History of Media

  • Period: to

    Early Media

  • Boston Newsleter solicits ads

    The earliest American advertising was in newspapers and was targeted to a small economically elite audience. The 1st successful American newspaper, the Boston Newsletter, began to solicit ads Ads then were merely simple announcements of what a show had for sale
    There were no brand names Newspapers got most of their revenue from subscriptions, not from advertising.
  • 1st Newspaper

  • 1st magazine

  • 1st Ammendment Ratified

    Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion,
    abridging the freedom of soeech, or of the press
    or the right of the people peaceful assemble and to petition the gov for redress of grievances
  • Laissez-faire

    Caveat emptor (let the buyer beware) was the commercial philosophy
    There was little regulation of business This system is referred to as “Laissez-faire” policy
  • Period: to

    Media Development in 20th Century

  • Penny Press

    brought much bigger circulations for newspapers. At the same time, the amount of advertising grew along with circulation, and ad agencies developed.
    advertiser supported papers
  • Industrial Revolution

  • New York Sun

    Benjamin Day
    created paper
    staff needed
    papers proved to be able to run on advertising
  • Photo showing Motion

    Eadward Muybridge
  • First US Ad Agency

    Volney Palmer of Philadelphia started the first U.S. ad agency His main function was to place ads.
  • First Telegraph line

    Samuel Morse
    1st telegraph line between DC and Baltimore
    operating telegraph "brasspounding" led to radio development
  • "Great Moon Hoax"

    Richard Locke
    story about life on moon
    New York Sun
  • Photojournalism

    Civil War first to be covered on camera
    Famous Photographers: Matthew Brady-portrait photos
  • Yellow Journalism

    trashy articles to get attention
    sensationlistic concept
  • Peep shows

    amusement parlors box-like contraption. Still photos rotated by turning crank
  • Growth of Ad Agencies

    30 such agencies in the US
  • Dime Novels

    pulp novels: paperback books printed on cheap paper made from wood pulp
    inexpensive fiction
    10 cents
  • Telegraph lines stretched across most of nation

    Telegraph using wires provided instant comm across distances
    could not reach ships or remote terrian
    could only trasmit morse code
  • Transatlantic cable

    1st cable installed
    People were still riding in carriages
  • Telephone Invented

    Alexander Graham Bell
  • Phonograph

  • halftone

    photographic image was produced by being broken down into dots that would appear as shards of gray on a page.
    Provided a way to put a photo directly into a newspaper/mag
  • Magazines "Golden Age"

    Number of mag doubled
    national medium
  • Radio Waves

    Heinrich Hertz demonstration of radio waves
    Hertzian waves
  • George Eastman invents celluloid film

    George Eastman invents celluloid film
  • Wall St Journal

    Charles Dow & Edward Jones founded it
  • Kinetoscope

    Edison introduces kinetoscope parlors for viewing bits of film , show pics on camera film kinetograph a camera to take motion pictures
  • wireless telegraphy

    Guglielmo Marconi
  • Nickelodeon

    Edison introduces Vitascope projector Nickelodean theaters begin opening Motion Pic Patents Corp (Trust): Edison's Monopoly NJ NY
  • American Marconi

    Wireless Telegraphy
  • Boston Publicity Bureau

    First real publicity agency
  • Dept Stores Ad Heavily

    These stores receive new merchandise frequently and sold it quickly. (the older smaller dry-goods stores received new stock only twice a year.
  • Non trust Filmmakers go Cali

    escape Edison's process servers great weather for outdoor shooting
    scenary-various temperments
    barns to studios
  • Ida Burnett

    1st African-American woman reporter in the US
    Stories about lynching in Memphis, TN almost got her lynched
  • Muckraking Magazines

    Meat packing in Chicago Ladies Home Journal
  • Voice Transmission

    Reginal Fessenden 1 voice transmission
  • Audion

    Lee Deforest
    vaccuum tube
    great quality
  • Christian Science Monitor

    Mary Baker Eddy
  • Dishonest Ads

    Pure Food & Drug Act of 1906 (FDA)
    Federal Trade Act of 1914 (FTC) A heavy volume of dishonest advertising, especially for patent medicines, brought demand for regulation of advertising to clean it up Policy changed to something more like Caveat vendor (Let the seller beware)
  • Ludlow Massacre

