History of Educational Technology

By aantee
  • 100

    Elder Sophists 5th century BC

    Elder Sophists 5th century BC
    Laid the groundwork for a "technology of instruction."
  • 100

    Socratic Method of Inquiry 5th century BC

    Socratic Method of Inquiry 5th century BC
    Knowledge is inborn and can be brought out through skillfull questioning. (Misconception that Socratic Inquiry was precurser to programmed instruction)
  • Period: Jan 1, 1100 to Jan 1, 1300

    Scholasticism

    Pierre Abelard developed the basic features of the scholastic method of instruction. He laid the groundwork for later systems of scientific inquiry and experimentation.
  • Great Didactic by John Amos Comenius

    Great Didactic by John Amos Comenius
    Dealt with ever phase of learning and "Learning is to be approached through the senses" Full Text Great Didactic
  • Orbus Pictus by John Amos Comenius

    Orbus Pictus by John Amos Comenius
    Taught Latin and sciences with pictures associated with word symbols. Orbis Pictus 9th Edition
  • Johann H. Pestalozzi attempts the "Psychologization of Education"

    Johann H. Pestalozzi attempts the "Psychologization of Education"
    "Pestalozzi's method focused on providing content to ideas through firsthand experienceand giving significance to individual expression by means of ideas" (Saettler 1990). Appeared in the United States in 1809, but didn't have much of an impact at that time (Saettler 1990).
  • Lancaster Monotorial Instruction

    Lancaster Monotorial Instruction
    Affordable, mass education with a more effective use of instructional media. "Instruction consisted principally of transmitting informationand controling learner behavior."
  • Steam Powered Printing Press

    Steam Powered Printing Press
    "The invention of the steam press by Frederick Koenig in 1814 dramatically increased the availability of texts and lowered production costs. Gains in basic print literacy were exponential, as the number and size of print periodical circulations increased rapidly in the first half of the 19th century" (Wickliff 2006).
  • Dagurreotype Invented by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre

    Dagurreotype Invented by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre
    "The urge to image grew alongside popular literacy in the early 19th century" (Wickliff 2006).
  • Outlines of Educational Doctrine by Johann F. Herbart

    Outlines of Educational Doctrine by Johann F. Herbart
    Johann Herbart "rooted his method in the psychology of learning [...] all learning was apperception, or a process of relating new ideas to old ones and assemilating them into a total apperceptive mass" (Saettler 1990).
    1913 edition of Outlines of Educational Doctrine
  • 1st U.S. Kindergarten

    1st U.S. Kindergarten
    Friedrich Froebel inspired the U.S. Kindergarten movement. The first U.S. kindergarten was established at Watertown, Wisconsin. Froebel believed in instruction as controlled development and utilized socialization as a basic teaching method (Saettler 1990).
  • Pestalozzian Object-Based Teaching Becomes Accepted in U.S.

    Pestalozzian Object-Based Teaching Becomes Accepted in U.S.
    Principles of Pestalozzi gain acceptance through Edward A. Sheldon and become the Oswego method. The lack of consistency in lessons led to a decline in popularity
  • Magic Lantern

    Magic Lantern
    Precursor to a slide projector
  • First Catalog of Instructional Films

    First Catalog of Instructional Films
    "The motion picture projector was one of the first media devices used in schools" (Reiser 2001).
  • Period: to

    Audiovisual Instruction Movement

    "With the advent of media incorporating sound, the expanding visual instructional movement became known as the audiovisual instructional movement" (Reiser 2001).
  • Department of Visual Instruction is Born

    Department of Visual Instruction is Born
    As the audiovisual movement continued to evolve, the then current national professional organizations for visual instruction merged into one and eventually became the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (Reiser 2001).
  • Period: to

    World War II

    U.S Military utilized instructional media for training after the onset of the war. Utilized films, overhead projectors, slide projectors, audio equipment, and simulators. Media research continued after the war because of the success of training.
  • Division of Visual Aids for War Training

