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APUSH Review (Semester 1)

By Ratt
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    After the Treaty of Paris, which settles the end of the Seven Years War, this proclamation was issued to prevent colonists from settling across the Appalachian Mountains. After helping the British win the war against the France, being denied the opportunity that the land offers left them feeling uncompensated for their efforts.
  • Sugar Act of 1764

    Sugar Act of 1764
    After the failure of the molasses act, which caused colonists to start smuggling instead of paying the tax, the parliament passed the Sugar Act which enforced excise taxes on much of the same products but in lesser amounts in the hopes that the colonists would stop smuggling. They, however, kept smuggling instead of paying the tax in a clear show of insubordination.
  • Stamp Act of 1765

    Stamp Act of 1765
    Reeling from the monetary costs of the Seven years war with the French and the Indians, Britain further imposed the Stamp Act after deeming the revenue from the Sugar Act insufficient. This Act enforced taxes on all legal documents such as marriage papers, birth certificates, and property deeds. It also enforced taxes on other products made from paper such as playing cards. It was met with severe discontent since it cut into every aspect of the colonists lives from entertainment to business.
  • Quartering Act of 1765

    Quartering Act of 1765
    In order to quiet the discontent caused by the acts and assert their authority over the colonists, Great Britain did not recall the army stationed in the colonies under the guise of "protecting the colonies from the Indians". However, since they could not afford the cost to maintain the army that far away from the homeland after the war, they issued the Quartering Act that forced colonists to provide food and accommodations for the soldiers. This caused an economic strain and a lack of privacy.
  • Declaratory Act of 1766

    Declaratory Act of 1766
    The widespread discontent caused by the Stamp Act led to boycotts of British goods and riots all over the colonies. Failure to enforce the Stamp Act led Great Britain to repeal the act, but led to the passing of the Declaratory Act which conveyed to the colonies the parliament's absolute authority to pass laws over the colonies. The colonies however protested that they would not tolerate "taxation without representation".
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    The tension created between the colonists and the soldiers of Great Britain due to the acts led to a standoff in Britain, where a mob of colonists gathered to threaten and harass the soldiers. When the mob started throwing airborne projectiles at the soldiers, they started firing at the mob which left 5 dead. This event was a pivotal point in the history of the United States, since the publicity caused by this was a major factor in influencing the colonists to revolt.
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    Angered that their pleas for representation weren't being heard, the colonists took to boycotting to convey their message better. The colonists arranged a party of people who took to the ships of the East India Company and threw millions of dollars worth of boxes filled with tea into the harbor. This greatly angered Great Britain, who responded with the Intolerable Acts the very next year in order to show their authority over the colonies as the mother country.
  • The Founding of the Continental Congress

    The Founding of the Continental Congress
    Due to the passing of the Intolerable Acts, the colonies were burdened with additional responsibilities such as quartering the soldiers and paying the excise taxes. In addition to this, the closing of the Boston harbor led to a major block in trade, and the colonies couldn't provide for their families without it. This caused delegates from all the states except Georgia convened this congress to discuss their future. In the end, they decided to boycott British goods until the act was repealed.
  • The Battles of Lexington and Concord

    The Battles of Lexington and Concord
    Realizing the imminent danger of a war with Great Britain, the First Continental Congress began to mobilize troops and stock up on ammunitions. The arms were stored in a town near Boston called Concord, and when news of this reached the Redcoats through spies, they arranged a raid party to capture it. However, the colonies got wind of this first, and after storing away the weapons, managed to organize revolutionaries to meet them at Lexington and Concord, forcing them to withdraw at the latter.
  • Defeat at The Battle of Bunker Hill

    Defeat at The Battle of Bunker Hill
    Motivated by the victory at Concord, the colonies were galvanized into action and rounded up an army of thousands to take siege of Boston. In the midst of it, they fought the first major battle of the revolution at Bunker Hill. Even though the colonies suffered a defeat at the hands of the British, the redcoats suffered major losses which greatly boosted the morale of the colonists and proved to the world that they can hold their own against one of the world’s greatest superpowers.
  • The Publishing of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense

