charles II grants the East India Company the rights to autonomous government of its territorial acquisitions, mint money, command fortresses, form alliances, and exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction over its possessions, essentially establishing the first English colonies.
  • Battle of Plassey

    Battle of Plassey
    The East India Company, led by Robert Clive, defeats the Nawab of Bengal and French allies. As a result, the East India Company was able to take control over the provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha.
  • Sepoy Mutiny

    Sepoy Mutiny
    In 1857, Indian soldiers with the East India Company, known as sepoys, mutinied against the Company. Reasons for the mutiny included resentment toward British social reforms, discrimination against Indian soldiers, and issues of caste divisions within the army. The major goals of the mutiny was reducing the level of British power within India and preventing them from stripping Indians of their ethnic and religious identities. The mutiny was suppressed leading to the deaths of 800,000 Indians.
  • Government of India Act 1858

    Government of India Act 1858
    The British Parliament liquidates the East India Company and transfers all its assets to the British Crown. As a result the Crown begins a period of direct rule over the Indian subcontinent.
  • Formation of the Indian National Congress

    Formation of the Indian National Congress
    The Indian National Congress was originally created as an Indian nationalist, anti-colonialist independence movement. It emerged as the leader of the growing Indian independence movement in the early 20th century. They advocated initially for Indian home rule and then later for full independence.
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

    British soldiers fired on an a crowd of unarmed civilians leading to 379 deaths and thousands of injuries. The massacre shocked both Britain and India and increased pushes for Indian Independence
  • Ghandi's Salt March

    Ghandi's Salt March
    Mahatma Ghandi leads a march to the coast in protest of the British salt monopoly and tax. Ghandi's production of salt without taxation led to his imprisonment but also led to increased adoption of his policy of Satyagraha, or non-violent civil disobedience.
  • Muslim League calls for separate state

    Muslim League calls for separate state
    The Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, called for the establishment of a separate Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. They believed this was the destiny of Muslims that lived on the subcontinent. This would later become Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • Atlantic Charter

    Atlantic Charter
    As a part of conditions for US involvement, President Roosevelt insisted on the inclusion of a clause allowing for self-determination for all British colonies within the Atlantic Charter.
  • End of World War II

    The end of World War II resulted in a dramatic decrease in British power as it sought to rebuild its destroyed and debt-ridden economy. These factors spurred decolonization movements around the world and especially in India.
  • Indian Independence Act of 1947

    Indian Independence Act of 1947
    This act officially divided British India into 2 separate dominions, India and Pakistan.
  • Independence of India

    India officially becomes an independent country free from British rule but remained within the British Commonwealth of Nations.
  • India becomes a Republic

    India becomes a Republic
    India adopts its Constitution and officially became a republic completely free from British control.
  • Period: to

    East India Company Growth

    Over the next century, British power increased dramatically. By 1857, the East India Company had complete control of most of the Indian subcontinent and Myanmar.
  • Period: to

    Non-cooperation movement

    In response to British abuses and a growing push towards independence, Ghandi and the Indian National Congress launch a nationwide boycott against Britain. They sought to damage Britain's economy by preventing Indian labor for contributing to them and by avoiding any institutions in India that contributed to British Power