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AP US History

By PetraQ
  • 1492

    Columbus discovered America

    Columbus discovered America
  • Period: 1492 to

    Columbian Exchange

    Exchange of animals, crops, and resources between the Old and the New World. European diseases were also brought to the Americas and killed huge numbers of Native Americans due to their lack of immunity.
  • Period: 1492 to

    European Colonization in America

    ●Resources: raw material, gold/silver, land
    ●Religion: escape from persecution; religious freedom; spread of Christianity
    ●Spain: South America, Florida, Caribbean, Mexico
    ●Portugal: Brazil, South America
    ●France: Haiti, Dominican Republic, French Guiana and Quebec/St. Lawrence River (Canada), Louisiana
    ●Netherlands: Hudson River, NY
  • Jamestown, VA

    ●First permanent settlement in the US.
    ●Virginia Stock Company: MONEY!!!
    ●Headright system: land for whoever comes
    ●European indentured servants: 3-7 yrs, then can get land
    ●No religious tolerance
    ●Tobacco plantation
  • Plymouth, MA

    ●Mayflower Compact: self-government
    ●No separation btw church and state: religion most important
    ●Fur trade, ship building, whaling
  • New Hampshire

  • Massachusetts Bay, MA

    ●Winthrop: City upon the hill––set an example for England
    ●NO RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE: Anne Hutchinson & Rogers Williams exiled
    ●Fur trade, shipbuilding, whaling
  • Maryland

    ●Refuge for Catholics
    ●More religious tolerance than VA (Act of Tolerance for all Christians)
    ●Tabacco plantation
  • Connecticut

    ●Fur trade, ship building, whaling
  • Rhode Island

    ●Roger Williams
    ●Seperation of church and state
    ●Religious tolerance1636
  • Pequot War

    ●Pequot tribe v.s. Puritans (NE): annihilation of Pequots in 2 months
  • Delaware

    ●Originally New Sweden
  • The Carolinas

    ●Founded Charles Town, SC
    ●Influx from Barbados to plant sugar
    ●Rice and indigo plantations
    ●Religious tolerance
  • New York

    ●Originally New Amsterdam of the Dutch
    ●Fur trade, ship building, whaling
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    ●rich landowners v.s. poor settlers
    ●Govt. refused to send military support (Cheseakpe)
    ●Colonists group: Bacon (VA general, WAR!!); Native conspiracy against English
    ●Total chaos: "our time of anarchy"
  • King Philip's War

    ●Wampanoag v.s. English (NE)
    ●Refusal of religious conversion
    ●3000 Native Americans died
    ●thousands of Native Americans fled/sold into slavery
  • Popé's Rebellion

    Spanish v.s. Puebloan tribe (NM)
    ●Spanish suppressing Native American's belief: no religious practice
    ●Enforcing Catholicism
    ●Puebloan's religious leader Popé
    ●400 colonists killed, 200 Spaniards & Christians Puebloan fled (NM)
    ●Traces of Spanish rule gone, Spanish exiled 12 yrs, came back in 1692
    ●Greatest act of Indigenous resistance
  • Pennsylvania

    ●Founded by William Penn
    ●Religious tolerance
    ●Against slavery
    ●Encourage diversity
    ●Peace with Native Americans
  • New Jersey

  • Glorious Revolution

    William and Mary
  • Period: to

    Salutary Neglect

    ●Leaving the colonies along
  • Yamasee War

    ●Yamasee v.s. English (SC) Causes:
    ● Long-term conflict, traders first target
    ●Provocation by Europeans in order to enslave Natives
    ●Murdered British traders traveling along East Coast who were caught in the conflict Effects:
    ●70% SC settlers killed
    ●Trade resumed by 1717, but enslaved Indigenous people trade dwindled
    ●Cherokee Alliance of 1716
    ●United Native Americans in the southeast → contributed to the emergence of native confederations
  • Period: to

    Robert Walpole leads Parliament

    ●Moving toward capitalism
  • Georgia

    ●Founded as a philanthropic experiment
    ●Military buffer against Spanish Florida
    ●No slavery at first
  • Molasses Act

