Founding Fathers Timeline

  • Massacre at Mystic

    Massacre at Mystic
    Massacre at Mystic also known as the Pequot massacre and the Battle of Mystic Fort took place on May 26, 1637 during the Pequot War, when Connecticut colonists under Captain John Mason and their Narragansett and Mohegan allies set fire to the Pequot Fort near the Mystic River. It was important because it was the first defeat of the Pequot people by the English in the Pequot War.
  • The Scalp Act

    The Scalp Act
    On April 8, 1756, Governor Robert Morris enacted the Scalp Act. Anyone who brought in a male scalp above age of 12 would be given 150 pieces of eight, ($150), for females above age of 12 or males under the age of 12, they would be paid $130. The act turned all the tribes against the Pennsylvania legislature.
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was an American political and mercantile protest by the Sons of Liberty. It was the first significant act of defiance by American colonists.
  • The battles of Lexington and Concord

    The battles of Lexington and Concord
    The battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. It's famous for the saying 'shot heard around the world'. This was Americas war of Independence.
  • The battles of Lexington and Concord

    The battles of Lexington and Concord
    The battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. The battles were fought on April 19, 1775 in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy, and Cambridge.
  • The Declaration of Independence signed

    The Declaration of Independence signed
    The signing of the Declaration is one of the most important but least celebrated days in American history when 56 members of the Second Continental Congress started signing the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia. It was important for the United States to become independent from Great Britain
  • The Winter at Valley Forge

    The Winter at Valley Forge
    The Winter at Valley Forge functioned as the third of eight winter encampments for the Continental Army's main body, commanded by General George Washington, during the American Revolutionary War. This was important because it was when the American forces became a true fighting unit.
  • benedict arnold turns traitor

    benedict arnold turns traitor
    In 1779, he entered into secret negotiations with the British, agreeing to turn over the U.S. post at West Point in return for money and a command in the British army. The plot was discovered, but Arnold escaped to British lines. His name has since become synonymous with the word “traitor.”
  • The Battle of Cowpens

    The Battle of Cowpens
    The Battle of Cowpens was an engagement during the American Revolutionary War fought on January 17, 1781 near the town of Cowpens, South Carolina, between U.S. forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan and British forces under Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton, as part of the campaign in the Carolinas.
  • Article of Confederation are ratified

    Article of Confederation are ratified
    On March 1, 1781, the Articles of Confederation are finally ratified. The Articles were signed by Congress and sent to the individual states for ratification on November 15, 1777, after 16 months of debate. It was important because The Articles created a loose confederation of sovereign states and a weak central government, leaving most of the power with the state governments.
  • The Battle of Yorktown

    The Battle of Yorktown
    The Battle of Yorktown was the last big land battle of the American Revolutionary War. It was important because it helped us become more independent as a country.
  • The 3/5ths Compromise

    The 3/5ths Compromise
    The Three-fifths Compromise was an agreement reached during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention over the counting of slaves in determining a state's total population. It was important because it allowed pro-slavery states to have a disproportionate influence on the presidency, the Supreme Court, and other positions of power.
  • The Constitution is Ratified

    The Constitution is Ratified
    The Constitution became the official framework of the government of the United States of America when New Hampshire became the ninth of 13 states to ratify it. It was important because the United States now has it's own constitution before we was governed by the Articles of Confederation.
  • Presidential Inauguration of George Washington

    Presidential Inauguration of George Washington
    The first inauguration of George Washington as the first president of the United States was held on Thursday, April 30, 1789 on the balcony of Federal Hall in New York City, New York. It was important because he was the first president of the United States.
  • Washington's farewell address

    Washington's farewell address
    Washington's farewell address is a letter written by American President George Washington as a valedictory to "friends and the fellow-citizens" after 20 years of public service to the United States. It was important because he advised American citizens to view themselves as a cohesive unit and avoid political parties and issued a special warning to be wary of attachments and entanglements with other nations.
  • The death of George Washington