    The Publishing of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
    A journalist who had recently emigrated from England, Thomas Paine was an excellent writer who constructed a small pamphlet which he called “Common Sense”. This pamphlet was a justification for independence and the war against Britain, and the latent ability of America to form a novel government never before seen in the world. Due to its use of vernacular, the common dialect, it effectively conveyed his thoughts to the American public and motivated the colonies to join the efforts in the war.
  • The Signing of the Declaration of Independence

    The Signing of the Declaration of Independence
    Penned by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, The Declaration of Independence was a document pronouncing the separation from the mother country and the creation of a new local government. It was after the rejection of the Olive Branch Petition that was sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III. This is not only a Declaration of Independence, but also an official Declaration of War with Britain for the colonies.
  • Victory at The Battle of Saratoga

    Victory at The Battle of Saratoga
    The colonies were still young, and in the war against a superpower like Britain, at a severe disadvantage. Due to this, the colonists decided to seek foreign aid, and France was the most likely to help, however, they needed proof that we could hold our own. This Battle proved our determination and ability to do so which caused France to agree to help us by providing us with the two things we most lacked; a navy and military training, in addition to infantry which bolstered our chance at victory.
  • The Battle of Monmouth

    The Battle of Monmouth
    The premature continental army was suffering losses at the hands of the British Empire, and lost its capital, Philadelphia. Soon after, the army was forced to pass a winter in Valley Forge amid poor and freezing conditions, and frequent desertions. However, those who stayed developed a sense of camaraderie and were trained by Prussian general von steuben to become a formidable force. This prowess showed at the battle of Monmouth, which resulted in a draw, but was a major motivator for the army.
  • The Ratification of the Articles of Confederation

    The Ratification of the Articles of Confederation
    After much debate and revision, the second continental congress decided upon a draft of the articles of confederation, which attempted at creating a government for the colonies. However, it failed severely due to the newly created government having a weak central government and leaving most of the power with the states. It couldn't perform basic functions such as raising funds through taxation and hence failed in its duty.
  • Victory at the Battle of Yorktown

    Victory at the Battle of Yorktown
    The Redcoats walled themselves in a fortification near the port after being pursued by the colonials and awaited the aid of the British Navy. Cornwallis, the general of this army, however, did not have information about the French alliance, which blocked of the port of Yorktown from the British Navy and began assault on the it from sea. The continental army on the other hand lay siege by surrounding Yorktown and finally made the general surrender, which led Britain to abandon the war.
  • The Signing of The Treaty of Paris

    The Signing of The Treaty of Paris
    After the defeat at Yorktown, Great Britain refused to suffer more losses and pulled back their troops and halted all colonial attempts in the western hemisphere. To end the war, the Treaty of Paris was signed by both sides, which resulted in the colonies receiving all the land from the Appalachians to the Mississippi River that Britain won in the Seven Years War, in addition to their independence.
  • The Northwest Ordinance of 1787

    The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
    As colonials emigrated West to the newly seized land from Great Britain, a form of governing the area west of the Appalachians became necessary. Thus, the Northwest Ordinance was passed to create a process for organizing that territory and inventing a process to admit new states into the union based on population. This allowed the citizens moving west to have an opportunity at representation in the congress. The Northwest Ordinance led to the creation of 5 new states.
  • The Adoption of The Great Compromise

    The Adoption of The Great Compromise
    During the process of creating a new government for the colonies, the delegates provided two different plans for representation; one based on population, and the other offering equal representation to each state. However, either one of these plans would have left some states resentful, hence a new plan was proposed by delegates from Connecticut that offered a dual body system where one was based on population and the other equal. The adoption of this system is called the Great Compromise.
  • The Ratification of the Constitution