    ●Tax on imported rum
    ●Colonists ignored it ➔ smuggling continued
  • Stono Rebellion

    ●Enslaved ppl v.s. Colonists (SC)
    ●Enslaved ppl hear successful runaways (escape to FL for freedom & land)
    ●Spanish proclamation: slaves deserted to St. Augustine had same treatment
    ●Security Act soon to be announced (all white men bear guns to church)
    ●Casualties: 20-25 white ppl, 30 enslaved killed
  • Industrial Revolution in England

    ●Coal/water power; machines
    ●consumerism: more goods to buy
  • Period: to

    French Indian War

    ●Redistribution of land
  • Pontiac's War

    ●Native Americans v.s. British
    ●Great Lakes & Ohio River Valley
  • Proclamation of 1763

    ●Land west of Appalachian Mountains for American Indian reservations
    ●Non-Natives there were asked to relocate ●Reduce conflict with Natives
  • Sugar Act & Currency Act

    Sugar Act
    ●Combate smuggle of molasses
    ●Cut duty in half but increase enforcement
    ●Cancel trial-by-jury Currency
    ●Restricted printing paper money Effect:
    ●Impeded transatlantic economy (bad during recession 1764)
  • Stamp Act

    ●All documents stamped (pay duty)
    ●First direct/internal tax
    ●Directly affected ppl: printers, lawyers etc.
  • Sons of Liberty, 1st American Boycott

    ●Samuel Adams
  • First Compromise: Stamp Act Repealed

    ●Declaratory Act: Parliament had full power to pass lawa
  • Townshend Duties

    ●New duty on common stuff (lead, glass etc.)➔ABUSE OF POWER! Effect:
    ●Increased British presence in the colonies
    ●Limiting power of colonial assemblies
  • Second Compromise: Partial Repeal of Townshend Act

    ●Parliament repealed all new duties except tea (save face & assert that Parliament had the right to tax colonies)
  • Boston Massacre

    ●British sent regiments to enforce the acts
    ●soldiers fired when the gathering at the Custom House got bigger
    ●five people died
  • 2nd American Boycott

    ●List with promises not to buy British goods
    ●Committees of Inspections made sure no one broke the agreement Effect:
    ●Forged colony unity
  • Tea Act & Boston Tea Party

    Tea Act & Boston Tea Party
    ●lower the price BUT colonists angry at Britain taxing whatever they want
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    ●wanted improvement rather than independence
  • 3rd American Boycott

    ●even stopped exports
    ●women involved in politics
  • Coercive Acts

    ●shut down Boston port
    ●royal governor to MA
    ●British criminal tried in Britain
    ●soldiers quartering in colonists' houses
    ●Quebed: Britain's now ●to punish MA Effect:
    ●further unified the colonies
    ●push colonies away from Britain
  • Pennsylvania Abolition Society

  • Period: to

    American Revolution

    ●1775: Battle of Lexington
    ●1775: Battle of Concord ➔ Continental Army (George Washington
    ●1777: Bettle of Saratoga ➔ turning point, France helped the US
    ●1781: Battle of Yorktown ➔ The World Turn Upside Down
  • Second Continental Congress

    ●created Continental Army
    ●plan defense for colony & prepare the militia
    ●1 doc apologized to King, 1 doc to justify their reason for fight ➔ King rejected both, created his own proclamation
  • Thomas Paine's Common Sense

    Thomas Paine's Common Sense
    ●New govt (NO MONARCHY!) ➔ more ppl joined to rebel
    ●Republic govt
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    ●declare independence from Britain & explained why
    ●Life, Liberty & Pursue of Happiness
    ●All men are equal
    ●free & enslaved black people fought on both sides, some fled
  • Pinckney's Treaty

    ●navigation rights along the Mississippi
    ●New Orleans port
  • Period: to

    Articles of Confederation

    ●No executive and Judicial Branch
    ●Unicameral Congress: no power to levy tax, raise military
    ●Difficult to amend AOC 13/13 → 9/13 get a law
    ●No international state trade
    ●No crime system
    ●1785 Land Ordinance
    -how to divide up land that will be sold to the government
    -land are divided very evenly
    ●1787 Northwest Ordinance
    -Population > 60,000 = statehood
    -No expansion of slavery
  • Treaty of Paris