    The death of George Washington
    On December 14, 1799, George Washington died at his home after a brief illness. It was important because he was the first president of the United States so when he died it was very important for our country.
  • Election Day 1800

    Election Day 1800
    Sometimes referred to as the "Revolution of 1800", Vice President Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party defeated incumbent President John Adams of the Federalist Party. It was important because first election where both parties ran candidates and actually campaigned.
  • Marbury vs. Madison

    Marbury vs. Madison
    Marbury vs. Madison was a landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States. It was important because, American courts have the power to strike down laws and statutes that they find to violate the Constitution of the United States.
  • Slave Trade Ends in the United States

    Slave Trade Ends in the United States
    The Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves of 1807 is a United States federal law that provided that no new slaves were permitted to be imported into the United States. It was important because no new slaves can be brought to the United States.
  • Battle of Tippecanoe

    Battle of Tippecanoe
    The Battle of Tippecanoe was fought on November 7, 1811, in Battle Ground, Indiana between American forces led by then Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory and Native American forces associated with Shawnee leader Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa, leaders of a confederacy of various tribes who opposed European-American settlement of the American frontier. It was important because it prompted Tecumseh to ally his remaining forces with Great Britain during the War of 1812.
  • USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

    USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere
    USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere was a battle between the two ships during the War of 1812, approximately 400 miles southeast of Halifax, Nova Scotia. It took place shortly after war had broken out, exactly one month after the first engagement between British and American forces.
  • The Battle of Baltimore

    The Battle of Baltimore
    The Battle of Baltimore was a sea/land battle fought between British invaders and American defenders in the War of 1812. American forces repulsed sea and land invasions off the busy port city of Baltimore, Maryland, and killed the commander of the invading British forces.
  • The Battle of New Orleans

    The Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle of New Orleans was fought on January 8, 1815 between the British Army under Major General Sir Edward Pakenham and the United States Army under Brevet Major General Andrew Jackson, roughly 5 miles southeast of the French Quarter of New Orleans, in the current suburb of Chalmette, Louisiana.
  • The Missouri Compromise

    The Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise was United States federal legislation that stopped northern attempts to forever prohibit slavery's expansion by admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state in exchange for legislation which prohibited slavery in the remaining Louisiana Purchase lands north of the 36°30′ parallel except for Missouri. It was important because it allowed Missouri not to be a slave state anymore.
  • The Election of Andrew Jackson

    The Election of Andrew Jackson
    It was held from Friday, October 31 to Tuesday, December 2, 1828. It featured a rematch of the 1824 election, as President John Quincy Adams of the National Republican Party faced Andrew Jackson of the Democratic Party. Jackson's victory over Adams marked the start of Democratic dominance in federal politics.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    The Indian Removal Act was signed into law on May 28, 1830, by United States President Andrew Jackson. The law authorized the president to negotiate with southern Native American tribes for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for white settlement of their ancestral lands. It was important because it authorized the president to grant lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    The Trail of Tears was part of a series of forced displacements of approximately 60,000 Native Americans between 1830 and 1850 by the United States government known as the Indian removal. It was important because it signifies the callousness of American policy makers toward American Indians.
  • Nat Turner Rebellion

    Nat Turner Rebellion
    The Nat Turner Rebellion was a rebellion of enslaved Virginians that took place in Southampton County, Virginia, in August 1831, led by Nat Turner. His revolt hardened proslavery attitudes among Southern whites and led to new oppressive legislation prohibiting the education, movement, and assembly of slaves.
  • The Battle of the Alamo

    The Battle of the Alamo
    The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna reclaimed the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar, killing most of the Texians and Tejanos inside.
  • Mexico loses California, New Mexico, and Arizona