    Ivy Lee, newspaper reporter, and the father of modern PR
    His most famous campaign was to rebuild the reputation of the Rockefellers, especially after the Ludlow Massacre of 1913.
    Lee dressed J.D. Rockefeller Jr. up as a miner and made him appear to care for the “peasants”.
    The 1,000 a month Lee was paid was money well spent by the Rockefellers
    Lee went on to serve other major clients: India, Vienna, GM, United Fruit, American Tobacco Company
    Lee eventually predicted that PR would die out, but he
  • Audit Bureau of Circulations

    verifies newspaper/magazine circulation figures for benefit of advertisers
  • Committee on Public Information:

    the WWI government PR operation, headed by George Creel, a journalist
  • First Pulizter Prizes awarded

    Beat Reporting
    Breaking News Reporting/Photography
    Editorial Cartooning
  • German Expressionism

    Dark, shadowy films
  • Star System

    Audiences began to demand to see popular actors. Theater owners demanded actors to help guarrantee box office success Studio executives created stars by placing actors and actresses under contract and promoting them
  • Frank Conrad

    Radio DJ
    owned radio news first
  • First Radio commercial

    Apt Rentals in NYC
  • TIME & Life

    growing importance of photography in magazines Famous Photographer for Life: Margaret Bourke-White
  • Soviet Propaganda Films

    Heroes are group not individual
  • French Surrealism

    French Surrealism
    symbol laden, irrational
  • Network Radio

    Network Radio gave ads national reach, greater impact
  • Stock Market Crash

    Corporate PR Sponsoring scholarships
    Repairing schools
    Building public parks and playgrounds
    Selling FDR’s New Deal plan
  • Prominence of Radio

    Radio was America's primary in-home srouce of entertainment till 1945
  • Movies "Golden Age"

    sound and color
    some of the greatest films
    75% of Americans attended the movies every week
    Moviegoers were offered double features, newsreels, cartoons, door prizes
  • Biltmore Agreement

    Radio and News worked out compromise
    radio could only air news 2x a day and 5 min a time
    radio broadcasters found loopholes: commented on news instead of airing it
    Newspapers were helped by radio
    Radio could cover breaking/live news
    Overseas Broadcasts
  • Radio Hoax

    Orson Welles War of the Worlds broadcast
  • First TV Commercial

    Bulova Watches
  • Pearl Harbor Attack

    Radio's largest audience
    60 Mill listened to Prs. Frank Roosevelt's response to attack
  • OWI

    Office of War information under Elmer Davis, former newspaper and radio man 1942. Promoting war bonds, victory gardens, industrial productivity, rationing
  • Videotape

    Developed by Germans in WWII
  • WWII propaganda

    newsreels "Lady Marines" Popular, focused on expected events (residual news)
    short films before movies (10)
    Started in France
  • Margaret Bourke-White

    Margaret Bourke-White Became first accredited woman war photographer in WWII
  • Movie Going

    75 % Americans went to the movies at least once weekly
  • Paramount Decision

    US Gov forces studios to sell theaters to end Block/Blind booking
  • Network TV

    rought in a great era for jingles, animated ads, slice of life ads, etc
  • TV's "Golden Age"

    HQ drams
    original material created by good writers
    good comedy ILOVELUCY Stereotyping rampant
    Minorities marginalized
  • John Cameron Swazey

    First TV newsman of note
    Camel Cavalcade of News
  • TV replaces Radio for news

    KFAX: 1st all news station
    failed, turned into religious station
  • Edward Murrow

    Moved to TV
    worked with Fred Friendly
    known for documentaries
    Goodnight & Goodluck: against McCarthy: claimed Murrow was communist
  • Sports Illustrated

    sports photography
  • TV in color

  • Videotape Recorder

    Ampex introduced first videotape recorder
  • The day the music died

    Plane Crash
    Buddy Holiday
    Richie V
    The big Bopper
  • 35,000 US PR workers