    The Ratification of the Constitution
    Soon after the new government was created, there arose a need for a new system of law as the articled of confederation were not suited to govern the country. Hence, the Constitution was created, and needed to be ratified by nine of the thirteen states in order to be put into effect. However, the states who opposed a strong federal government rejected the constitution. This caused the delegates to add in the Bill of Rights to appease the worries of the antifederalists, completing ratification.
  • The Election of 1789

    The Election of 1789
    The very first election of the newly formed United States was the only one where the candidate, George Washington, was unanimously chosen by the electoral college in addition to winning the popular vote by leaps and bounds. His presidency established many important precedents for his successors in this role, one of the most important of them being the limit for the number of terms a president can be elected to office.
  • The Creation of the Cotton Gin

    The Creation of the Cotton Gin
    The cotton gin, patented by Eli Whitney, impacted the United States in a variety of ways. It made separating cotton from its seeds a fast and easy job instead of time consuming and labor intensive. Since it was easier to process, prices of cotton went down and made it widespread among the American and world markets, boosting the American economy. Soon, it became a popular cash crop, which led to the establishment of plantations which acquired labor through slaves.
  • The Election of 1796

    The Election of 1796
    This was the first election where candidates from two different parties ran against each other. It was also a historic election, where Thomas Jefferson, the opponent, became John Adams Vice President. This was the first and last time that an opponent took up office as the vice president of the winner. John Adams goes on to build a strong navy for the United States and handles the XYZ Affair with great finesse.
  • The Election of 1800

    The Election of 1800
    Even though the XYZ Affair gained him the support of the American people, Adams squandered it away by passing the Alien and Sedition Acts, thereby giving the election to the third president of the US, Thomas Jefferson. The peaceful transfer of power between Adams and Jefferson set a major precedent for future elections and strengthened the belief that the American government was successful.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    One of the main worries of Thomas Jefferson was the use of the Mississippi River and the port at New Orleans because of its huge impact on trade in the colonies. Their agreement with France to lease the use of the river was ending, hence when Napoleon made a deal to sell the Louisiana territory thereby enabling them uncontested use of the river, Jefferson bought the territory and nearly doubled the size of the US. The purchase set a necessary precedent for the implied powers in the constitution.
  • The Creation of the Second Bank of the United States

    The Creation of the Second Bank of the United States
    As the charter for the first national bank was ending, there was a petition among congress to install a new national bank, which resulted in the creation of the second bank of the United States. However, the reinstitution of the bank and the paper money that it loosely managed led to the Panic of 1819, the first economic crisis of the United States. It's dissolution by Andrew Jackson, however, led to another crisis that took form as the Panic of 1837.
  • Gibbons V. Ogden

    Gibbons V. Ogden
    The Gibbons V. Ogden case led to the ruling that federal laws are more powerful that state laws when relating to interstate commerce. This decision was an important event for the government because it strengthened federal power and influence over those of the states and set a precedent for the future court cases regarding conflict of state and federal law.
  • The Election of 1824

    The Election of 1824
    The Election of 1824 was the first election where a president won the popular vote but lost the presidency. Historians attribute this victory to what is called the "Corrupt Bargain", which led the third nominee, Henry Clay, who was also the speaker of the house ,to use his influence to sway the electoral vote in Adams' favor. He was later given the position of Secretary of State by Adams. This caused widespread public discontent among the supporters of Andrew Jackson.
  • The Completion of the Erie Canal

    The Completion of the Erie Canal
    Even though the west was open for settlers, the Appalachian mountains were a major roadblock for those who dared to go settle in the wilderness. The Erie Canal, which used the Hudson River to link New York and the Midwest provided an easy route through, and was a major factor in the settling of Central and Midwestern United States. It also bolstered trade and economy by reducing travel times for raw materials traveling from west to east and manufactured goods traveling east to west.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    In order to further the economy of the United States, congress issued a tax on foreign goods, Tariff of Abominations, which led the South to issue the ordinance of nullification and threaten to secede. Seeing this as a threat to the union, Jackson issued the Nullification Proclamation which viewed the act of nullifying a law as treason, setting an important precedent for federal power. This was later controlled from going out of hand through the Compromise Tariff of 1833.
  • The Election of 1828