    Mexico loses California, New Mexico, and Arizona
    This treaty, signed on February 2, 1848, ended the war between the United States and Mexico. By its terms, Mexico ceded 55 percent of its territory, including parts of present-day Arizona, California, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, Nevada, and Utah, to the United States.
  • The Fugitive Slave Act

    The Fugitive Slave Act
    The Fugitive Slave Act or Fugitive Slave Law was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern interests in slavery and Northern Free-Soilers. It is important because the act required that slaves be returned to their owners.
  • Dred Scott decision

    Dred Scott decision
    The Dred Scott decision was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court in which the Court held that the United States Constitution was not meant to include American citizenship for people of African descent, regardless of whether they were enslaved or free, and so the rights and privileges that the Constitution confers upon American citizens could not apply to them. It was important because it stopped slavery in territories
  • The Dead Rabbits Riot

    The Dead Rabbits Riot
    The Dead Rabbits riot was a two-day civil disturbance in New York City evolving from what was originally a small-scale street fight between members of the Dead Rabbits and the Bowery Boys into a citywide gang war. It was the largest disturbance since the Astor Place Riot in 1849 and the biggest scene of gang violence until the New York Draft Riots of 1863.
  • Abraham Lincoln Elected President

    Abraham Lincoln Elected President
    Abraham Lincoln is elected the 16th president of the United States over a deeply divided Democratic Party, becoming the first Republican to win the presidency.
  • South Carolina secedes from the United States

    South Carolina secedes from the United States
    South Carolina became the first state to secede from the federal Union on December 20, 1860. The secession of South Carolina precipitated the outbreak of the American Civil War in Charleston Harbor on April 12, 1861.
  • The First Battle of Bull Run

    The First Battle of Bull Run
    The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the Battle of First Manassas, was the first major battle of the American Civil War. The battle was fought on July 21, 1861, in Prince William County, Virginia, just north of the city of Manassas and about 30 miles west-southwest of Washington, D.C.
  • Emancipation proclamation

    Emancipation proclamation
    Emancipation proclamation was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, during the Civil War. It was important because it confirmed their insistence that the war for the Union must become a war for freedom.
  • The Battle of Gettysburg

    The Battle of Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was important because it officially ended slavery.
  • The Treaty at Appomattox Courthouse

    The Treaty at Appomattox Courthouse
    April 9th, 1865, was the end of the Civil War for General Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. For Lt. General Ulysses S. Grant and tens of thousands of Federal and Confederate troops fighting further south, the war stretched out for several more months. After Appomattox, however, only the most zealous and desperate could pretend the Union was not already victorious and the Confederacy was destined to end.
  • The Ku Klux Klan is Established

    The Ku Klux Klan is Established
    Is a group of Confederate veterans convenes to form a secret society that they christen the “Ku Klux Klan.” The KKK rapidly grew from a secret social fraternity to a paramilitary force bent on reversing the federal government’s progressive Reconstruction era-activities in the South, especially policies that elevated the rights of the local Black population.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. It was important because it granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States including former enslaved people and guaranteed all citizens “equal protection of the laws.”
  • John D. Rockefeller Creates Standard Oil

    John D. Rockefeller Creates Standard Oil
    He established Standard Oil, which by the early 1880s controlled some 90 percent of U.S. refineries and pipelines. Critics accused Rockefeller of engaging in unethical practices, such as predatory pricing and colluding with railroads to eliminate his competitors in order to gain a monopoly in the industry.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government and each state from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It was important because it sought to protect the voting rights of African American men after the Civil War.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Patents the Telephone

    Alexander Graham Bell Patents the Telephone
    Alexander Graham Bell receives a patent for his revolutionary new invention: the telephone. The Scottish-born Bell worked in London with his father, Melville Bell, who developed Visible Speech, a written system used to teach speaking to the deaf.
  • Battle of Little Bighorn

    Battle of Little Bighorn
    The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to the Lakota and other Plains Indians as the Battle of the Greasy Grass and also commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. It is important because it marked the most decisive Native American victory and the worst U.S. Army defeat in the long Plains Indian War.
  • The Great Oklahoma Land Race