  • Public TV

  • 60 Minutes

    First TV newsmagazine show
  • VCRs in the home

    New Technology competition
  • Rap Music Originates

    Harlem/Bronx NY
    from DJa and MCs
  • Watergate Scandal

    investigative reporting of Wash Post reporters Bob Woodward, Carl Bernstein resulted in resignation of Pres Nixon Biggest Scandal of Era
  • Videocassette Recorder

    Sony brought out affordable Betamax videocassette recorder
  • Reagan's deregulation efforts

    Studios could buy theaters again
  • CNN

    24 hour/day news station
    Ted Turner
    Chicken Noodle Network bc of low cash
    2 mill weekly, others used 15 min
  • Movie Industry changed once TV was invented

    Small suburban theatres emerged, drive-ins
    sound systems improved and wide screens
    futuristic names 'cinerama'
    color movies became standard Spectaculars: high budget films, cast of thousands
    Special Gimmicks: 3D effects, SmelloVision
    Themes of movies handled topics that couldnt be on TV
  • 1982 Tylenol scare

    GOOD Crisis Management Seven people in or near Chicago died from taking Tylenol capsules laced with cyanide.
    Johnson & Johnson and its PR firm, Burson-Marsteller, were honest and open from the start.
  • Exxon Valez Oil Spill in Alaska

    BAD Example of Crisis Management:
    The spill, apparently the fault of the ship’s captain, put 240,000 barrels of crude oil into Prince William Sound, coating beaches, marshes, birds and sea life.
    Exxon never really developed a crisis management plan. Made no effort to take control of the flow of information. Didn’t respond or apologize immediately
  • 90% US homes have VCR

  • Blogs

    Matt Drudge
  • Big Three lose viewers

    lose 1/3 of viewers to other channels
  • DVDs in the home

    Pirating- internet downloading of movies
    movies on demand
  • FOX

    Roger Ailes/Rupurt Murdoch
    Matt Drudge covered first Big Story- Clinton
  • Jeff Gannon

    PR Excesses of the Bush Administration James Guckert (working as “Jeff Gannon”: planted at press conferences to ask softball questions.) Exposed
  • Motion Picture Revenue

    85% home viewing
    15% theater viewing change in industry
  • Movie Going 7.5%

    7.5% Americans went once weekly or more Reasons for change:
    competition of TV/Internet
    Convenience of new on-demand tech
    high cost of theater tickets
    absurdly high cost of snacks
  • FS View & FL Flambeau

    1st College Newspaper to be bought by chain (Gannet: largest chain owning 85 daily newspapers in America)
  • 500,000 PR Workers

  • Top grossing movies

    as of 2009:
    Titanic 1997
    Lord of the Rings 2003
    Pirates of the Carib 2006
  • Jon Stewart

    Times Poll for most trusted news
    crossfire on CNN was criticized and shut down
    Entertainment Media
  • Movie going

    Recent 'recession bump'
    increased 16 %
    diversion in bad times
  • US homes get TV various ways

    Cable 60 %
    Satellite 25%
    Over-air 15%
  • Display Ads

    more interesting
  • USIA

    US Info Agency
    Promotes US ABROAD VOA: Voice of America aimed to overseas listeners
  • Increase in Lobbyist

    Since 1998, 43% of members of Congress who left office have registered as lobbyists
    (this is not a good thing)
  • Social Media Usage

    % of PR people using various social media:
    86% Twitter
    79% Blogs
    78% Linkedin
    77% Facebook
    41% YouTube
  • Jazz Journalism

    Newly sensationalized journalism 1920: decade of the tabloid newspaper
    started in 1919 with NY Daily News. Used big photos on smaller page size Reporters "jazzed up" news- providing inconsisten facts
  • 90% of Americans listen to Radio every week

    39% at home
    35% in the care
    23% at work
  • News cycle in Digital Age

    24 hr job
    news is constant
    embargos: cannot be put online until available in other forms
    scoop themselves: put on web or wait for morning paper?
  • News Sources for Americans

    .5 Adults get news from TV
    .25 people get it from newspapers
    .25 online or radio
  • Biggest 4 Ad Groups

    (take in 54% of ad agency revenues)
    Omnicom Group
    WPP Group
    Interpublic Group
    Publics Groupe