    Division of Visual Aids for War Training
    Over a period of about four years, the organization produced 457 training films (Reiser 2001)
  • Virtual Reality Trainer

    Virtual Reality Trainer
    In 1941, Fred Waller was comissioned by the US Navy to produce 31 gunnery trainers. "The waller flexible gunnery trainer was a World War II Virtual Reality Film technology employed by the US and British militaries to simulate the direct experience of anti-aircraft gunning combat (in civilian’s terms: the shooting down of planes)" (Taylor 2013).
  • Audiovisual Methods in Teaching by Edgar Dale

    Audiovisual Methods in Teaching by Edgar Dale
    In this book, Dale introduced the Cone of Experience, which was used as a supporting rationale for the use of media in education (Plomp & Ely 1996).
  • The American Institutes for Research Established

    The American Institutes for Research Established
    "[M]and of the psychologists resoinsible for the success of the military training programs continued to work on solving instructional problems" (Reiser 2001).
  • Period: to

    Growth in the Use of Instructional Television

    Ford Foundation funding and the Federal Communications Commission setting aside channels for education led to the growth in instructional technology (Reiser 2001).
  • Computer Assisted Instruction

    Computer Assisted Instruction
    In the 50's, researchers at IBM designed one of the first CAI programs to be used in schools (Reiser 2001).
  • The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching by B. F. Skinner

    The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching by B. F. Skinner
  • Period: to

    Programed Instruction Movement

    "[T]he process for developing programed materials involed many of the steps found in current instructional design models" (Reiser 2001).
  • Preparing objectives for programmed instruction by Robert F. Mager

    Preparing objectives for programmed instruction by Robert F. Mager
    In his book, Mager discusses how to develop learning objectives for programmed instruction utilizing the behaviorist perspective. "Before you prepare or select a self-instructional program, before you advise or choose some instructional aid, machine, or method, it is important to be able to state clearly what your goals are" Mager 1961).
  • Robert Glasser and "Criterion-Referenced Mearsures"

    Robert Glasser and "Criterion-Referenced Mearsures"
    Glasser coined the term "criterion-referenced measures" which refers to characteristics that have become a central feature of instructional design: that of seessing a student's behavior at the beginning of a course and that of determining what behaviors the students had learned as a result of the course (Reiser 2001).
  • Commission on Instructional Technology was established

    The United States government created the Commission to examine the impact of media on instruction (Reiser 2001).
  • Motorola Invented 1st Mobile Phone

    Motorola Invented 1st Mobile Phone
    Prototype DynaTAC Portable Cellular System
  • Period: to

    Incresed Interest in Microcomputers for Instructional Purposes

    Also during this time, there was a growing interest in cognitive psychology and instructional design, but did not have a widespread effect until the next decade.
  • Facebook Created

    Facebook Created
    With the rise of social networks such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, SnapChat, etc. come opportunities to explore utilizing social media for learning and also debates about privacy and the usefulness of such networks in the feild of education.
  • Apple iPhone

    Apple iPhone
    "In the context of education, some argue that the use of mobile learning technology makes sense for school-age children, especially those students living in rural areas or who have certain learning disabilities. [...] Yet others argue that pocket assistive mobile devices pose significant distractions to students and negatively impact the student learning process (Brady 2012).
  • Release of Amazon's Kindle-ereader competition and increase in ebook production

    Release of Amazon's Kindle-ereader competition and increase in ebook production
    "Both teachers and librarians, for example, need to reexamine the modern experience of student learning. While school librarians will and should not be eliminated, the modern digital age has significantly altered how we retrieve and store information, and many school districts have recognized this shift by changing the job title of 'school librarian' to 'school media specialist'" (Brady 2012).
  • First MOOC: Connectivism and Connective Knowledge

    First MOOC: Connectivism and Connective Knowledge
    About 2,200 people signed up with about 170 actively participating. Courses are free and people do not have to be enrolled at a particular university or college to join.