    The Great Oklahoma Land Race
    The Great Oklahoma Land Race was the first land run into the Unassigned Lands of former Indian Territory, which had earlier been assigned to the Creek and Seminole peoples. It quickly led to the creation of Oklahoma Territory under the Organic Act of 1890 and ultimately to the formation of the forty-sixth state of the Union, Oklahoma, in 1907.
  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    Battle of Wounded Knee
    The Wounded Knee Massacre, also known as the Battle of Wounded Knee, was a massacre of nearly three hundred Lakota people by soldiers of the United States Army. It was important because it marked the definitive end of Indian resistance to the encroachments of white settlers.
  • Ellis Island Opens to Process Immigrants

    Ellis Island Opens to Process Immigrants
    The first Ellis Island Immigration Station officially opens on January 1, 1892, as three large ships wait to land. Seven hundred immigrants passed through Ellis Island that day, and nearly 450,000 followed over the course of that first year.
  • Plessy vs. Ferguson

    Plessy vs. Ferguson
    Plessy vs. Ferguson was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court ruled that racial segregation laws did not violate the U.S. Constitution as long as the facilities for each race were equal in quality, a doctrine that came to be known as "separate but equal." It was important because it essentially established the constitutionality of racial segregation.
  • The sinking of the USS Maine

    The sinking of the USS Maine
    On February 15, 1898, an explosion of unknown origin sank the battleship U.S.S. Maine in the Havana, Cuba harbor, killing 266 of the 354 crew members. The sinking of the Maine incited United States' passions against Spain, eventually leading to a naval blockade of Cuba and a declaration of war.
  • The Wizard of Oz (Book) is Published

    The Wizard of Oz (Book) is Published
    The Wizard of Oz was a 1902 musical extravaganza based on the 1900 novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum.
  • J.P. Morgan Founds U.S. Steel

    J.P. Morgan Founds U.S. Steel
    J.P. Morgan Founds U.S. Steel by financing the merger of Andrew Carnegie's Carnegie Steel Company with Elbert H. Gary's Federal Steel Company and William Henry "Judge" Moore's National Steel Company for $492 million ($15.31 billion today).
  • Teddy Roosevelt Becomes President of the United States

    Teddy Roosevelt Becomes President of the United States
    Roosevelt took office as vice president in 1901 and assumed the presidency at age 42 after McKinley was assassinated the following September. He remains the youngest person to become President of the United States.
  • Ida Tarbell Publishes Her Article About Standard Oil

    Ida Tarbell Publishes Her Article About Standard Oil
    Ida Tarbell Publishes Her Article About Standard Oil grew to be a 19-part series, published between November 1902 and October 1904. Tarbell wrote a detailed exposé of Rockefeller's unethical tactics, sympathetically portraying the plight of Pennsylvania's independent oil workers.
  • Ford Motor Company is Founded

    Ford Motor Company is Founded
    Ford Motor Company is Founded is an American multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, United States. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand, and luxury cars under its Lincoln luxury brand.
  • The 16th Amendment is Passed

    The 16th Amendment is Passed
    The 16th amendment established Congress's right to impose a Federal income tax. At first, Congress placed a flat 3-percent tax on all incomes over $800 and later modified this principle to include a graduated tax.
  • Angel Island Opens to Process Immigrants

    Angel Island Opens to Process Immigrants
    Angel Island Immigration Station served as the main immigration facility on the West Coast of the United States from 1910 to 1940. Many immigrants from China or other Asian countries were detained there for extended periods thanks to the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) and other discriminatory immigration laws.
  • The 17th Amendment is Passed

    The 17th Amendment is Passed
    The 17th amendment modified Article I, section 3, of the Constitution by allowing voters to cast direct votes for U.S. Senators. Prior to its passage, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.
  • KDKA goes on the air from Pittsburgh