    The Election of 1828
    After gaining immense discontent among the public with the Tariff of Abominations right before the elections, Adams solidified his defeat in the bid for president. Consequently, entering the election as a representative for the common man, Andrew Jackson won the elections with a tremendous majority in all but three states. It was the first election where the two party system, which we currently employ, was solidified.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    In order to support westward expansion, the Indian Removal Act was signed in to law and gave the president the authority to forcibly relocate Native Americans to the west of the Mississippi River. This led to the trail of tears, which was a forced march during the process of relocation in which many Native Americans had to face death. It opened up the west and southwest for relocation even further, and led to the creation of plantations and the increase in slavery.
  • Cherokee V. Georgia

    Cherokee V. Georgia
    This court case was brought to the Supreme court by the Cherokees, who sued the state of Georgia for violating the treaties signed by the Cherokee nation and the United States. The Supreme Court however, declared that it could not hear this case since the lands of the tribe were not considered states. This opinion was later revised in Worcester v. Georgia where the supreme court ruled in favor of the opposite. These cases set an important precedent for the dealings with Native Americans.
  • The Invention of The Reaper

    The Invention of The Reaper
    The Mechanical Reaper, patented by Cyrus McCormick, was a revolutionary invention that skirted around the boundaries of automation. Crops, such as wheat, could now be harvested faster and more efficiently without the use of huge amounts of labor. This lowered the price of goods in the American Market which led to a better lifestyle for many, as well as tidy profits for farmers who could now produce more than ever.
  • The Battle at The Alamo

    The Battle at The Alamo
    The Mexicans, having gained their independence as well, had huge swaths of land that they could find no use for. Hence, to develop it, they invited Catholic Americans to become citizens of Mexico in return for land. This led to widespread immigration of Americans into Texas, however, after the Mexican government started to enforce their laws, the Texans declared independence, which led to the Battle of the Alamo where every single Texan was slaughtered. They then asked for annexation by the US.
  • Texan Independence

    Texan Independence
    After the merciless slaughter of the Texans at the Alamo, a newly formed Texan army led my Sam Houston defeated a Mexican force of nearly double their size in revenge. This led to Santa Anna abandoning Texas, and receiving independence. They then asked for annexation by the United States, which was accepted. The border dispute between Texas and Mexico following the annexation leads to the Mexican American War.
  • Implementation of The Gag Rule

    Implementation of The Gag Rule
    The Gag Rule was a law that prohibited discussions about any form of antislavery topics in the house of representatives. It was found unconstitutional by John Quincy Adams, and fought against it for many years. Adams finally managed to garner enough votes to repeal the law in 1844. Due to the gag rule, abolitionists could not put forward a case against slavery and delayed the abolition.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed to signify the end of the Mexican American war. Its terms included the Mexican Session, which granted the US rights to over half of Mexico's land. This was a great journey in the expansion of the country, since the United States was now by all rights a bicoastal country with the ability to trade on both fronts of the continent and access to Asia and Europe.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    A well known abolitionist, Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the convention at Seneca Falls to fight for the civil rights of women. During the convention, the attendees along with Stanton drafted the Declaration of Sentiments which among other things implored for women's suffrage. This convention was the place where the women's suffrage movement was kickstarted.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The previously held debate of slave and free states resulted in the Missouri Compromise, which would hold the balance in the congress, however, the line that divided the continent would split California in half which they disagreed to. Hence, the Compromise of 1850 was drafted, which stated that California would be admitted to the union as a free state in return for a strong fugitive slave law, which was a temporary solution to the sorting of the rest of the Mexican Cession.
  • Gadsden Purchase