    ●independence to US
    ●No Indigenous People representation Social Changes:
    ●separation of church and states
    ●ablolished aristocracy
    ●slavery remained legal, some states gradual emancipation
    ●Britain evacuated thousands of enslaved
    ●end of mercantilism
    ●more conflicts with Natives ➔ pouring into Mississippi Valley; Many Natives sided with Britain –– targeted revenge
    ●voting rights expanded
    ●inspired French & Haitian revolution
    ●Continental Congress encouraged states to write their Constitution
  • Shay's Rebellion

    ●protested for debt, lack of currency and high taxes
    ●Articles of Confederation too weak (no national army to put down the rebellion)
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    Federalists (North eg. Alexander Hamilton):
    ●YAY CONSTITUTION!👍 Anti-Federalists (South)
    ●NO CONSTITUION!👎 ➔ central govt. too powerful, threatening individual liberty (NO BILL OF RIGHTS) Compromise 1:
    ●NJ Plan (small states): go w/ old plan, 1 vote/state
    ●VA Plan (big states): more ppl more votes
    ●Great Compromise: Senate (2) + House of Representation
    ●3/5 Compromise: black ppl count as 3/5 of a person
    ●Commerical Compromise: ① taxes on foreign imports ② international slave trade til 1808
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
  • Period: to

    The Federalist Era

    ●president: George Washington
    ●vice president: John Adams
    ●secretary of state: Thomas Jefferson
    ●secretary of treasury: Alexander Hamilton Federalists (Adams/Hamilton)
    ●strong central govt.
    ●repuclic led by elites
    ●loose interp. of the Const.
    ●National Bank✅
    ●econ. commerce & industry
    ●North/New England
    ●Pro-British Democratic-Republican:
    ●weak central govt.
    ●democracy of virtuous farmers & tradespeople
    ●strict interp. of the Const.
    ●National Bank❌
    ●econ. farming
  • Period: to

    Second Great Awakening

    ●1817 American Colonization Society: Liberia in Africa ➔ move all black there
    ●William Garrison: immediate & uncompensated emancipation
    ●Federick Douglas
    ●Harriet Tubman: underground railroad
    ●1831 Nat Turner's rebellion VA Women's Right:
    ●republican motherhood
    ●Elizabeth Stanton Temperance:
    ●1826 American Temperance Society Education
    ●Horace Mann: father of American eduction
    -school for everyone
    -public school Mental Illness:
    ●Dorothea Dix: hospitals for the mentally ill
  • Hamilton's Financial System

    ●National Bank (chartered for 20 yrs) ➔ encourage ppl settle in the West
    ●US est. its govt. as a trustworthy institution
    ●Compromise: capital in the south (Washington DC)
  • Neutrality Declaration

  • Whiskey Rebellion

    ●tax whiskey to pay off debt (whiskey consumption increases)
    ●tax too high! ➔ REBEL!!
    ●Washington went
  • Britain Blockaded US Ship

    ●Britain didn't respect US neutrality
  • Jay's Treaty

    ●British refused to renounce future seizure
    ●US would pay the debts
    ●good thing? "delayed" the war until 1812 when US was able to resist
  • George Washington's Farewell Address

    ●no political parties!
    ●don't intervene in European issues (no permanent alliance)
  • Election of 1800

    ●Jefferson won
    ●first peaceful transfer of power btw. parties
  • Period: to

    Jefferson's Presidency

    ●vice presidents: Aaron Burr (1801-1805); George Clinton (1805-1809)
    ●Midnight appt.: Adams
    ●John Marshall: Judicial Review (Marbury v. Madison 1803)
  • Louisiana Purchase

    ●US: more land for agriculture
    ●France: money to fight
    -Haitian Revolution: independence, French gave up NA colonies
    ●acting like Federalists: loose interpretation. of Constitution
  • Embargo Act

