History of Behaviorism

  • Period: 300 to 400

    Greek Influence

    The Greeks influnced behavrioism by introducing concepts such as observaiton, induction, and deducation.
  • 322

    Aristotle

  • 380

    Plato

    Plato's theory of recollection, as stated in the dialogue Meno, was one of the first examples of "a priori" knowledge.
  • 469

    Socrates

  • Francis Bacon published "Noveum Organum"

    Bacon suggested that inductive reasoning is superior to syllogism
  • Descartes wrote "Mediations of First Philosophies"

    Descartes wrote on the mind-body dualism
  • Period: to

    Empirisim/ Positivism

    During this time philisophers discussed learning knowledge through expereince
  • Period: to

    Scottish Enlightenment

  • Adam Smith published "The Theory of Moral Sentiments"

  • James Hutton published "A Theory of the Earth"

  • Immanuel Kant published "Critique of Practical Reason"

  • Period: to

    Experimental Psychology

  • J.S. Mills publshes "System of Logic"

  • John Stewart Mills wrote "System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive"

    Mills wrote on the method of science. He described the method of agreement, the method of difference, the joint method of agreement and difference, the method residue, and the method of concomitant variations.
  • Period: to

    Ivan Pavlov

  • Charles Darwin published "On the Origin of Species"

  • Ivan Sechenov published "Reflexes of the Brain"

    Introduction of inhibitory responses in the CNS
  • Reflexes of the Brain was Published

  • Period: to

    Pragmatism

  • Charles Peirce wrote "The Fixation of Belief."

    Peirce wrote on the method of tenacity and the method of authority.
  • John Watson - Jan. 9th, 1878 - Sept 25th, 1958

  • William Wundt establishes psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany

    Found in Moore (2007)
  • Period: to

    John B. Watson

  • Charles Pierce taught Logic at Johns Hopkins

    Pierce taught and wrote on the basic principles of pragmatism
  • Period: to

    American Progressive Movement

  • Hall established first psychology lab at Johns Hopkins

  • John Dewey received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins

  • G. Stanley Hall graduates from Harvard

    Hall earned his Ph.D. in psychology
  • William James published "The Principles of Psychology"

    Harvard University
  • Jacques Loeb published "Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Comparative Psychology"

    at University of Chicago
  • Period: to

    Edward Thorndike

  • Hall established the American Psychology Associtation

  • E.B. Titchner creates a "Structuralism" psychology program at Cornell

  • Ernst Mach published "The Analysis of Sensations"

  • Thorndike developed "Law of effect"

  • E.L. Thorndike received his Ph.D. from Columbia University

  • Dewey is elected president of the American Psychological Association

  • Dewey published "The School and Society"

  • Sigmund Freud presents his concepts of psychoanalysis in a publication entitled "The Interpretation of Dreams."

  • G.J. Romanes, C.Lloyd Morgan, L.T. Hobhouse studied animal psychology

    The experimenters used a direct instruction method.
  • John B. Watson received his Ph.D. in developmental psychology from the University of Chicago

  • Ivan Pavlov published research on condtioned reflex

  • B.F. Skinner - March 20th, 1904 - Aug. 18th, 1990

  • Period: to

    B. F. Skinner

  • Pavlov publishes first conditioning studies

  • J.R. Angell published "Psychology: an introductory study of the structure and function of human consciousness"

  • Thorndike: Animal Intelligence

  • John B. Watson publishes Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It, launching the influential behaviorism movement

  • Period: to

    Behaviorism

  • Watson published "Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology"

  • Loeb published "The Organism as a Whole"

  • Watson published "Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist"

  • Karl Lashley published "The behavioristic interpretation of consciousness"

  • Harvey Carr published "Psychology"

    The research refined functionalism.
  • Wolfgang Kohler published "The Mentality of Apes"

  • Pavlov's reaserch became available in English

  • Woodsworth published "Psychology: A study of mental life"

    Woodsworth's research proposed S-O-R formulation.
  • Skinner publishes his first paper on conditioning

  • Throndike published "The Fundamentals of Learning"

  • Bertrand Russel published "Mysticism and Logic"

  • Alfred North Whitehead challanged Skinner to account for verbal behavior in objective-empirical terms

  • B.F. Skinner publishes Behavior of Organisms, introducing operant conditioning.

  • B.F. Skinner published "The Behavior of Organisms"

  • Clark L. Hull published "Principles of Behavior"

  • Skinner coined the term "radical behaviorism"

    Term is first used in the "Psychological Review"
  • Fred S. Keller developed a behavioral curriculum at Columbia University

  • Edward C. Tolman conducted research that contradicted Throndike's Law of Effects

    Tolman conducted resarch on rats in a maze.
  • Skinner published "Walden Two"

  • Keller & Schoenfeld published "Principles of Psychology"

  • C.B. Fesrster & Skinner published "Schedules of Reinforcement"

  • Skinner published "Verbal Behavior"

  • The Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis is established

  • Sidman published "Tactics for Scientific Research"

  • Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior is established

    JEAB is estiablished in Indiana
  • Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species

  • Bijou & Baer published "Child Development"

  • Bandura introduces the idea of observational learning

  • The Juniper Gardens Children Project

  • Fred S Keller established Psychology at the new University of Brasilia

  • Skinner defined rule governed behavior

  • Project Follow Through

  • Baer, Wolf, & Risley define applied behavior analysis

  • Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is established

  • D. Thompson and I. Goldiamond wrote "The functional analysis of behavior."

  • Skinner designed the Teacher Machine

  • Keller published "Good-bye Teacher..."

    Article published in JABA
  • Skinner published "About Behaviorism"

    The book became part of the New York Times Bestseller list
  • Midwest Association for Behavior Analysis is founded

  • Staats published "Social Behaviorism"

  • Bandura published "Social Learning Theory"

  • Association for Behavior Analysis International

    ABAI had been formally known as Midwest Association for Behavior Analysis (MABA).
  • Kantor published "Interbehavioral Philosophy"

  • Cambridge Center for Behaviorial Studies

  • The journal, Analysis of Verbal Behavior, was established

  • Horne & Lowe define Naming

  • The Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions was establshed

  • Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche describe Relational Frame Theory

  • Staddon published "The New Behaviorism"

  • The Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention was established

  • Greer et al. induced Naming capability