    KDKA goes on the air from Pittsburgh
    It was first commercial radio station was KDKA in Pittsburgh, which went on the air in the evening of Nov. 2, 1920, with a broadcast of the returns of the Harding-Cox presidential election.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti arrested for armed robbery and murder

    Sacco and Vanzetti arrested for armed robbery and murder
    In 1921, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, both Italian-Americans, were convicted of robbery and murder. On April 9, 1927, Sacco and Vanzetti's final appeal was rejected, and the two were sentenced to death. Felix Frankfurter, then a professor at Harvard Law School, was considered to be the most prominent and respectable critic of the trial. He was appointed to the Supreme Court by Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1939.
  • Teapot Dome Scandal

    Teapot Dome Scandal
    The Teapot Dome scandal was a bribery scandal involving the administration of United States President Warren G. Harding from 1921 to 1923. Convicted of accepting bribes from the oil companies, Fall became the first presidential cabinet member to go to prison; no one was convicted of paying the bribes.
  • 1st Miss American Pageant

    1st Miss American Pageant
    Atlantic City was home to the first Miss America Pageant in 1921 which included representatives from 7 cities and Atlantic City. Sixteen year-old Margaret Gorman from Washington, DC (at far left in white hat) won the first competition.
  • 1st Winter Olympics Held

    1st Winter Olympics Held
    On January 25, 1924, the first Winter Olympics take off in style at Chamonix in the French Alps. It is important because it was the first winter olympics ever.
  • J.Edgar Hoover Becomes Head of the FBI

    J.Edgar Hoover Becomes Head of the FBI
    On May 10, 1924, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Hoover as the fifth Director of the Bureau of Investigation, partly in response to allegations that the prior director, William J. Burns, was involved in the Teapot Dome scandal.
  • Scopes Monkey Trial

    Scopes Monkey Trial
    The Scopes Trial, formally known as The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes and commonly referred to as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was an American legal case in July 1925 in which a high school teacher, John T. Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which had made it unlawful to teach human evolution in any state-funded school.
  • The Great Gatsby published by F. Scott Fitzgerald

    The Great Gatsby published by F. Scott Fitzgerald
    The Great Gatsby is a 1925 novel by American writer F. Scott Fitzgerald. Set in the Jazz Age on Long Island, near New York City, the novel depicts first-person narrator Nick Carraway's interactions with mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby and Gatsby's obsession to reunite with his former lover, Daisy Buchanan.
  • Mein Kampf is Published

    Mein Kampf is Published
    Mein Kampf is a 1925 autobiographical manifesto by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler. The work describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany.
  • Charles Lindberg completes solo flight across the Atlantic

    Charles Lindberg completes solo flight across the Atlantic
    American pilot Charles A. Lindbergh lands at Le Bourget Field in Paris, successfully completing the first solo, nonstop transatlantic flight and the first ever nonstop flight between New York to Paris.
  • The Jazz Singer debuts (1st movie with sound)

    The Jazz Singer debuts (1st movie with sound)
    On December 30, 1927, The Jazz Singer, the first commercially successful full-length feature film with sound, debuts at the Blue Mouse Theater at 1421 5th Avenue in Seattle. The movie uses Warner Brothers' Vitaphone sound-on-disc technology to reproduce the musical score and sporadic episodes of synchronized speech.
  • St. Valentine's Day Massacre

    St. Valentine's Day Massacre
    The Saint Valentine's Day Massacre was the 1929 murder of seven members and associates of Chicago's North Side Gang that occurred on Saint Valentine's Day. The men were gathered at a Lincoln Park garage on the morning of that feast day, February 14th.
  • Stock Market Crash Begins Great Depression

    Stock Market Crash Begins Great Depression
    The crash began on Oct. 24, 1929, known as "Black Thursday," when the market opened 11% lower than the previous day's close. Institutions and financiers stepped in with bids above the market price to stem the panic, and the losses on that day were modest, with stocks bouncing back over the next two days.
  • Black Tuesday (Stock Market Crash)