    ●US: stop foreign trade, harmful for Britain & France
    ●reality: harmed itself more ➔ some ppl boo Jefferson!
  • War of 1812

    ●British blockade
    ●draft Americans on the boat into navy
    ●War Hawks (Calhoun & Clay): expand to British Cananda & Spanish FL
    ●Conflict with Natives: rebel bc they supported Britain
    ●P: decline of the Federalist party
    ●E: growth –– boycott British goods ➔ north manufacture
    ●S: nationalism
  • Treaty of Ghent

    ●Britain fought Napolean, no more war with US
  • Hartford Convention

    ●North Federalists: can't win Britain too strong!
    ●actually won ➔ Federalist party died
  • Battle of New Orleans

    ●Andrew Jackson: war hero
  • Henry Clay's American System

    ●internal improvements (Erie Canal & Cumberland road)
    ●2nd National Bank rechartered 1816-1836
    ●1819: McCulloch v. Maryland (Elastic Clause to create national currency)
  • Period: to

    Era of Good Feelings

    ●president James Monroe
    ●Monroe Doctrine: ①No more colonization in North America! ②Northern land (OR, WA) up for interpretation
    ●FL sold to US (Adams-Onis Treaty 1819) Really Good Feelings?
    ●Native Americans: US pushed into their lands
    ●enslaved: slavery grew
    ●women & lower class whites
    ●Panic of 1819: depression ➔ distrust for bank in the West
    ●Democratic-Republican party split
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    ●Missouri slave state, Maine free state ➔ balance Congress votes
    ●36º36' line: south of it slave, north of it free
  • Period: to

    Market Revolution

    ●transportation revolution: canals, railroads etc.
    ●railroad growth 1850s: connect Northern textile & Southern cotton
    ●communication revolution: telegraph, steam printing press
    ●social revolution:
    -division in gender roles: public & private life in upper class, work & home division
    -"romantic childhood": education etc.
    ●slavery: less slave labor but more relied on Southern cotton (slave)
    ●empolyer-empolyee system (no more apprentice)
    ●others: immigration, urbanization, banks for average ppl
  • Period: to

    Age of Jackson

    ●vice presidents: John Calhoun (1829-1832), Martin Van Buren (1833-1837)
    ●Anti-John Quincy Adams: "corrupt bargain", "elitist", "aristocracy"
    ●Jacksonian Democracy: appeal to common men; unlike Jeffersonian (elite)
  • Indian Removal Act

    ●pushed Native Americans further west
    Cherokee nation v. Georgia
    ●Cherokee: our land! You signed the treaty!
    ●Supreme Court: they're right, Georgia's problem (no real power to enforce the decision ➔ ignored by US)
  • The Bank War

    ●Bank of US for rich ppl! (but he's rich)
    ●didn't know the role of bank
    1832 Recharter of Bank of US: vetoed by Jackson ➔ deposited to state banks ➔ printed paper money ➔ inflation ➔ depression 1837
    ●KING ANDREW Bank of US:
    ●very powerful –– money coming in from land sale
    ●stablizing force for the economy
    ●monitor the state banks
  • The Nullification Crisis

    ●State right v. Federal Govt.
    ●SC protest, nullify Causes:
    ●North: high tariff –– protect industry in North
    ●South: low tariff –– export, scared that the other countries would have trade wars Effects: Compromise of 1833
    ●Lowered tariff
    ●SC dropped nullification
  • Panic of 1837

    ●1836 Specie Circular
  • Period: to

    Trail of Tears

    ●Forced Native American displacements & ethnic cleansing
  • John O'Sullivan: Manifest Destiny

    ●Moral leader (Monroe Doctrine)
    ●Improvement of land (agriculture)
    ●Constitution/God: spread democracy
    ●doctrine/belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable. Opposition: democracy through example, not conquest
  • Period: to

    James Polk

    ●Westward expansion!
  • Period: to

    Mexican-American War

    ●border dispute
    ●US won
    ●1845: US annexation of Texas
  • Period: to

    California Gold Rush

    ●Cons: ①environmental costs ②conflict btw. people
    ●CA genocide of Native Americans
  • Compromise of 1850