    Gadsden Purchase
    The Gadsden Purchase was land bought by United States from Mexico under the Treaty of Mesilla. It covered the land present in parts of the states of New Mexico and Arizona. This purchase led to their being enough land for the building of the southern transcontinental railroad which bolstered trade and expansion along the southern border.
  • The Kansas Nebraska Act

    The Kansas Nebraska Act
    This act caused the official repeal of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, as done with Kansas and Nebraska, new states would be assigned a category based on popular sovereignty. However, during the elections in Kansas, thousands of supporters from both sides flooded in to the state in order to cast a vote and tip the needle in their favor. This caused a terrible fight called Bleeding Kansas to erupt, which led this act to be a major motivator in the cause for the Civil War.
  • Dred Scott V. Sandford

    Dred Scott V. Sandford
    Dred Scott, a slave of African descent, sued for his freedom since he accompanied his owner into a free state and took up residence there before returning to his slave state, and that had freed him. This case was then taken up by the Supreme Court which ruled that African Americans weren't citizens in the first place and were not entitled to their freedom.
  • The Election of 1860

    The Election of 1860
    The election resulted in the win of Abraham Lincoln, who won both the popular vote and electoral vote and was undisputedly the president. However, the result of this election greatly angered the south, since they knew that Lincoln was an abolitionist, causing them to slowly secede from the union one by one.
  • The Battle of Bull Run

    The Battle of Bull Run
    The First Battle of Bull Run was the first major battle in the Civil War. It was also a highly significant battle, as it revealed the war to not be a one day affair as predicted. The south, that was severely disadvantaged in every way possible, managed to get a victory at this battle which led to a distinct increase in morale for the southerners and a decrease for northerners, drawing out the war longer than intended.
  • Homestead Act of 1862

    Homestead Act of 1862
    As the civil war raged on between the north and the south, matters of westward expansion were also a matter of concern to Lincoln's presidency. Hence, he passed the Homestead Act, which allowed settlers access to 160 acres of farmland in return for a miniscule registration fee and promises to live in the land for 5 years as well as develop it. After this period, the land becomes the property of the settler to do with as he please. This Act singlehandedly pushed millions to make the journey west.
  • The Emancipation Proclamation

    The Emancipation Proclamation
    In the midst of war, Lincoln also took an important first step towards the abolition of slavery by issuing the Emancipation Proclamation which outlawed slavery in the south and freed all of its slaves. An outright abolition of slavery everywhere would have caused the secession of the border states which would've tipped the war in the South's favor. This also gave them an advantage, because thousands of blacks ran away from the owners and joined the war effort in the Union army.
  • The Battle of Gettysburg

    The Battle of Gettysburg
    At the battle of Gettysburg, both sides suffered thousands of losses, making it the bloodiest battle of the civil war with around 50,000 men lost. However, the union victory highly bolstered their war efforts, and stopped further expeditions of the south into the north. The Gettysburg Address also subtly reinforced the point that the war was about slavery, preventing foreign nations from coming to the south's aide.
  • Surrender at Appomattox

    Surrender at Appomattox
    The confederate army led by Gen. Lee, in fighting the union army had exhausted all their ammunition, and was racing against time to a nearby warehouse when the Union army led by Gen. Grant intercepted them on their path. This led to Gen. Lee surrendering to the union army at the Appomattox court house, signaling the end of the final battle of the Civil War. There was still some unrest in the southern states, however, which made bringing them back into the union an impossible task.
  • Passing of the 13th Amendment

    Passing of the 13th Amendment
    The 13th Amendment finally abolished slavery within the entirety of the United States. The ratification of this amendment was then required for the southern states to enter back into the union and once again gain representation in congress. This was the monumental step that was at the pinnacle of all abolitionist's dreams, and it was now reality. This amendment, however, made the already failing economy of the south worse by ridding them of their investment which will take time to recover .