    Black Tuesday (Stock Market Crash)
    The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Great Crash, was a major American stock market crash that occurred in the autumn of 1929. It started in September and ended late in October, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange collapsed.
  • The Dust Bowl Begins

    The Dust Bowl Begins
    The Dust Bowl, also known as “the Dirty Thirties,” started in 1930 and lasted for about a decade, but its long-term economic impacts on the region lingered much longer. Severe drought hit the Midwest and Southern Great Plains in 1930.
  • the adoption of the star spangled banner as the national anthem

    the adoption of the star spangled banner as the national anthem
    The Senate passed the bill on March 3, 1931. President Herbert Hoover signed the bill on March 4, 1931, officially adopting "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the national anthem of the United States of America.
  • The Empire State Building Opens

    The Empire State Building Opens
    The Empire State Building Opens is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, United States. It was designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon and built from 1930 to 1931. Its name is derived from "Empire State", the nickname of the state of New York.
  • Franklin Roosevelt is Elected President (1st Time)

    Franklin Roosevelt is Elected President (1st Time)
    In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican incumbent Herbert Hoover in a landslide.
  • Adolf Hitler Become Chancellor of Germany

    Adolf Hitler Become Chancellor of Germany
    Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany in 1933 following a series of electoral victories by the Nazi Party. He ruled absolutely until his death by suicide in April 1945.
  • CCC is Created

    CCC is Created
    The Civilian Conservation Corps was a voluntary public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men ages 18–25 and eventually expanded to ages 17–28. Robert Fechner was the first director of this agency, succeeded by James McEntee following Fechner's death.
  • WPA is Created

    WPA is Created
    The Works Progress Administration was an American New Deal agency, employing millions of job-seekers to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads. It was established on May 6, 1935, by presidential order, as a key part of the Second New Deal.
  • J.J. Braddock Wins Heavyweight Boxing Title

    J.J. Braddock Wins Heavyweight Boxing Title
    On June 13, 1935, at Madison Square Garden Bowl, Braddock won the Heavyweight Championship of the World as the 10-to-1 underdog in what was called "the greatest fistic upset since the defeat of John L. Sullivan by Jim Corbett".
  • Olympic Games in Berlin

    Olympic Games in Berlin
    The Berlin Games were the 10th occurrence of the modern Olympic Games. The 1936 Olympics were held in a tense, politically charged atmosphere. The Nazi Party had risen to power in 1933, two years after Berlin was awarded the Games, and its racist policies led to international debate about a boycott of the Games.
  • Kristallnacht

    Kristallnacht
    Kristallnacht or the Night of Broken Glass, also called the November pogrom, was a pogrom against Jews carried out by the Nazi Party's Sturmabteilung paramilitary forces along with civilians throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938.
  • Grapes of Wrath is Published

    Grapes of Wrath is Published
    The Grapes of Wrath is an American realist novel written by John Steinbeck and published in 1939. The book won the National Book Award and Pulitzer Prize for fiction, and it was cited prominently when Steinbeck was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1962.
  • Wizard of Oz Premiers in Movie Theaters

    Wizard of Oz Premiers in Movie Theaters
    The Wizard of Oz, which will become one of the best-loved movies in history, opens in theaters around the United States.
  • Germany Invades Poland

    Germany Invades Poland
    The invasion of Poland, also known as the September campaign, 1939 defensive war and Poland campaign, was an attack on the Republic of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union which marked the beginning of World War II.
  • The Four Freedoms Speech

    The Four Freedoms Speech
    The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt on Monday, January 6, 1941.
  • Battle of the Philippines

    Battle of the Philippines
    was from December 8, 1941 to May 8, 1942 the invasion of the Philippines by the Empire of Japan and the defense of the islands by United States and the Philippine Armies during World War II.