    ●Henry Clay
    ●California––Free state
    ●NM & UT Territory––popular sovereignty when became states
    ●Fugitive Slave Law: pursue runaway slaves
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    ●Stephen Douglas
    ●build railroads at Chicago (North), gotta give sth. good to the South
    ●KS & NE: popular sovereignty (oppose Missouri Compromise bc it stated that nos slavery there) Effects:
    ●Bleeding Kansas
    -ppl going to KS to get the popular vote
    -both North and South there: FIGHT!!
    ●1854 Republican Party
    -stop expansion of slavery
    -American Party + Free Soil Party (main idea) + Northern Whigs Party (territory)
  • Dred Scott vs. Sanford

    ●Dred Scott: escaped to North, saw himself as a free man
    ●Sanfor: no you're not free
    -slaves were property, not citizen
    -Congress had no power to stop slavery in a territory (violate Missouri Compromise)
  • South Carolina seceded

    ●fear that they couldn't have slavery
  • Period: to

    Moving West

    Why Move West?
    ●Mining, cattle, ranching, farming
  • Gen. Butler Declares Runaway Enslaved "Contraband of War"

    ●contrand camps
  • First Confiscation Act

    ●Butler's contraband
    ●enslaved ppl can't be taken back by their enslavers
  • Lincoln Took Office

    ●goal: preserve the Union
    ●border slave states: MD, DE, MO, KY
  • Period: to

    Civil War

    ●Abraham Lincoln
  • Confederate Formed

  • Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter

    ●first shot of the Civil War
    ●AR, TN, NC, VA seceded
  • Second Confiscation Act

    ●legal basis for Emancipation Proclamation
    ●any enslaved people who reached Union control are free forever
  • Legal Tender Act Authorizes Greenbacks

    ●not backed by gold/silver
    ●evolution of economic policy
  • Congress Abolishes Slavery in D.C.

    ●enough people in Congress anti-slavery
  • Battle of Antietam

    ●Unions victory
    ●first battle on union soil
    ●gave Lincoln the confidence to announce Emancipation Proclamation
  • Lincoln Signed Emancipation Proclamation

    ●no slavery in Confederate
    ●border states: do what you need to do but preferably no slavery
    ●purpose of war changed to a moral standard
    ●persuaded Britain & France neutral
    ●all the freed slaves go to Lincoln to fight for them Did Not Achieve:
    ●outlaw slavery
    ●black people becoming citizens Did Achieve:
    ●immediate emancipation
    ●no compensation
  • Period: to

    Presidential Reconstruction

    ●Lincoln's ten percent plan: north popular vote, if more than 10% want to return to the union, everything will be fine
    ●Radical Republican’s Wade-Davis Bill
    -the vote has to be 50% more in order to 一笔勾销叛国罪
    -vetoed by Lincoln
    ●Andrew Johnson’s Plan
    -Democratic Party
    -Allowed states to re-enter the union if they ratified the 13th amendment (abolish slavery)
    -Presidents too nice
    -Black Code: ①no intermarriage ②no guns
    -Ku Klux Klan: lynching
  • Thirteen Amendment Ratified

    ●completely outlawed slavery
  • Period: to

    Congressional Reconstruction

    ●Freedman‘s Bureau: Provided food/shelter for the black
    -Andrew Johnson vetoed - 你管不着
    -Congress override -我不管,我就是要给黑人钱
    ●Reconstruction Act: divided confederate states into 5 military district
    -Andrew Johnson vetoed
    -Congress override
    ●14th Amendment: citizenship & equal protection
    ●15th Amendment: right to vote
  • Fourteenth Amendment Ratified

    ●citizenship to all born in US
  • Reconstruction Ended

    ●Compromise of 1877:
    -Rutherford Hayes (republican)
    -president? withdraw troops from the South
  • Period: to

    Gilded Age

    ●Henry Grady's Old South & New South
    -Old: plantation and slavery
    -New: mixed economy + mixed relationship
    ●Jim Crow Law: segregation: "separate but equal"
  • Homestead Strike

    ●Carnegie Steel Company
    ●National guard put down the strike